SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Altieri, M.A. (1994) Biodiversity and Pest Management in Agroecosystems. New York, NY: Food Product Press.
  • Ammann, K. (2000) Risk Management: the role of science in the application of the Precautionary Principle (PP.). In Witness Brief, section B (h). Wellington, New Zealand: New Zealand Royal Commission on Genetic Modification (http://www.gmcommission.govt.nzpronto_pdfnzlsnNZLSN%20_WB%20IP0024%20-%20Professor%20Klaus%20Ammann_.pdf).
  • Ammann, K., Jacot, Y. and Rufener Al Mazyad, P. (2001) Safety of genetically engineered plants: an ecological risk assessment of vertical gene flow. In Safety of Genetically Engineered Crops (Custers, R., ed.). Zwijnaarde, Belgium: Flanders Interuniversity Institute for Biotechnology, pp. 6087 (http://www.vib.bedownloadsbioveiligheidseducatiereport.pdf).
  • Andersen, H.C. (1835) The Emperor‘s New Clothes. In Fairy Tales (Andersen, H.C. Penguin Popular Classics 1994). London, UK: Penguin Books, pp. 6571.
  • Anderson, E. (1949) Introgressive Hybridisation. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.
  • Andow, D.A. and Alstad, D.N. (1998) F2 screen for rare resistance alleles. J. Econ. Entomol. 91, 572578.
  • AOSCA (Association of Official Seed Certification Agencies) (1971) AOSCA Certification Handbook. AOSCA Publication 23.
  • Artim, L., Charlton, S., Dana, G., Faust, M., Glenn, K., Hartnell, G., Hunst, P., Jennings, J. and Shillito, R. (2002) Animal performance trials with Bt crops. In Proceedings of the 4th Pacific Rim Conf. Biotechn. Bacillus thuringiensis and its Environmental Impact (in press).
  • Austin, D.J., Kristinsson, K.G. and Anderson, R. (1999) The relationship between the volume of antimicrobial consumption in human communities and the frequency of resistance. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96, 11521156.
  • Baker, H.G. (1965) Characteristics and modes of origin of weeds. In The Genetics of Colonising Species (Baker, H.G. and Stebbins, G.L., eds). New York, NY: Academic Press, pp. 147172.
  • Baker, H.G. (1974) The evolution of weeds. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 5, 123.
  • Bardgett, R.D. and Griffiths, B.S. (1997) Ecology and biology of soil protozoa, nematodes and microarthropods. In Modern Soil Microbiology (Van Elsas, J.D., Trevors, J.T. and Wellington, E.M.H., eds). New York, NY: Marcel Dekker, pp. 129164.
  • Barrett, S.C.H. (1983) Crop mimicry in weeds. Econ. Bot. 37, 255282.
  • Bejarano, E.R., Khashoggi, A., Witty, M. and Lichtenstein, C. (1996) Integration of multiple repeats of geminiviral DNA into the nuclear genome of tobacco during evolution. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 93, 759764.
  • Beringer, J.E. (2000) Releasing genetically modified organisms: will any harm outweigh any advantage? J. Appl. Ecol. 37, 207214.
  • Bernstein, P.L. (1998) Against the Gods: the remarkable story of risk. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.
  • Bertolla, F. and Simonet, P. (1999) Horizontal gene transfers in the environment: natural transformation as a putative process for gene transfers between transgenic plants and micro-organisms. Res. Microbiol. 150, 375384.
  • Bevan, M., Mayer, K., White, O., Eisen, J.A., Preuss, D., Bureau, T., Salzberg, S.L. and Mewes, H.W. (2001) Sequence and analysis of the Arabidopsis genome. Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. 4, 105110.
  • Bilsborrow, P.E., Evans, E.J., Bowman, J. and Bland, B. F. (1998) Contamination of edible double-low oilseed rape crops via pollen transfer from high erucic acid cultivars. J. Sci. Food Agri. 76, 1722.
  • Birch, A.N.E., Geoghegan, I.E., Majerus, M.E.N., McNicol, J.W., Hackett, C.A., Gatehouse, A.M.R. and Gatehouse, J.A. (1999) Tri-trophic interactions involving pest aphids, predatory 2-spot ladybirds and transgenic potatoes expressing snowdrop lectin for aphid resistance. Mol. Breed. 5, 7583.
  • Bonman, J.M., Khush, G.S. and Nelson, R.J. (1992) Breeding rice for resistance to pests. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 30, 507528.
  • Borlaug, N.E. (1959) The use of multilineal or composite varieties to control airbourne epidemic diseases of self-pollinated crop plants. In Proceedings of the First International Wheat Genetics Symposium (Jenkins, B.C., ed.). Winnipeg, Canada: University of Manitoba, pp. 1227.
  • Bostrom, A. (1997) Risk perceptions: ’experts‘ vs. ’lay people‘. Duke Environ. Law Pol. Forum 8, 101115 (http://www.law.duke.edushellcite.pl8DukeEnvtl.L.&Pol'yF.101).
  • Briggs, F.N. and Knowles, P.F. (1967) Introduction to Plant Breeding. New York, NY: Reinhold.
  • Bruce, D. and Bruce. A. , (eds) (1998) Engineering Genesis. The ethics of genetic engineering in non-human species. London, UK: Earthscan Publications.
  • Carson, R. (1962) Silent Spring. New York, NY: Fawcett Crest.
  • CAST (Council for Agricultural Science and Technology) (1999) Applications of Biotechnology to Crops: Benefits and Risks. Issue Paper 12, Ames, Iowa, USA: CAST (http://www.cast-science.orgpdfbiotc_ip.pdf).
  • CAST (Council for Agricultural Science and Technology) (2001) Evaluation of the US Regulatory Process for Crops Developed through Biotechnology. Issue Paper 19, Ames, Iowa, USA: CAST (http://www.cast-science.orgpubscropregulation.pdf).
  • CBD (Convention on Biological Diversity) (1992) ’Preamble‘ and ’Article 2: Use of terms‘. Montreal, Canada: United Nations Environment Program (UNEP), Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity (http://www.biodiv.orgdoclegalcbd-en.pdf).
  • CBD (Convention on Biological Diversity) (2002) ’Agricultural Biodiversity. Genetic Use Restriction Technologies (GURTs). Montreal, Canada: United Nations Environment Program (UNEP), Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity (http://www.biodiv.orgprogrammesareasagrogurts.asp).
  • Chrispeels, M.J. (2000) Biotechnology and the poor. Plant Physiol. 124, 36.
  • Christou, P. (2002) No credible scientific evidence is presented to support claims that transgenic DNA was introgressed into traditional maize landraces in Oaxaca, Mexico. Transgenic Res. 11, iiiv.
