SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

REFERENCES

  • Aceto S, Caputo P, Cozzolino S, Gaudio L, Moretti A. 1999. Phylogeny and evolution of Orchis and allied genera based on ITS DNA variation: morphological gaps and molecular continuity. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 13: 6776.
  • Ackerman JD. 1977. Biosystematics of the genus Piperia Rydb. (Orchidaceae). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 75: 245270.
  • Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (Chase MW, Bremer K, Stevens P & 26 co-authors). 1998. An ordinal classification of the flowering plants. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 85: 531553.
  • Ascherson P, Graebner P. 1907. Synopsis der Mitteleuropäischen Flora 3 (Monocotyledones). Leipzig: Engelmann.
  • Averyanov LV. 1990. A review of the genus Dactylorhiza. In: ArdittiJ, ed. Orchid biology: reviews and perspectives, V. Portland, Oregon: Timber Press, 159206.
  • Baldwin BG. 1992. Phylogenetic utility of the internal transcribed spacers of nuclear ribosomal DNA in plants: an example from the Compositae. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 1: 316.
  • Baldwin BG, Sanderson MJ, Porter JM, Wojciechowski MF, Campbell CS, Donoghue MJ. 1995. The ITS region of nuclear ribosomal DNA: a valuable source of evidence on angiosperm phylogeny. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 82: 247277.
  • Banerji ML, Pradhan P. 1984. Orchids of Nepal Himalaya Vaduz: Cramer.
  • Barone Lumaga MR, Caputo P, Cozzolino S, Marallo R. 2000. Pollinaria and massulae surface morphology in the subtribe Orchidinae. In: Abstracts of the Orchis 2000 Conference, San Zeno di Montagna, Italy, 56.
  • Bateman RM. 1985. Peloria and pseudopeloria in British orchids. Watsonia 15: 357359.
  • Bateman RM. 1999a. Integrating molecular and morphological evidence for evolutionary radiations. In: HollingsworthPM, BatemanRM, GornallRJ, eds. Molecular systematics and plant evolution. London: Taylor & Francis, 432471.
  • Bateman RM. 1999b. DNA-based phylogenies are no threat to field botany. BSBI News 82: 3133.
  • Bateman RM. 2001. Evolution and classification of European orchids: insights from molecular and morphological characters. Journal Europäischer Orchideen 33: 33119.
  • Bateman RM, Denholm I. 1989. A reappraisal of the British and Irish dactylorchids, 3. The spotted-orchids. Watsonia 17: 319349.
  • Bateman RM, Denholm I. 2003. The Heath Spotted-orchid (Dactylorhiza maculata (L.) (Sóo) in the British Isles: a cautionary case-study in delimiting infraspecific taxa and inferring their evolutionary relationships. Journal Europäischer Orchideen 35: 501526.
  • Bateman RM, DiMichele WA. 1994. Saltational evolution of form in vascular plants: a neoGoldschmidtian synthesis. In: IngramDS, HudsonA, eds. Shape and form in plants and fungi. Linnean Society of Symposium Series 16. London: Academic Press, 63102.
  • Bateman RM, DiMichele WA. 2002. Generating and filtering major phenotypic novelties: neoGoldschmidtian saltation revisited. In: CronkQCB, BatemanRM, HawkinsJA, eds. Developmental genetics and plant evolution. London: Taylor & Francis, 109159.
  • Bateman RM, Hollingsworth PM. 2003. Morphological and  molecular delimitation of Anacamptis (Orchidaceae: Orchideae), with particular reference to A. x albuferensis R.M. Bateman, nothosp. nov. (A. robusta x A. fragrans), a new hybrid from Mallorca, Spain. Taxon in press.
  • Bateman RM, Hollingsworth PM, Preston J, Luo Yi-Bo Pridgeon AM, Chase MW. 2001. Orchidinae: phylogenetics. In: PridgeonAM, CribbPL, ChaseMW, RasmussenFN, eds. Genera Orchidacearum, 2 Orchidoideae. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 225233.
  • Bateman RM, Hollingsworth PM, Preston J, Pridgeon AM, Chase MW. 1998. Phylogenetics of the Orchidinae (Orchidaceae): chromosomal changes, morphological convergences and polyphyletic plesiomorphs. Second International Monocot Congress (Sydney) Abstracts, 78.
  • Bateman RM, Pridgeon AM, Chase MW. 1997. Phylogenetics of subtribe Orchidinae (Orchidoideae, Orchidaceae) based on nuclear ITS sequences. 2. Infrageneric relationships and taxonomic revision to achieve monophyly of Orchis sensu stricto. Lindleyana 12: 113141.
  • Baumann H, Künkele S. 1982. Die wildwachsenden Orchideen Europas. Stuttgart: Kosmos.
  • Baumann H, Künkele S, Lorenz R. 2000. Zur Nomenklatur von Steveniella satyrioides (Spreng.) Schlechter. Journal Europäischer Orchideen 32: 101106.
  • Baumann H, Künkele S, Lorenz R. 2002. Taxonomische Liste der Orchideen Deutschlands. Journal Europäischer Orchideen 34: 129206.
  • Bellstedt DU, Linder HP, Harley EH. 2001. Phylogenetic relationships in Disa based on non-coding trnL–trnF chloroplast sequences: evidence of numerous repeat regions. American Journal of Botany 88: 20882100.
  • Van Den Berg C, Higgins WE, Dressler RL, Whitten WM, Soto Arenas MA, Culham A, Chase MW. 2000. A phylogenetic analysis of Laeliinae (Orchidaceae) based on sequence data from Internal Transcribed Spacers (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA. Lindleyana 15: 96114.
  • Bernardos S, Amich F, Gallego F, Crespi AL. 2002. Contributions to the knowledge on the orchid flora of northern Portugal. Journal Europäischer Orchideen 34: 3550.
  • Blinova I. 2000. Sprossbildung einiger Orchidaceae der Kola-Halbinsel (Nordwest-Russland) [Shoot structure of some Orchidaceae of the Kola-PI (NW Russia)]. Flora 195: 3544.
  • Brandham P. 1999. Cytogenetics. In: PridgeonAM, CribbPJ, ChaseMC, RasmussenFN, eds. Genera Orchidacearum. 1. General introduction, Apostasioideae, Cypripedioideae. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 6780.
  • Breiner E, Breiner R. 2000. Some new results of taxconomic research on Nigritella nigra s.l. Colloqium Societé Orchidée Français 6: 7780.
  • Breiner R. 1999. Farbstoff und Farbe – ihre taxonomische Relevanz bei den Orchidaceae. Journal Europäischer Orchideen 31: 423440.
  • Burns-Balogh P, Funk VA. 1986. A phylogenetic analysis of the Orchidaceae. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 61: 179.
  • Buttler KP. 1991. Field guide to orchids of Britain and Europe Swindon, UK: Crowood Press.
  • Buttler KP. 2001. Taxonomy of Orchidaceae tribus Orchideae, a traditional approach. Journal Europäischer Orchideen 33: 732.
  • Cafasso D, Caputo P, Galesi R, Scrugli A, Cozzolino S. 2000. Incipient speciation processes in Mediterranean orchids. Abstracts of the Orchis 2000 Conference, San Zeno di Montagna, Italy, 7–8
  • Cafasso D, Pellegrino G, Musacchio A, Widmer A, Cozzolino S. 2001. Characterization of a minisatellite repeat locus in the chloroplast genome of Orchis palustris (Orchidaceae). Current Genetics 39: 394398.
  • Cameron KM, Chase MW, Whitten WM, Kores PJ, Jarrell DC, Albert VA, Yukawa T, Hills HG, Goldman DH. 1999. a phylogenetic analysis of the Orchidaceae: evidence from rbcL nucleotide sequences. American Journal of Botany 86: 208244.
  • Campbell V. 2000. Aspects of molecular ecology and population biology of Gymnadenia conopsea (L.) R.Br. in Britain. Unpublished PhD Thesis, Brighton, UK: University of Sussex.
  • Carpineri R, Rossi W. 1987. Numeri chromosomici per la flora italiana. Informazione Botanica Italica 19: 314318.
  • Chase MW. 1999. Molecular systematics, parsimony, and orchid classification. In: PridgeonAM, CribbPJ, ChaseMC, RasmussenFN, eds. Genera Orchidacearum. 1. General introduction, Apostasioideae, Cypripedioideae. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 8188.
  • Chase MW. 2001. The origin and biogeography of Orchidaceae. In: PridgeonAM, CribbPJ, ChaseMC, RasmussenFN, eds. Genera Orchidacearum. 2. Orchidoideae. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 15.
  • Chase MW, Cameron KM, Hills HG, Jarrell DC. 1994. DNA sequences and phylogenetics of the Orchidaceae and other lilioid monocots. In: PridgeonAM, ed. Proceedings of the 14th World Orchid Conference. Edinburgh: HMSO, 6173.
  • Chase MW, Fay MF, Savolainen V. 2000. Higher-level classification in the angiosperms: new insights from the perspective of DNA sequence data. Taxon 49: 685704.
  • Chen S.-C., Tsi Z.-H. Luo Y.-B. 1999. Native orchids of China in colour. Beijing: Science Press.
  • Chen Sing-chi. 1982. The origin and early differentiation of the Orchidaceae. Phytotaxonomica Sinica 20: 122.