  • Commandeur, P., Joly, P.B., Levidow, L., Tappeser, B. and Terragni, F. (1996) Public debate and regulation of biotechnology in Europe. Biotechnol. Dev. Monit. 26, 29.
  • Condon, M.S. (2001) Seed genetic purity in the pre and post biotechnology eras (http:pewagbiotech.orgevents0911speakersCondon.pdf).
  • Conner, A.J. (1997) Genetically Engineered Crops. Environmental and Food Safety Issues. The Royal Society of New Zealand, Miscellaneous Series 39, 134.
  • Conner, A.J. and Christey, M.C. (1994) Plant-breeding and seed marketing options for the introduction of transgenic insect-resistant crops. Biocontrol Sci. Techn. 4, 463473.
  • Conner, A.J. and Field, R.J. (1995) Herbicide-resistant crops: A new approach to an old problem or a radical new tool? In Herbicide-resistant crops and pastures in Australian farming systems (McLean, G.D. and Evans, G., eds). Canberra, Australia: Bureau of Resource Sciences, pp. 5371.
  • Conner, A.J., Jacobs, J.M.E. and Genet, R.A. (1997) Transgenic potatoes versus "traditional" potatoes: what‘s the difference? In Commercialisation of transgenic crops: risk, benefit and trade considerations (McLean, G.D., Waterhouse, P.M., Evans, G. and Gibbs, M.J., eds), Canberra, Australia: Cooperative Research Centre for Plant Science and Bureau of Resource Sciences, pp. 2336.
  • Courvalin, P. (1994) Transfer of antibiotic resistance genes between Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 38, 14471451.
  • Costanza, R., D‘Arge, R., De Groot, R. et al. (1997) The value of the world‘s ecosystem services and natural capital. Nature, 387, 253260.
  • Crawley, M.J. (1986) The population biology of invaders. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. Ser. B, 314, 711731.
  • Crawley, M.J., Hails, R.S., Rees, M., Kohn, D. and Buxton, J. (1993) Ecology of transgenic oilseed rape in natural habitats. Nature, 363, 620623.
  • Crawley, M.J., Brown, S.L., Hails, R.S., Kohn, D.D. and Rees, M. (2001) Transgenic crops in natural habitats. Nature, 409, 682683.
  • Crecchio, C. and Stotzky, G. (1998) Insecticidal activity and biodegradation of the toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki bound to humic acids from soil. Soil Biol. Biochem. 30, 463470.
  • Dale, P.J. (1993) The release of transgenic crops into agriculture. J. Agric. Sci. Camb. 120, 15.
  • Dale, P.J. (1994) The impact of hybrids between genetically modified crop plants and their related species: general considerations. Mol. Ecol. 3, 3136.
  • Dale, P.J. (1999) Short-term effects, long-term effects and standardisation of limits. In Methods for Risk Assessment of Transgenic Plants. Part III. Ecological Risks and Prospects of Transgenic Plants, Where do we go from here? A Dialogue between Biotech Industry and Science (Ammann, K., Jacot, Y., Kjellsson, G. and Simonsen, V., eds). Basel, Switzerland: Birkhäuser–Verlag, pp. 5762.
  • Daniell, H., Datta, R., Varma, S., Gray, S. and Lee, S.B. (1998) Containment of herbicide resistance through genetic engineering of the chloroplast genome. Nature Biotechnol. 16, 345348.
  • Darwin, C. (1876) The Effects of Cross and Self Fertilization in the Vegetable Kingdom. London, UK: John Murray.
  • De Kathen, A. (1998) The debate on risks from plant biotechnology: the end of reductionism? Plant Tissue Cult. Biotechnol. 4, 136147.
  • De la Cruz, F. and Davies, J. (2000) Horizontal gene transfer and the origin of species: lessons from bacteria. Trends Microbiol. 8, 128133.
  • De Vries, H. (1912) Species and Varieties: Their Origin by Mutation. Chicago, IL: The Open Court Publishing Co.
  • De Vries, J. and Wackernagel, W. (1998) Detection of npt II (kanamycin resistance) gene in genomes of transgenic plants by marker-rescue transformation. Mol. Gen. Genet. 257, 606613.
  • De Vries, J., Meier, P. and Wackernagel, W. (2001) The natural transformation of the soil bacteria Pseudomonas stutzeri and Acinetobacter sp. by transgenic plant DNA strictly depends on homologous sequences in the recipient cells. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 195, 211215.
  • De Wet, J.M.J. and Harlan, J.R. (1975) Weeds and domesticates: Evolution in the man-made habitat. Econ. Bot. 29, 99107.
  • Donegan, K.K., Palm, C.J., Fieland, V.J., Porteous, L.A., Ganio, L.M., Schaller, D.L., Bucao, L.Q. and Seidler, R.J. (1995) Changes in levels, species and DNA fingerprints of soil micro-organisms associated with cotton expressing the Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki endotoxin. Appl. Soil Ecol. 2, 111124.
  • Donegan, K.K., Seidler, R.J., Fieland, V.J., Schaller, D.L., Palm, C.J., Ganio, L.M., Cardwell, D.M. and Steinberger, Y. (1997) Decomposition of genetically engineered tobacco under field conditions: persistence of the proteinase inhibitor I product and effects on soil microbial respiration and protozoa, nematode and microarthropod populations. J. Appl. Ecol. 34, 767777.
  • Donegan, K.K., Seidler, R.J., Doyle, J.D., Porteous, L.A., Digiovanni, G., Widmer, F. and Watrud, L.S. (1999) A field study with genetically engineered alfalfa inoculated with recombinant Sinorhizobium meliloti: effects on the soil ecosystem. J. Appl. Ecol. 36, 920936.
  • Doolittle, W.F. (1999) Phylogenetic classification and the universal tree. Science, 284, 21242128.
  • Dorey, E. (2000) Taco dispute underscores need for standardized tests. Nature Biotechnol. 18, 11361137.
  • Down, R.E., Ford, L., Woodhouse, S.D., Raemaekers, R.J.M., Leitch, B., Gatehouse, J.A. and Gatehouse, A.M.R. (2000) Snowdrop lectin (GNA) has no acute toxic effects on a beneficial insect predator, the 2-spot ladybird (Adalia bipunctata L.). J. Insect Physiol. 46, 379391.
  • Dröge, M., Pühler, A. and Selbitschka, W. (1998) Horizontal gene transfer as a biosafety issue: a natural phenomenon of public concern. J. Biotechnol. 64, 7590.
  • Dröge, M., Pühler, A. and Selbitschka, W. (1999) Horizontal gene transfer among bacteria in terrestrial and aquatic habitats as assessed by microcosm and field studies. Biol. Fert. Soils, 29, 221245.