  • Van Der Cingel NA. 1995. An atlas of orchid pollination: European orchids. Rotterdam: Balkema.
  • Clements MA. 1999. Embryology. in: PridgeonAM, CribbPJ, ChaseMC, RasmussenFN, eds. Genera Orchidacearum. 1. General introduction, Apostasioideae, Cypripedioideae. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 3858.
  • Coleman RA. 1995. The wild orchids of California. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
  • Cox AV, Abdelnour GJ, Bennett MD, Leitch IJ. 1998. Genome size and karyotype evolution in the slipper orchids (Cypripedioideae: Orchidaceae). American Journal of Botany 85: 681687.
  • Cox AV, Pridgeon AM, Albert VA, Chase MW. 1997. Phylogenetics of the slipper orchids (Cypripedioideae: Orchidaceae): nuclear rDNA sequences. Plant Systematics and Evolution 208: 197223.
  • Cozzolino S, Aceto S, Caputo P, Gaudio L, Nazzaro R. 1998. Phylogenetic relationships in Orchis and some related genera: an approach using chloroplast DNA. Nordic Journal of Botany 18: 7987.
  • Cozzolino S, Aceto S, Caputo P, Widmer A, Dafni A. 2001. Speciation processes in Eastern Mediterranean Orchis s.l. species: molecular evidence and the role of pollination biology. Israel Journal of Plant Sciences 49: 91103.
  • Cozzolino S, Caputo P, Aceto S, Rossi W, De Luca P. 1996. Testing the usefulness of ITS1 sequence as a tool to infer relationships in Orchis L. Delpinoa 33/34: 7785.
  • Cribb PJ. 1999. Morphology. In: PridgeonAM, CribbPJ, ChaseMC, RasmussenFN, eds. Genera Orchidacearum. 1. General introduction, Apostasioideae, Cypripedioideae. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1323.
  • Cribb PJ, Chase MW. 2001. Conservation of Dactylorhiza (1481). Proposal to conserve the name Dactylorhiza Necker ex Nevski over Coeloglossum Hartm. (Orchidaceae). Taxon 50: 581582.
  • D’Emerico S. 2001. Orchideae: Cytogenetics. In: PridgeonAM, CribbPJ, ChaseMC, RasmussenFN, eds. Genera Orchidacearum. 2. Orchidoideae. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 216224.
  • D’Emerico S, Bianco P, Medagli P. 1992. Karyological studies on Orchidaceae. Tribe Ophrydeae, subtribe Serapiadinae. Caryologia 45: 301311.
  • D’Emerico S, Bianco P, Medagli P, Ruggiero L. 1990. Karyological studies of some taxa of the genera Himantoglossum, Orchis, Serapias and Spiranthes (Orchidaceae) from Apulia (Italy). Caryologia 43: 267276.
  • D’Emerico S, Cozzolino S, Pellegrino G, Pignone D, Scrugli A. 2002. Karyotype structure, supernumery chromosomes and heterochromatin distribution suggest a pathway of karyotype evolution in Dactylorhiza (Orchidaceae). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 138: 8591.
  • D’Emerico S, Grünanger P. 2001. Giemsa C-banding in some Gymnadenia species and in Chamorchis alpina from Dolomites (Italy). Journal Europäischer Orchideen 33: 405414.
  • D’Emerico S, Pignone D, Bianco P. 1996. Karyomorphological analyses and heterochromatin characters disclose phyletic relationships among 2n= 32 and 2n= 36 species of Orchis (Orchidaceae). Plant Systematics and Evolution 200: 111124.
  • D’Emerico S, Pignone D, Scrugli A. 2000. Giemsa C-banded karyotypes in Serapias L. (Orchidaceae). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 133: 485492.
  • D’Emerico S, Pignone D, Scrugli A. 2001. Karyomorphology and relationships between three genera within Orchidinae (Orchidaceae). Journal Europäischer Orchideen 33: 391394.
  • Dafni A. 1987. Pollination in Orchis and related genera: evolution from reward to deception. In: ArdittiJ, ed. Orchid biology: reviews and perspectives, IV. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 79104.
  • Del Prete C, Miceli P. 1999. Histoanatomical and taxonomical observations on some Central Mediterranean entities of Orchis section Labellotrilobatae P. Vermeul. subsections Masculae Nevski and Provinciales Nevski (Orchidaceae). Caesiana 12: 2144.
  • Delforge P. 1995. Orchids of Britain and Europe. London: HarperCollins.
  • Delforge P. 1998. Contribution taxonomique et nomenclaturale au genre Gymnadenia (Orchidaceae). Naturalistes Belges 79: 251256.
  • Delforge P. 1999. Contribution taxonomique et nomenclaturale au genre Himantoglossum (Orchidaceae). Naturalistes Belges 80: 387408.
  • Delforge P. 2000. Contribution taxonomique et nomenclaturale au genre Orchis L 1753: rémarques sur la validité du genre Steveniella Schlechter 1918. Naturalistes Belges 81: 176190.
  • Delforge P. 2001. Guide des Orchidées d’Europe (edn 2). Lausanne, Switzerland: Delachaux et Niestlé.
  • Devillers P, Devillers-Terschuren J. 1994. Essai d’analyse systématique du genre Ophrys. Naturaliste Belges 75: 273400.
  • Douzery EJP, Pridgeon AM, Kores P, Linder HP, Kurzweil H, Chase MW. 1999. Molecular phylogenetics of Diseae (Orchidaceae): a contribution from nuclear ribosomal ITS sequences. American Journal of Botany 86: 887899.
  • Dressler RL. 1993. Phylogeny and classification of the orchid family. Portland, Oregon: Timber Press.
  • Dressler RL, Chase MW. 1995. Whence the orchids? In: RudallPJ, CribbPJ, CutlerDF, HumphriesCJ, eds. Monocotyledons: systematics and evolution. Kew: Royal Botanic Gardens, 217226.
  • Dusak F, Pernot P. 2002. Les Orchidées sauvages d’île-de-France. Mèze, France: Pathénope (Biotope).
  • Essink J, Essink L, Kerremans N, Kerremans F, Schot MH. 1999. Bespreking Orchis mascula complex. Euorchis 11: 3654.
  • Ettlinger DMT. 1999. Illustrations of British and Irish orchids. Royden Cottage, Dorking, Surrey, UK: published by author.
  • Fitch WM. 1971. Toward defining the course of evolution: minimum change for a specific tree topology. Systematic Zoology 20: 406416.
  • Foelsche G, Foelsche W, Gerbaud M, Gerbaud O. 1999. Gymnadenia cenisia (Foelsche et Gerbaud) Foelsche et Gerbaud: une Nigritelle de France et d’Italie. Orchidophile 30: 235240.
  • French CN, Murphy RJ, Atkinson MGC. 1999. Flora of Cornwall. Cambourne, UK: Wheal Seton Press.
  • Freudenstein JV, Rasmussen FN. 1999. What does morphology tell us about orchid relationships? A cladistic analysis. American Journal of Botany 86: 225248.
  • Freudenstein JV, Senyo DM, Chase MW. 2000a. Mitochondrial DNA and relationships in the Orchidaceae. In: WilsonKL, MorrisonDA, eds. Monocots: systematics and evolution. Melbourne: CSIRO, 421429.
  • Freudenstein JV, Senyo DM, Chase MW. 2000b. Phylogenetic implications and comparative utility of 26S and ITS2 sequences in Orchidaceae. Americal Journal of Botany (Abstracts) 87: 127128.
  • Garay LA. 1997. De nominibus Orchidacearum Incunabulorum. Harvard Papers in Botany 11: 4950.
  • Gerbaud O. 1998. Gymnadenia R. Br. et Nigritella Rich. un seul et même genre? Cahors Societé Français Orchidées 4: 8093.
  • Gerbaud O. 1999. Considerations sur les Nigritelles et les hybrides qu’elles forment entre elles. Naturalistes Belges 80: 280, 372376.
  • Giribet G, Wheeler WC. 1999. On gaps. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 13: 132143.
  • Grünanger P. 2001. Orchidacee d’Italia. Quaderni di Botanica Ambietale e Applicata 11 (2000): 380.
  • Gumbert A, Kunze J. 2001. Colour similarity to rewarding model plant affects pollination in a food deceptive orchid, Orchis boryi. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 72: 419433.
  • Halliday G. 1997. A flora of Cumbria. Lancaster, UK: University of Lancaster.
  • Hapeman JR, Inoue K. 1997. Plant–pollinator interactions and floral radiation in Platanthera (Orchidaceae). In: GivnishTJ, SytsmaKJ, eds. Molecular evolution and adaptive radiation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 433454.
  • Hardwick C. 2000. The cultivation of Coeloglossum viride. Hardy Orchid Society Newsletter 15: 17.
  • Hautzinger L. 1978. Genus Orchis L. (Orchidaceae) Sectio Robustocalcare Hautzinger. Annales Naturhistorica Museum Wien 81: 3173.
  • Hedrén M. 1996. Genetic differentiation, polyploidization and hybridization in northern European Dactylorhiza (Orchidaceae): evidence from allozyme markers. Plant Systematics and Evolution 201: 3155.