  • Duggan, P.S., Chambers, P.A., Heritage, J. and Forbes, J.M. (2000) Survival of free DNA encoding antibiotic resistance from transgenic maize and the transformation activity of DNA in ovine saliva rumen fluid and silage effluent. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 191, 7177.
  • Editorial (1999) Genetically modified muddle. Nature Biotechnol. 17, 311.
  • Editorial (2002) Editorial note. Nature, 416, 602.
  • EFB (European Federation of Biotechnology, Task Group on Public Perception of Biotechnology) (1999) Ethical Aspects of Agricultural Biotechnology. The Hague, the Netherlands: Cambridge Biomedical Consultants (http://www.agbios.comarticles2000329.pdf).
  • Ehrlich, P.R. and Wilson, E.O. (1991) Biodiversity studies - science and policy. Science, 253, 758762.
  • Eisen, J.A. (2000) Horizontal gene transfer among microbial genomes: new insights from complete genome analysis. Curr. Opin. Genet. Dev. 10, 606611.
  • Ellstrand, N.C. (2001) When transgenes wander, should we worry? Plant Physiol. 125, 15431545.
  • Ellstrand, N.C., Prentice, H.C. and Hancock, J.F. (1999) Gene flow and introgression from domesticated plants into their wild relatives. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 30, 539563.
  • Escher, N., Kach, B. and Nentwig, W. (2000) Decomposition of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis maize by micro-organisms and woodlice Porcello scaber (Crustacea: Isopoda). Basic Appl. Entomol. 1, 161169.
  • ECSCP (European Commission Scientific Committee on Plants) (2001) Opinion of the Scientific Committee on Plants concerning the adventitious presence of GM seeds in conventional seeds. SCP/GMO-Seed-Cont/002-Final. Brussels, Belgium: European Commission. (http://europa.eu.intcommfoodfsscscpout93_gmo_en.pdf).
  • FAO (Food and Agriculture Organisation) (2001) Potential Impacts of Genetic Use Restriction Technologies (GURTs) on Agricultural Biodiversity And Agricultural Production Systems. Rome, Italy: Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture, Working Group on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture, p. 12. (http://www.fao.orgwaicentFaoInfoAgricultAGPAGPSpgritwgpdfP1W7E.pdf).
  • Firbank, L.G., Dewar, A.M., Hill, M.O., May, M.J., Perry, J.N., Rothery, P., Squire, G.R. and Woiwod, I.P. (1999) Farm-scale evaluation of GM crops explained. Nature, 399, 727728.
  • Firbank, L.G. and Forcella, F. (2000) Genetically modified crops and farmland biodiversity. Science, 289, 14811482.
  • Fitter, A., Perrins, J. and Williamson, M. (1990) Weed probability challenged. Bio/Technology, 8, 473.
  • Flor, H.H. (1971) Current status of the gene-for-gene concept. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 9, 275296.
  • Frietema de Vries, F.T. (1996) Cultivated Plants and the Wild Flora: Effect Analysis by Dispersal Codes. PhD Thesis. Leiden, the Netherlands: Hortus Botanicus.
  • Frietema de Vries, F.T., Van Der Meijden, R. and Brandenburg, W.A. (1992) Botanical files: a case study of the real chances for spontaneous gene flow from cultivated plants to the wild flora of the Netherlands. Gorteria Suppl. 1, 1100.
  • Frietema de Vries, F.T., Van Der Meijden, R. and Brandenburg, W.A. (1994) Botanical files on lettuce (Lactuca sativa). On the chance for gene flow between wild and cultivated lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. including L. serriola L., Compositae) and the generalized implications for risk-assessments on genetically modified plants. Gorteria Suppl. 2, 144.
  • Fuchs, R.L., Ream, J.E., Hammond, B.G., Naylor, M.W., Leimgruber, R.M. and Berberich, S.A. (1993) Safety assessment of the neomycin phosphotransferase II (NPTII) protein. Bio/Technology, 11, 15431547.
  • Gaskell, G., Bauer, M.W., Durant, J. and Allum, N.C. (1999) Worlds apart? The reception of genetically modified foods in Europe and the US. Science, 285, 384387.
  • Gay, P. (2001) The biosafety of antibiotic resistance markers in plant transformation and the dissemination of genes through horizontal gene flow. In Safety of Genetically Engineered Crops (Custers, R., ed.). Zwijnaarde, Belgium: Flanders Interuniversity Institute for Biotechnology, pp. 135159 (http://www.vib.bedownloadsbioveiligheidseducatiereport.pdf).
  • Gebhard, F. and Smalla, K. (1999) Monitoring field releases of genetically modified sugar beets for persistence of transgenic plant DNA and horizontal gene transfer. FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. 28, 261272.
  • Gewin, V. (2002) Academy proposes tighter crop monitoring. Nature, 415, 948.
  • Girard, C., Picard-Nizou, A.L., Grallien, E., Zaccomer, B., Jouanin, L. and Pham-Delègue, M.H. (1998) Effects of proteinase inhibitor ingestion on survival, learning abilities and digestive proteinases of the honeybee. Transgen. Res. 7, 239246.
  • Glandorf, D.C.M., Bakker, P.A.H.M. and Van Loon, L.C. (1997) Influence of the production of antibacterial and antifungal proteins by transgenic plants on the saprophytic soil microflora. Acta Bot. Neerl. 46, 85104.
  • Glare, T.R. and O‘Callaghan, M. (2000) Bacillus thuringiensis; biology, ecology and safety. Chichester, UK: John Wiley and Sons.
  • Goklany, I.M. (2000) Applying the Precautionary Principle to Genetically Modified Crops. St. Louis, MO: Center for the Study of American Business, Washington University, Policy Study Number 157 (http://www.agbios.comarticles2000350-B.pdf).
  • Gotsch, N. and Rieder, P. (1995) Biodiversity, biotechnology, and institutions among crops situation and outlook. J. Sustain. Agr. 5, 540.
  • Gould, F. (1998) Sustainability of transgenic insecticidal cultivars: integrating pest genetics and ecology. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 43, 701726.
  • Griffiths, B.S., Geoghegan, I.E. and Robertson, W.M. (2000) Testing genetically engineered potato, producing lectins GNA and Con A, on non-target soil organisms and processes. J. Appl. Ecol. 37, 159170.
  • Grime, J.P. (1997) Biodiversity and ecosystem function: the debate deepens. Science, 277, 12601261.
  • Hardon, J., Duvick, D. and Visser, B. (2000) Genetic diversity, conservation and development. In Encouraging Diversity: The Conservation and Development of Plant Genetic Resources (Almekinders, C. and De Boef, W., eds). London, UK: Intermediate Technology Publications, pp. 18.