  • Hedrén M. 1999. Kommentarer om brudkullan och dess urpsrung [Comment on Gymnigritella runei (Orchidaceae) and its origin.]. Svensk Botanisk Tidsskrift 93: 145151.
  • Hedrén M, Fay MF, Chase MW. 2001. Amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) reveal details of polyploid evolution in Dactylorhiza (Orchidaceae). American Journal of Botany 88: 18681880.
  • Hedrén M, Klein E, Teppner H. 2000. Evolution of polyploids in the European orchid genus Nigritella; evidence from allozyme data. Phyton 40: 239275.
  • Hershkovitz MA, Zimmer EA, Hahn WJ. 1999. Ribosomal DNA sequences and angiosperm systematics. In: HollingsworthPM, BatemanRM, GornallRJ, eds. Molecular systematics and plant evolution. London: Taylor & Francis.
  • Hollingsworth PM, Bateman RM, Gornall RJ, eds. 1999. Molecular systematics and plant evolution. London: Taylor & Francis.
  • Hughes A. 1998. A layman's interpretation of gene sequencing [in Orchidinae.]. Hardy Orchid Society Newsletter 10: 1219.
  • Hultén E. 1968. Flora of Alaska and neighboring territories. Stanford, California University Press.
  • Johnson SD, Steiner KE. 2000. Generalization versus specialization in plant pollination systems. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 15: 140143.
  • Kenrick P, Crane PR. 1997. The origin and early diversification of land plants: a cladistic study. Smithsonian series in comparative evolutionary biology. Washington DC: Smithsonian Institution Press.
  • Klinge J. 1898. Dactylorchidis, Orchidis subgeneris, monographiae prodromus. Trudy imperatorskago S.-Peterburgsko botanischeskago sada 17: 145202.
  • Koch K. 1849. Beiträge zu einer Flora des Orientes. Linnaea 22: 177336.
  • Kocyan A, Widmer A. 2001. The old genus Orchis viewed from a molecular systematic perspective. In: NelsonE, ed. Orchis. Luzern: Felder & Vogel, 161172.
  • Kores PJ, Cameron K, Molvray M, Chase MW. 1997. The phylogenetic relationships of Orchidoideae and Spiranthoideae (Orchidaceae) as inferred from rbcL plastid sequences. Lindleyana 12: 111.
  • Kores PJ, Molvray M, Weston PH, Hopper SD, Brown AP, Cameron KM, Chase MW. 2001. A phylogenetic analysis of Diurideae (Orchidaceae) based on plastid DNA sequence data. American Journal of Botany 88: 19031914.
  • Kores PJ, Weston PH, Molvray M, Chase MW. 2000. Phylogenetic relationships within the Diurideae (Orchidaceae): Inferences from plastid matK DNA sequences. In: WilsonKL, MorrisonDA, eds. Monocots: systematics and evolution. Melbourne: CSIRO. 449456.
  • Kränzlin F. 18971904. Orchidacearum Genera et Species. Berlin: Meyer & Müller.
  • Kretzschmar H, Kretzschmar G, Eccarius W. 2001. Orchideen auf Rhodos. Bad Hersfeld: Hohl-Drunk.
  • Kretzschmar H, Kretzschmar G, Eccarius W. 2002. Orchideen a uf Kreta, Kasos, Karpathos. Bad Hersfeld: Hohl-Drunk.
  • Kümpel H. 1988. Über eine spätblühende Orchis ustulata-Sippe. Haussknechtia 4: 2324.
  • Kümpel H, Mrkvicka AC. 1990. Untersuchungen zur Abtrennung der Orchis ustulata subsp. aestivalis (Kümpel) Kümpel & Mrkvicka. Jahresbericht naturwisschaften Vereins Wuppertal 22: 306324.
  • Kurzweil H. 1987. Developmental studies in orchid flowers. II. Orchidioid species. Nordic Journal of Botany 7: 443451.
  • Kurzweil H. 1990. Floral morphology and ontogeny in the orchid subtribe Disinae. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 102: 6183.
  • Kurzweil H. 1999. Floral ontogeny of orchids: a review. Beiträge Biologie Pflanzen 71: 45100.
  • Kurzweil H. 2000. The value of early floral ontogeny in the systematics of Orchidaceae. In: WilsonKL, MorrisonDA, eds. Monocots: systematics and evolution. Melbourne: CSIRO, 436440.
  • Kurzweil H, Linder HP. 1999. A phylogenetic analysis of the genus Satyrium (Orchidaceae). Beitrage Biologie Pflanzen 71: 101181.
  • Kurzweil H, Weber A. 1991. Floral morphology of southern African Orchideae. 1. Orchidinae. Nordic Journal of Botany 11: 155178.
  • Kurzweil H, Weber A. 1992. Floral morphology of southern African Orchideae. 2. Habenariinae. Nordic Journal of Botany 12: 3961.
  • Landwehr J. 1977. Wilde orchideeën van Europa. Amsterdam.
  • Lang K-Y. 1999. Smithorchis , Diphylax , Herminium , Tsaiorchis , Pecteilis , Peristylus , Habenaria , Diplomeris. In: LangK-Y, ed. Flora Republicae Popularis Sinicae 17. Beijing: Science Press: 334–355, 394487.
  • Lang K-Y, Tsi Z-H. 1978. Some new taxa of Orchidaceae from Tibet, China. Acta Phytotaxonomica Sinica 16: 126129.
  • Larsen K. 1966. Studies in the flora of Thailand. 40. Cytology of vascular plants. II. Dansk Botanisk Arkiv 23: 375399.
  • Lee Yong No. 1998. Flora of Korea, 3rd edn. Seoul: Kyohak.
  • Linder HP, Kurzweil H. 1994. The phylogeny and classification of the Diseae (Orchidoideae: Orchidaceae). Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 81: 687713.
  • Linder HP, Kurzweil H. 1999. Orchids of southern Africa. Rotterdam: Balkema.
  • Lindley J. 1835. The genera and species of orchidaceous plants. Part IV. Ophrydeae. London: Ridgways.
  • Lorenz R. 2001. Die Gattung Serapias. Italien: Arten und Verbreitung. Journal Europäischer Orchideen 33: 235368.
  • Luer C. 1975. The native orchids of the United States and Canada, excluding Florida. New York: New York Botanical Garden.
  • Luo Y-B. 1999. Studies on the orchid genus Hemipilia. Unpublished PhD Thesis, Beijing: Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Science.
  • Luo Y-B, Chen S.-C. 1999. Observations on putative pollinators of Hemipilia flabellata Bur. et Franch. (Orchidaceae) in north-west Yunnan Province, China. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 131: 4564.
  • Luo Y-B, Chen S.-C. 2000. The floral morphology and ontogeny of some Chinese representatives of orchid subtribe Orchidinae. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 134: 529548.
  • Luo Y-B, Chen S.-C. in press. Hemipiliopsis: a new genus of Orchidaceae. Novon in press.
  • Luo Y-B, Shen S-C, Zhu G-H. in press. Floral morphology and ontogeny of some selected Chinese representatives of Orchidaceae subtribe Habenariinae. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden in press.
  • Marren P. 1999. Britain's rarest flowers. London: Poyser Press.
  • McLeod L. 1995. Combined morphometric and isozyme analysis of Dactylorhiza in Scotland. Unpublished MSc Thesis, Edinburgh: Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh and Edinburgh University.
  • Mehra PN, Kashyap KK. 1978. In IOPB chromosome number reports, 60. Taxon 27: 223231.
  • Minasiewicz J, Olszewski TS. 1999. A provisional checklist of the continental African Orchidinae: 2. Orchidoideae 1. Orchideae: Orchidinae–Platantherinae. Fragmenta Flora Geobtanica 44: 315353.
  • Molvray M, Kores PJ, Chase MW. 2000. Polyphyly of mycoheterotrophic orchids and functional influences on floral and molecular characters. In: WilsonKL, MorrisonDA, eds. Monocots: systematics and evolution. Melbourne: CSIRO, 441448.
  • Moore DM, ed. 1980. Microspermae. CCIII. Orchidaceae. In: TutinTG, HeywoodVH, BurgesNA, MooreDM, ValentineDH, WaltersSM, WebbDA, eds. Flora Europaea V, Monocotyledones. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 325350.
  • Morgan R, Ackerman JD. 1990. Two new piperias (Orchidaceae) from western North America. Lindleyana 5: 205211.
  • Morgan R, Glicenstein L. 1993. Additional California taxa in Piperia (Orchidaceae). Lindleyana 8: 8995.
  • Mrkvicka AC. 1993. Statistische Untersuchungen an Gymnadenia conopsea (L.) R. Br. s.l. Mitteilungsblatt Arbeitskreis Heimische Orchideen Baden-Württemberg 25: 361367.
  • Neiland MRM, Wilcock CC. 1998. Fruit set, nectar reward, and rarity in the Orchidaceae. American Journal of Botany 85: 16571671.
  • Nelson E. 1968. Monographie und Ikonographie der Orchidaceen-Gattung Serapias, Aceras, Loroglossum, Barlia. Zürich: G & A Claraz-Schenkung.
  • Nelson E. 1976. Monographie und Ikonographie der Orchidaceen-Gattung Dactylorhiza. Zürich: G & A Claraz-Schenkung.