  • Harlan, J.R. (1976) Genetic resources in wild relatives of crops. Crop Sci., 16, 329333.
  • Harlan, J.R. (1992) Crops and Man, 2nd edn. Madison, WI: American Society of Agronomy and Crop Science Society of America.
  • Harlan, J.R. and De Wet, J.M.J. (1963) The compilospecies concept. Evolution, 17, 497501.
  • Harlan, J.R. and De Wet, J.M.J. (1965) Some thoughts about weeds. Econ. Bot. 19, 1624.
  • Harper, G., Osuji, J.O., Heslop-Harrison, J.S. and Hull, R. (1999) Integration of banana streak badnavirus into the Musa genome: molecular and cytogenetic evidence. Virology, 255, 207213.
  • Hellmich, R.L., Siegfried, B.D., Sears, M.K., Stanley-Horn, D.E., Daniels, M.J., Mattila, H.R., Spencer, T., Bidne, K.G. and Lewis, L.C. (2001) Monarch larvae sensitivity to Bacillus thuringiensis- purified proteins and pollen. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 98, 1192511930.
  • Hilbeck, A., Moar, W.J., Pusztai-Carey, M., Filippini, A. and Bigler, F. (1998a) Toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab toxin to the predator Chrysoperla carnea (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae). Environ. Entomol. 27, 12551263.
  • Hilbeck, A., Baumgartner, M., Fried, P.M. and Bigler, F. (1998b) Effects of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis corn-fed prey on mortality and development time of immature Chrysoperla carnea (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae). Environ. Entomol. 27, 480487.
  • Hilbeck, A., Moar, W.J., Pusztai-Carey, M., Filippini, A. and Bigler, F. (1999) Prey-mediated effects of Cry1Ab toxin and protoxin and Cry2A protoxin on the predator Chrysoperla carnea. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 91, 305316.
  • Hill, T.A. (1977) The Biology of Weeds. London, UK: Edward Arnold.
  • Hoffmann, T., Golz, C. and Schieder, O. (1994) Foreign DNA sequences are received by a wild-type strain of Aspergillus niger after co-culture with transgenic higher plants. Curr. Genet. 27, 7076.
  • Hopkins, D.W., Webster, E.A., Chudek, J.A. and Halpin, C. (2001) Decomposition in soil of tobacco plants with genetic modifications to lignin biosynthesis. Soil Biol. Biochem. 33, 14551462.
  • Jakowitsch, J., Mette, M.F., Van Der Winden, J., Matzke, M.A. and Matzke, A.J.M. (1999) Integrated pararetroviral sequences define a unique class of dispersed repetitive DNA in plants. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 96, 1324113246.
  • James, C. (2002) World-wide deployment of GM crops: aims and results – state of the art. In Discourse on Genetically Modified Plants. Bad Neuenahr, Germany, April 19 (http://www.gruene-gentechnik.deDoku_Fachtagungjames_engl.pdf).
  • Jenkins, R. (1992) Bringing Rio Home: Biodiversity in our Food and Farming. London, UK: The SAFE Alliance.
  • Jenson, N.F. (1952) Intra-varietal diversification in oat breeding. Agronomy J. 44, 3034.
  • Jenson, N.F. (1988) Plant Breeding Methodology. New York, NY. Wiley Interscience.
  • Johnson, M.T. (1997) Interaction of resistant plants and wasps parastoids of tobacco budworn (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Environ. Entomol. 26, 207214.
  • Johnson, R. (1984) A critical analysis of durable resistance. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 22, 309330.
  • Johnson, S.P. (1993) The Earth Summit: the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), London, UK: Graham and Trotman.
  • Jørgensen, H.B. and Lövei, G.L. (1999) Tri-trophic effect on predator feeding: consumption by the carabid Harpalus affinis of Heliothis armigera caterpillars fed on proteinase inhibitor-containing diet. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 93, 113116.
  • Jouanin, L., Girard, C., Bonadé-Bottino, M., Le Metayer, M., Picard Nizou, A., Lerin, J. and Pham-Delègue, M. (1998) Impact of oilseed rape expressing proteinase inhibitors on coleopteran pests and honeybees. Cahiers Agri. 7, 531536.
  • Kaplan, S. and Garrick, B.J. (1981) On the quantitative definition of risk. Risk Anal. 1, 1127.
  • Kareiva, P. (1993) Transgenic plants on trial. Nature, 363, 580581.
  • Kareiva, P. and Parker, I. (1994) Environmental Risks of Genetically Engineered Organisms and Key Regulatory Issues. Amsterdam, the Netherlands: Greenpeace International.
  • Kasanmoentalib, S. (1996) Deliberate release of genetically modified organisms: applying the precautionary principle. In Coping with Deliberate Release: the Limits of Risk Assessment (Van Dommelen, A., ed.). Tilburg, the Netherlands: International Centre for Human and Public Affairs, pp. 137146.
  • Keeler, K.H. (1989) Can genetically engineered crops become weeds? Bio/Technology, 7, 11341149.
  • Keeler, K. (1990) Weed probability challenged. Bio/Technology, 8, 473474.
  • Kinderlerer, J. (2001) Effects on non-target organisms of the release of genetically modified crops into the environment. In Safety of Genetically Engineered Crops (Custers, R., ed.). Zwijnaarde, Belgium: Flanders Interuniversity Institute for Biotechnology, pp. 88107 (http://www.vib.bedownloadsbioveiligheidseducatiereport.pdf).
  • Kolmer, J.A. (1996) Genetics of resistance to wheat leaf rust. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 34, 435455.
  • Kuiper, H.A., Kleter, G.A., Noteborn, H.P.J.M. and Kok, E.J. (2001) Assessment of the food safety issues related to genetically modified foods. Plant J. 27, 503528.
  • Kumin, C.M. (1993) Resistance to antimicrobial drugs. A world-wide calamity. Ann. Int. Med. 118, 557561.
  • Kunin, W.E. and Lawton, J.H. (1996) Does biodiversity matter? Evaluating the case for conserving species. In Biodiversity. A Biology of Numbers and Difference (Gaston, K.J, ed.). Oxford, UK: Blackwell, pp. 367387.
  • Lacey, L.A., Horton, D.R., Chauvin, R.L. and Stocker, J.M. (1999) Comparative efficacy of Beauveria bassiana, Bacillus thuringiensis, and aldicarb for control of Colorado potato beetle in an irrigated desert agroecosystem and their effects on biodiversity. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 93, 189200.
  • Landis, W.G., Lenart, L.A. and Spromberg, J.A. (2000) Dynamics of horizontal gene transfer and the ecological risk assessment of genetically engineered organisms. Hum. Ecol. Risk Assess. 6, 875899.
  • Leach, J.E., Vera Cruz, C.M., Bai, J. and Leung, H. (2001) Pathogen fitness penalty as a predictor of durability of disease resistance genes. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 39, 187224.
  • Leask, B. (2000) Troubles with thresholds. Canadian Seed Trade Association. (http://cdnseed.orgpressTroubles%20With%20Thresholds.pdf).
  • Leemans, R. (1996) Biodiversity and global change. In Biodiversity. A Biology of Numbers and Difference (Gaston, K.J., ed.). Oxford, UK: Blackwell, pp. 367387.
  • Leisinger, K.M. (1996) Ethical and Ecological Aspects of Industrial Property Rights in the Context of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology. Basel, Switzerland: Novartis Foundation for Sustainable Development (http://www.foundation.novartis.comgenetic_engineering_biotechnology.htm).
  • Leisinger, K.M., Schmitt, K. and Pandya-Lorch, R. (2002) Six Billion and Counting. Population and Food Security in the 21st Century. Washington, DC: John Hopkins University Press (with International Food Policy Research Institute, IFPRI) (http://www.ifpri.orgpubsjhusixbillion.htm).
  • Levidow, L. and Carr, S. (2000) Unsound science? Transatlantic regulatory disputes over GM crops. Int. J. Biotechn. 2, 257273.
  • Levidow, L., Carr, S., Von Schomberg, R. and Wield, D. (1996) Regulating agricultural biotechnology in Europe: harmonisation difficulties, opportunities, dilemmas. Sci. Pub. Pol. 23, 135157.
  • Linder, C.R. (1998) Potential persistence of transgenes: seed performance of transgenic canola and wild × canola hybrids. Ecol. Applic. 8, 11801195.
  • Linder, C.R. and Schmitt, J. (1994) Assessing the risks of transgene escape through time and crop-wild hybrid persistence. Mol. Ecol. 3, 2330.
  • Linder, C.R. and Schmitt, J. (1995) Potential persistence of escaped transgenes: performance of transgenic oil-modified Brassica seeds and seedlings. Ecol. Applic. 5, 10501068.
  • Lorenz, M.G. and Wackernagel, W. (1992) DNA binding to various clay minerals and retarded enzymatic degradation of DNA in a sand/clay microcosm. In Gene Transfers and Environment (Gauthier, M.J, ed.). Berlin, Germany: Springer–Verlag KG, pp. 103113.
  • Lorenz, M.G. and Wackernagel, W. (1994) Bacterial gene-transfer by natural genetic transformation in the environment. Microbiol. Res. 58, 563602.
  • Losey, J.E., Rayor, L.S. and Carter, M.E. (1999) Transgenic pollen harms monarch larvae. Nature, 399, 214.
  • Louwaars, N.P., Visser, B., Nap, J.P. and Brandenburg, W. (2002) Transgenes in Mexican Maize Landraces: Analysis of Data and Potential Impact. Policy brief, Wageningen, the Netherlands: Plant Research International, pp. 4 (http://www.biotech-monitor.nl4910.htm).
  • Lövei, G., Jørgensen, H. and McCambridge, M. (2000) Effect of a proteinase inhibitor across trophic levels: short vs. long-term consequences for a predator. Antenna Lond. 245, 78.
  • Lozzia, G.C., Furlanis, C., Manachini, B. and Rigamonti, I.E. (1998) Effects of Bt corn on Rhopalosiphum padi L. (Rhynchota Aphididae) and on its predator Chrysoperla carnea Stephen (Neuroptera Chrysopidae). Bollettino di Zoologia. Agraria e di Bachicoltura, 30, 153164.
  • Lumkes, L.M. and Beukema, H.P. (1973) The effect of cultivation procedure on the liability to freezing of ground keepers. Potato Res. 16, 5760.
  • Lutman, P.W.J. (1993) The occurrence and persistence of volunteer oilseed rape (Brassica napus). Aspects Appl. Biol. 35, 2935.
  • Luttrell, R.G., Mascarenhas, V.J., Schneider, J.C., Parker, C.D. and Bullock, P.D. (1995) Effect of transgenic cotton expressing endotoxin protein on arthropod populations in Mississippi cotton. Proc. Beltwide Cotton Conf., San Antonio, TX, 1995. 2, 760763.
  • Malnoë, P., Jakab, G., Droz, E. and Vaistij, F. (1999) RNA recombination in transgenic virus resistant plants. In Methods for Risk Assessment of Transgenic Plants. Part III. Ecological Risks and Prospects of Transgenic Plants, Where do we go from here? A Dialogue between Biotech Industry and Science (Ammann, K., Jacot, Y., Kjellsson, G. and Simonsen, V., eds). Basel, Switzerland: Birkhäuser-Verlag, pp. 145147.
  • Malone, L.A. and Pham-Delègue, M.H. (2001) Effects of transgene products on honey bees (Apis mellifera) and bumblebees (Bombus sp.). Apidologie, 32, 278304.
  • Malone, L.A., Burgess, E.P.J., Stefanovic, D. and Gatehouse, H.S. (2000) Effects of four protease inhibitors on the survival of worker bumblebees, Bombus terrestris L. Apidologie, 31, 2538.
  • May, R.M. (1988) How many species are there on Earth. Science, 241, 14411449.
  • May, R.M. (1992) Past efforts and future prospects towards understanding how many species there are. In Biodiversity and global change (Solbrig, O.T., Van Emden, H.M. and Van Oordt, P.G.W.J., eds). Paris, France: International Union of Biological Sciences (IUBS), pp. 7182.
  • McGaughey, W.H. and Whalon, M.E. (1992) Managing insect resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis toxins. Science, 258, 14511455.
  • McHughen, A. (2000) A Consumer‘s Guide to GM food. From Green Genes to Red Herrings. London, UK: Oxford University Press, (US title: Pandora ‘s Picnic Basket: the potential and hazards of genetically modified foods).
  • McIntosh, R.A. (1998) Breeding wheat for resistance to biotic stresses. Euphytica, 100, 1934.
  • McIntosh, R.A. and Brown, G.N. (1997) Anticipatory breeding for resistance to rust diseases in wheat. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 35, 311326.
  • McNaughton, I.H. (1995) Swedes and rapes. In Evolution of Crop Plants, 2nd edn. (Smartt, J. and Simmonds, N.W., eds). London, UK: Longman, pp. 6875.
  • Metz, P.L.J. and Nap, J.P. (1997) A transgene-centred approach to the biosafety of transgenic plants: overview of selection and reporter genes. Acta Bot. Neerl. 46, 2550.
  • Metz, P.L.J., Stiekema, W.J. and Nap, J.P. (1998) A transgene-centred approach to the biosafety of transgenic phosphinothricin-tolerant plants. Mol. Breed. 4, 335341.