  • Neyland R, Urbatsch LE. 1995. A terrestrial origin for the Orchidaceae suggested by a phylogeny inferred from ndhF chloroplast gene sequences. Lindleyana 10: 244251.
  • Neyland R, Urbatsch LE. 1996a. Evolution in the number and position of fertile anthers in Orchidaceae inferred from ndhF chloroplast gene sequences. Lindleyana 11: 4753.
  • Neyland R, Urbatsch LE. 1996b. Phylogeny of subfamily Epidendroideae (Orchidaceae) inferred from ndhF chloroplast gene sequences. American Journal of Botany 83: 11951206.
  • Nilsson LA. 1992. Orchid pollination biology. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 7: 255259.
  • Nixon KC, Wheeler QD. 1992. Extinction and the origin of species. In: NovacekM, WheelerQD, eds. Extinction and phylogeny. New York: Columbia University Press, 119143.
  • Paulus HF, Gack C. 1990. Pollinators as prepollinating isolation factors: evolution and speciation in Ophrys (Orchidaceae). Israeli Journal of Botany 39: 4379.
  • Pedersen HR. 2000. On the status and synonymy of the names Dactylorhiza majalis and D. incarnata (Orchidaceae) and their typification. Taxon 49: 539543.
  • Peitz E. 1972. Zusammenstellung aller bisher bekannten Bastarde der in Deutschland verbreiteten Orchideen. Jahresberichte des Naturwisschaftlichen Vereins in Wuppertal 25: 167200.
  • Pellegrino G, Cozzolino S, Grünanger P, Musacchio A. 2001. Ribosomal DNA (ITS) as a molecular tool in the study of orchid hybridisation. Journal Europäischer Orchideen 33: 369376.
  • Pellegrino G, Nazarro R, Musacchio A, Menale B, Cozzolino S. 2000. Hybrid between Orchis mascula and O. provincialis: a not common finding. Journal Europäischer Orchideen 32: 539546.
  • Pridgeon AM, Bateman RM, Cox AV, Hapeman JR, Chase MW. 1997. Phylogenetics of the subtribe Orchidinae (Orchidoideae, Orchidaceae) based on nuclear ITS sequences. 1. Intergeneric relationships and polyphyly of Orchis sensu lato. Lindleyana 12: 89109.
  • Pridgeon AM, Cribb PJ, Chase MC, Rasmussen FN, eds. 1999. Genera Orchidacearum. 1. General introduction, Apostasioideae, Cypripedioideae. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Pridgeon AM, Cribb PJ, Chase MC, Rasmussen FN, eds. 2001. Genera Orchidacearum. 2. Orchidoideae, 1. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Qamaruz-Zaman F. 2000. Conservation genetics of selected British orchids. Unpublished PhD Thesis, University of Cambridge/Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Qamaruz-Zaman F, Fay MF, Parker JS, Chase MW. 1998. Molecular techniques employed in the assessment of genetic diversity: a review focusing on orchid conservation. Lindleyana 13: 259283.
  • Quentin P. 2000. Proposition de révision des genres Orchis, Aceras, Anacamptis et Neotinea. L’Orchidophile 31: 179182.
  • Rasmussen FN. 1985. Orchids. In: DahlgrenRMT, CliffordHT, YeoPE, eds. The families of the monocotyledons: structure, evolution and taxonomy. Berlin: Springer Verlag, 249274.
  • Rasmussen FN. 1999. The development of orchid classification. In: PridgeonAM, CribbPJ, ChaseMC, RasmussenFN, eds. Genera Orchidacearum. 1. General Introduction, Apostasioideae, Cypripedioideae. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 312.
  • Rasmussen FN. 2000. Ins and outs of orchid phylogeny. In: WilsonKL, MorrisonDA, eds. Monocots: systematics and evolution. Melbourne: CSIRO. 430435.
  • Reinhammar L-G. 1995. Evidence for two distinctive species of Pseudorchis (Orchidaceae) in Scandinavia. Nordic Journal of Botany 15: 469481.
  • Reinhammar L-G, Hedrén M. 1998. Allozyme differentiation between lowland and alpine populations of Pseudorchis albida s.lat. (Orchidaceae) in Sweden. Nordic Journal of Botany 18: 714.
  • Reinhammar L-G, Olsson EGA, Sørmeland E. 2002. Conservation biology of an endangered grassland plant species, Pseudorchis albida, with some references to the closely related alpine P. straminea (Orchidaceae). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 139: 4766.
  • Renz J. 1980. Entwicklungstendenzen bei den Orchidoideae: Einige Betrachtungen. Jahresberichte des naturwisschaftlichen Vereins in Wuppertal 33: 3543.