  • Moeller, D.R. (2001) GMO Liability Threats for Farmers. Legal issues surrounding the planting of genetically modified crops. Mineapolis, USA: Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy (IATP), p. 8 (http://www.gefoodalert.orglibraryadminuploadedfilesGMO_Liability_Threats_for_Farmers_PDF_Ver.pdf).
  • Moyes, C.L. and Dale, P.J. (1999) Organic Farming and Gene Transfer from Genetically Modified Crops. Norwich, UK: John Innes Centre (http://www.gmissues.orgorgreport.htm).
  • Nap, J.P., Bijvoet, J. and Stiekema, W.J. (1992) Biosafety of kanamycin-resistant transgenic plants. Transgen. Res. 1, 239249.
  • Nap, J.P., Metz, P.L.J., Escaler, M. and Conner, A.J. (2003) The release of genetically modified crops into the environment. Part I. Overview of current status and regulations. Plant J. 33, 118.
  • NABC, (National Agricultural Biotechnology Council) (1999) World Food Security and Sustainability: the Impacts of Biotechnology and Industrial Consolidation. NABC Report 11.Ithaca, NY: NABC (http://www.cals.cornell.eduextensionnabcpubsnabc_11.pdf).
  • NAS (National Academy of Sciences) (2000) Transgenic Plants and World Agriculture. Washington, DC: National Academy Press (http://www.nap.eduhtmltransgenic).
  • NAS (National Academy of Sciences) (2002) Environmental Effects of Transgenic Plants: the Scope and Adequacy of Regulation. Washington, DC: National Academy Press (http://books.nap.edubooks0309082633htmlindex.html).
  • NCB (Nuffield Council on Bioethics) (1999) Genetically Modified Crops: the Ethical and Social Issues. Plymouth, UK: Latimer Trend & Co (http://www.nuffieldfoundation.orgfileLibrarypdfgmcrop.pdf).
  • Nielsen, K.M., Bones, A.M., Smalla, K. and Van Elsas, J.D. (1998) Horizontal gene transfer from transgenic plants to terrestrial bacteria – rare event? FEMS Microbiol. Res. 22, 79103.
  • NRC (National Research Council) (1989) Field Testing Genetically Modified Organisms: Framework for Decisions. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. (http://books.nap.edubooks0309040760htmlindex.html).
  • Oberhauser, K.S., Prysby, M.D., Mattila, H.R., Stanley-Horn, D.E., Sears, M.K., Dively, G., Olson, E., Pleasants, J.M. Lam, W.-K.F. and Hellmich, R.L. (2001) Temporal and spatial overlap between monarch larvae and corn pollen. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 98, 1191311918.
  • Ochman, H., Lawrence, J.G. and Groisman, E.A. (2000) Lateral gene transfer and the nature of bacterial innovation. Nature, 405, 299304.
  • OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) (1993a) Safety Considerations for Biotechnology: Scale-up of Crop Plants. Paris, France: OECD (http://www.oecd.orgpdfM00022000M00022009.pdf).
  • OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) (1993b) Safety Considerations of Foods Derived by Modern Biotechnology: concepts and principles. Paris, France: OECD (http://www.oecd.orgpdfM00007000M00007573.pdf).
  • OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) (1996) Saving Biological Diversity: Economical Incentives. Paris, France: OECD.
  • OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) (2001) OECD Schemes for the Varietal Certification of Seed Moving in International Trade. Guidelines for Control Plot Tests and Field Inspection of Seed Crops. Paris, France: OECD (http://www.oecd.orgpdfM00024000M00024449.pdf).
  • OECD, (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) (2002) OECD Guidance for the Designation of a Unique Identifier for Transgenic Plants. Series on Harmonisation of Regulatory Oversight in Biotechnology, no. 23. Paris, France: OECD ENV/JM/MONO (2002)7 (http://www.olis.oecd.orgolis2002doc.nsfLinkToenv-jm-mono(2002)7).
  • Oger, P., Petit, A. and Dessaux, Y. (1997) Genetically engineered plants producing opines alter their biological environment. Nature Biotechn. 15, 369372.
  • OTA (US Congress Office of Technology Assessment) (1988) Technologies to Maintain Biological Diversity. Philadelphia, NY: J.B. Lippincott Co.
  • PABE (2001) Public Perceptions of Agricultural Biotechnologies in Europe. Final report of the PABE Research Project. Lancaster, UK: Lancaster University, p. 113. (http://www.lancs.ac.ukdeptsieppppabedocspabe_finalreport.pdf).
  • Parker, R.D. and Huffman, R.L. (1997) Evaluation of insecticides for boll weevil control and impact on non-target arthropods on non-transgenic and transgenic B.t. cotton cultivars. Proc. Beltwide Cotton Conf., New Orleans, LA 2, 12161221.
  • Parker, I.M. and Kareiva, P. (1996) Assessing risks of invasion for genetically engineered plants: acceptable evidence and reasonable doubt. Biol. Conservation, 78, 193203.
  • Parlevliet, J.E. (2002) Durability of resistance against fungal, bacterial and viral pathogens: present situation. Euphytica, 124, 147156.
  • Paul, W.J., Jeffrey, W.H., David, A.W., De Flaun, M.F. and Cazares, L.H. (1989) Turnover of extracellular DNA in eutrophic and oligotrophic freshwater environments of Southwest Florida. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 55, 18231828.
  • Paulos, J.A. (1988) Innumeracy, Mathematical Illiteracy and its Consequences. London, UK: Penguin Books.
  • Perrins, J., Williamson, M. and Fitter, A. (1992) A survey of differing views of weed classification: implications for regulation of introductions. Biol. Conservation, 60, 4756.
  • Phipps, R.H. and Park, J.R. (2002) Environmental benefits of genetically modified crops: global and European perspectives on their ability to reduce pesticide use. J. Anim. Feed Sci., 11, 118.
  • Picard-Nizou, A.L., Grison, R., Olsen, L., Pioche, C., Arnold, G. and Pham-Delègue, M.H. (1997) Impact of proteins used in plant genetic engineering: Toxicity and behavioral study in the honeybee. J. Econ. Entomol. 90, 17101716.
  • Pleasants, J.M., Hellmich, R.L., Dively, G.P., Sears, M.K., Stanley-Horn, D.E., Mattila, H.R., Foster, J.E., Clark, T.L. and Jones, G.D. (2001) Corn pollen deposition on milkweeds in and near cornfields. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA, 98, 1191911924.
  • Pretty, J.N. (1995) Regenerating Agriculture. Policies and Practice for Sustainability and Self-Reliance. London, UK: Earthscan Publications.
  • Purchase, I.F.H. and Slovic, P. (1999) Quantitative risk assessment breeds fear. Hum. Ecol. Risk Assess. 5, 445453.
  • Purvis, A. and Hector, A. (2000) Getting the measure of biodiversity. Nature, 405, 212219.
  • Quist, D. and Chapela, I.H. (2001) Transgenic DNA introgressed into traditional maize landraces in Oaxaca, Mexico. Nature, 414, 541543.
  • Regal, P.J. (1999) Brief history of biotechnology risk debates and policies in the US. (http://www.mindfully.orgGEHistory-Biotech-Risk-Debates.htm).
  • Rissler, J. and Mellon, M. (1993) Perils Amidst the Promise: Ecological Risks of Transgenic Crops in a Global Market. Cambridge, USA: Union of Concerned Scientists.
  • Roelofs, J. and Van Haastert, P.J.M. (2001) Genomics – genes lost during evolution. Nature, 411, 10131014.
  • Rosa, E.A.S. and Rodrigues, P.M.F. (1999) Towards a more sustainable agricultural system: the effect of glucosinolates on the control of soil-borne diseases. J. Hort. Sci. Biotechnol. 74, 667674.
  • Roush, R.T. (1996) Can we slow adaptation by pests to insect transgenic crops? In Biotechnology and Integrated Pest Management (Persley, G.J, ed.). Wallingford, UK: CAB International, pp. 242263.
  • Rubatzky, V.E. and Yamaguchi, M. (1997) World Vegetables: Principles, Production and Nutritive Values, 2nd edn. New York, NY: Chapman & Hall.
  • Sagar, A., Daemmrich, A. and Ashiya, M. (2000) The tragedy of the commoners: biotechnology and its publics. Nature Biotechn. 18, 24.
  • Salzberg, S.L., White, O., Peterson, J. and Eisen, J.A. (2001) Microbial genes in the human genome: lateral transfer or gene loss? Science, 292, 19031906.
  • Sambrook, J., Fritsch, E.F. and Maniatis, T. (1989) Molecular Cloning: a Laboratory Manual, 2nd edn. Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.
  • Sandoz, G. (1996) Étude des effets d‘inhibiteurs de protéases sur un insecte pollinisateur, l‘abeille domestique Apis mellifera L. Institut National Agronomique Diplôme d’Agronomie Approfondie Thesis. Paris, France: Grignon.
  • Savka, M.A. and Farrand, S.K. (1997) Modification of rhizobacterial populations by engineering bacterium utilization of a novel plant-produced resource. Nature Biotechn. 15, 363368.
  • Saxena, D. and Stotzky, G. (2001) Bt toxin uptake from soil by plants. Nature Biotechn. 19, 199.
  • SCBD, (Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity) (2000) Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety to the Convention on Biological Diversity: Text and Annexes. Montreal: Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity (http://www.biodiv.orgdoclegalcartagena-protocol-en.pdf).
  • Schlüter, K. Fütterer, J. and Potrykus, I. (1995) Horizontal gene transfer from a transgenic potato line to a bacterial pathogen (Erwinia chrysanthemi) occurs, if at all, at an extremely low frequency. Bio/Technology, 13, 10941098.
  • Schrope, M. (2001) UN backs transgenic crops for poorer nations. Nature, 412, 109.
  • Schubbert, R., Renz, D., Schmitz, B. and Doerfler, W. (1997) Foreign (M13) DNA ingested by mice reaches peripheral leukocytes, spleen, and liver via the intestinal wall mucosa and can be covalently linked to mouse DNA. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 94, 961966.
  • Schubbert, R., Hohlweg, U., Renz, D. and Doerfler, W. (1998) On the fate of orally ingested foreign DNA in mice: chromosomal association and placental transmission to the foetus. Mol. Gen. Genet. 259, 569576.
  • Schuler, T.H. Poppy, G. M. Potting, R.P.J. Denholm, I. and Kerry, B.R. (1999a) Interactions between insect tolerant genetically modified plants and natural enemies. In Gene Flow and Agriculture: Relevance for Transgenic Crops (Lutman, P.J.W., ed.). British Crop Protection Council Symposium Proceedings, volume no. 72. Farnham, UK: British Crop Protection Council, pp. 197202.
  • Schuler, T.H., Potti, Ng R.P.J., Denholm, I. and Poppy, G.M. (1999b) Parasitoid behaviour and Bt plants. Nature, 401, 825826.
  • SDCMA (San Diego Center for Molecular Agriculture) (2000) Foods from Genetically Modified Crops. San Diego, USA: San Diego Center for Molecular Agriculture (http://www.sdcma.orgGMFoodsBrochure.pdf).
  • Sears, M.K., Hellmich, R.L., Stanley-Horn, D.E., Oberhauser, K.S., Pleasants, J.M., Mattila, H.R., Siegfried, B.D. and Dively, G.P. (2001) Impact of Bt corn pollen on monarch butterfly populations: a risk assessment. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 98, 1193711942.
  • Serageldin, I. (2002) World poverty and hunger – the challenge for science. Science, 296, 5458.
  • Simmonds, N.W., Smartt, J., Millam, S. and Spoor, W. (1999) Principles of Crop Improvement, 2nd edn. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishers.
  • Sims, S.R. and Martin, J.W. (1997) Effect of the Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal proteins CryIA (b), CryIA (c), CryIIA, and CryIIIA on Folsomia candida and Xenylla grisea (Insecta: Collembola). Pedobiologia, 41, 412416.
  • Slovic, P. (1987) Perception of risk. Science, 236, 280285.
  • Slovic, P. (1993) Perceived risk, trust, and democracy. Risk Anal. 13, 675682.
  • Slovic, P. (1999) Trust, emotion, sex, politics, and science: surveying the risk-assessment battlefield. Risk Anal. 19, 689701.
  • Smalla, K., Van Overbeek, L.S., Pukall, R. and Van Elsas, J.D. (1993) Prevalence of nptII and Tn5 in kanamycin-resistant bacteria from different environments. FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. 13, 4758.
  • Solbrig, O.T. (1992) Biodiversity: an introduction. In Biodiversity and global change (Solbrig, O.T., Van Emden, H.M. and Van Oordt, P.G.W.J., eds). Paris, France: International Union of Biological Sciences (IUBS), pp. 7182.
  • Stanhope, M.J., Lupas, A., Italia, M.J., Koretke, K.K., Volker, C. and Brown, J.R. (2001) Phylogenetic analyses do not support horizontal gene transfers from bacteria to vertebrates. Nature, 411, 940944.
  • Stanley-Horn, D.E., Dively, G.P., Hellmich, R.L., Mattila, H.R., Sears, M.K., Laura, R.R. Jesse, C.H., Losey, J.E., Obrycki, J.J. and Lewis, L. (2001) Assessing the impact of Cry1Ab-expressing corn pollen on monarch butterfly larvae in field studies. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 98, 1193111936.
  • Stork, N. E. (1997) Measuring global biodiversity and its decline. In Biodiversity II: Understanding and Protecting our Biological Resources (Reaka Kudla, M.L., Wilson, D.E. and Wilson, E.O., eds). Washington, DC: Joseph Henry Press, pp. 4168.
  • Tabashnik, B.E., Liu, Y.B., Malvar, T., Heckel, D.G., Masson, L., Ballester, V., Granero, F., Ménsua, J.L. and Ferré, J. (1997) Global variation in the genetic and biochemical basis of diamondback moth resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 94, 1278012785.
  • Ten Kate, K. and Laird, S.A. (1999) The Commercial Use of Biodiversity. Access to Genetic Resources and Benefit-sharing. London, UK: Earthscan Publications.
  • Tepfer, M. (1993) Viral genes and transgenic plants. What are the potential environmental risks? Bio/Technology, 11, 11251132.
  • Thompson, D.Q., Stuckey, R.L. and Thompson, E.B. (1987) Spread, impact and control of purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria) in North American wetlands. Jamestown, ND: US Fish and Wildlife Service (http://www.npwrc.usgs.govresource1999loosstrfloossstrf.htm).
  • Tilman, D., Knops, J., Wedin, D. Reich, P. Ritchie, M. and Siemann, E. (1997) The influence of functional diversity and composition on ecosystem processes. Science, 277, 13001302.
  • Tilman, D., Fargione, J., Wolff, B., D‘Antonio, C., Dobson, A., Howarth, R., Schindler, D., Schlesinger, W.H., Simberloff, D. and Swackhamer, D. (2001) Forecasting agriculturally driven global environmental change. Science, 292, 281284.
  • Torgersen, H. (1996) Ecological Impacts of Traditional Crop Plants – a basis for the assessment of transgenic plants? Summary. Vienna, Austria: Monography VI 75 (http://www.ubavie.gv.atpublikationenmonom75s.htm).
  • Torgersen, H., Soja, G., Janssen, I. and Gaugitsch, H. (1998) Risk assessment of conventional crop plants in analogy to transgenic plants. Environ. Sci. Poll. Res. 5, 8993.
  • Trewavas, A.J. and Leaver, C.J. (2001) Is opposition to GM crops science or politics? An investigation into the arguments that GM crops pose a particular threat to the environment. EMBO Rep. 2, 455459.
  • UPOV (Union pour la Protection des Obtentions Végétales) (1991) International Convention for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants of December 2 1961, as revised at Geneva on November 10 1972, on October 23 1978, and on March 19 1991. Publication 221 (E). Geneva, Switzerland: UPOV.
  • Van Der Meer P. (1993) Potential Long-Term Ecological Impact of Genetically Modified Organisms: a Survey of Literature, Guidelines and Legislation. Strasbourg, France: Council of Europe Press.
  • Visser, B., Van Der Meer, I., Louwaars, N., Beekwilder, J. and Eaton, D. (2001) The impact of terminator technology. Biotechn. Dev. Monit. 48, 912 (http://www.biotech-monitor.nl480-4.htm).
  • Vitousek, P.M., Mooney, H.A., Lubchenco, J. and Melillo, J.M. (1997) Human domination of Earth‘s ecosystems. Science, 277, 494499.
  • Wachbroit, R. (1991) Describing risk. In Risk Assessment in Genetic Engineering. Environmental Release of Organisms (Levin, M.A. and Strauss, H.S., eds). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, pp. 368377.
  • Watkinson, A.R., Freckleton, R.P., Robinson, R.A. and Sutherland, W.J. (2000) Predictions of biodiversity response to genetically modified herbicide-tolerant crops. Science, 289, 15541557.
  • WCMC (World Conservation Monitoring Centre) (1992) Global Biodiversity: Status of the Earth‘s Living Resources. London, UK: Chapman & Hall.
  • WCMC (World Conservation Monitoring Centre) (1995) Biodiversity: An Overview (http://www.wcmc.org.ukinfoservbiogenbiogen.html).
  • WCMC (World Conservation Monitoring Centre) (2000) Global Biodiversity: Earth‘s Living Resources in the 21st Century. Cambridge, UK: WCMC Information Office.
  • De Wet, J.M.J. and Harlan, J.R. (1975) Weeds and domesticates: Evolution in the man-made habitat. Econ. Bot. 29, 99107.
  • Wiener, J.B. and Rogers, M.D. (2002) Comparing precaution in the United States and Europe. J. Risk Res. (in press) (http://www.env.duke.edusolutionsdocumentswp01.pdf).
  • Wijnheijmer, E.H.M., Brandenburg, W.A., and Ter Borg, S.J. (1989) Interactions between wild and cultivated carrots (Daucus carota L.) in the Netherlands. Euphytica, 40, 147154.
  • Williamson, M. (1993) Invaders, weeds and the risks from GMOs. Experientia, 49, 219224.
  • Williamson, M. (1994) Community response to transgenic plant release: predictions from British experience of invasive plants and feral crop plants. Mol. Ecol. 3, 7579.
  • Wilson, E.O. and Peter, F.M, ed. (1988) BioDiversity. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
  • Woiwood, I., Dewar, A., Hawes, C., and Heard, M. (2000) Farm-scale trials for studying the effects of GM herbicide-tolerant crops on farmland biodiversity in the UK. Antenna Lond. 24, 6668.
  • World Bank (1995) Creating an Enabling Environment for the Safe Use of Biotechnology. Washington, DC: World Bank.
  • Xia, J.Y., Cui, J.J., Ma, L.H., Dong, S.X. and Cui, X.F. (1999) The role of transgenic Bt cotton in integrated pest management. Acta Gossypii Sinica, 11, 5764.
  • Yu, L., Berry, R.E. and Croft, B.A. (1997) Effect of Bacillus thuringiensis toxins in transgenic cotton and potato on Folsama candida (Collembola: Isotomidae) and Oppia (Acari: Oribatidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 90, 113118.
  • Zangerl, A.R., McKenna, D., Wraight, C.L., Carroll, M., Ficarello, P., Warner, R. and Berenbaum, M.R. (2001) Effects of exposure to event 176 Bacillus thuringiensis corn pollen on monarch and black swallowtail caterpillars under field conditions. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 98, 1190811912.
  • Zeven, A.C. and De Wet, J.M.J. (1982) Dictionary of Cultivated Plants and their Regions of Diversity, 2nd edn. Wageningen, the Netherlands: Centre for Agricultural Publishing and Documentation.