  • Ross-Craig S. 1971. Drawings of British plants XXVIII Hydrocharitaceae, Orchidaceae. London: Bell.
  • Rossi W, Corrias B, Arduino P, Cianchi R, Bullini L. 1994. Multilocus electrophoresis and European orchid systematics: the genus Orchis and related genera. In: PridgeonAM, ed. Proceedings of the 14th World Orchid Conference. Edinburgh: HMSO, 7883.
  • Rudall PJ, Bateman RM. 2002. Roles of synorganisation, zygomorphy and heterotopy in the evolution of flowers: the gynostemium and labellum of orchids and other lilioid monocots. Biological Reviews 77: 403441.
  • Rudall PJ, Bateman RM. 2003. Evolutionary change in flowers and inflorescences: evidence from naturally occurring angiosperm terata. Trends in Plant Science, 8: 7682.
  • Rydberg PA. 1901a. Studies on the Rocky Mountain flora. Part 5. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 28: 266284.
  • Rydberg PA. 1901b. The North American species of Limnorchis and Piperia, north of Mexico. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 28: 605643.
  • Salazar GA. 2003. Phylogeny and classification of Subtribe Spiranthinae (Orchidaceae, Orchidoideae). Unpublished PhD Thesis, University of London/Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Sanderson MJ. 1997. A nonparametric approach to estimating divergence times in the absence of rate constancy. Molecular Biology and Evolution 14: 12181231.
  • Schill R, Pfeiffer W. 1977. Untersuchungen an Orchideenpollinien unter besonderer Berücksichtigung ihrer Feinskulpturen. Pollen et Spores 19: 5118.
  • Schlechter R. 1918. Mitteilungen über einige Europäische und Mediterrane Orchideen 1. Feddes Repertorium 15: 273302.
  • Schlegel M, Steinbrück G, Hahn K, Röttger B. 1989. Interspecific relationship of ten European orchid species as revealed by enzyme electrophoresis. Plant Systematics and Evolution 163: 107119.
  • Sell PD, Murrell G. 1996. Flora of Great Britain and Ireland. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Simmons MP, Ochoterena H. 2000. Gaps as characters in sequence-based phylogenetic analyses. Systematic Biology 49: 369381.
  • Soliva M, Gautschi B, Salzmann C, Tenzer I, Widmer A. 2000. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite loci in the orchid Ophrys araneola (Orchidaceae) and a test of cross-species amplification. Molecular Ecology 9: 21782179.
  • Soliva M, Kocyan A, Widmer A. 2001. Molecular phylogenetics of the sexually deceptive orchid genus Ophrys (Orchidaceae) based on nuclear and chloroplast DNA sequences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 20: 7888.
  • Soltis DE, Soltis PS, Chase MW, & 13 co-authors. 2000. Angiosperm phylogeny inferred from 18S rDNA, rbcL and atpB sequences. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 133: 381461.
  • Soltis DE, Soltis PS, Doyle JJ. 1998. Molecular systematics of plants, 2nd edn. Amsterdam: Kluwer.
  • Von Soó R. 1974. The currently valid names and recent systematic position of species previously related to the genus Orchis in east and south-east Asia and in North America. Acta Botanica Academy of Sciences of Hungary Tomus 20: 340353.
  • Sprengel K. 1826. Caroli Linnaei Systema Vegetabilium 3. Gottingen: Dietrichian Library.
  • Stern WL. 1998. Vegetative anatomy of the subtribe Orchidinae (Orchidaceae). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 124: 121136.
  • Von Steven C. 1809. Decas plantarum nondum descriptarum Iberiae et Rossiae Meridionalis. Mémoires Societe Impériale Naturale Moscou 2: 175183.
  • Strack D, Busch E, Klein E. 1989. Anthocyanin patterns in European orchids and their taxonomic and phylogenetic relevance. Phytochemistry 28: 21272139.
  • Ströhlein H, Sundermann H. 1972. Chromosomenzählungen bei Erdorchideen. Jahresbericht naturwisschaften Vereins Wuppertal 25: 7580.
  • Suksdorf WN. 1906. Washingtonische pflanzen, 2. Allgemaine Botanische Zeitschrift für Systematik 12: 4243.
  • Summerhayes VS. 1955. A revision of the genus Brachycorythis. Kew Bulletin 10: 221264.
  • Sundermann H. 1972. Steveniella satyrioides (Steven) Schlechter, eine der seltensten Pflanzen der Welt. Orchidee 23: 247250.
  • Sundermann H. 1973. Himantoglossum (Loroglossum) hircinum–caprinum–calcaratum–affine. Acta Botanica Academia Scientifica Hungarica 19: 367374.
  • Sundermann H. 1980. Europäische und Mediterrane Orchideen – ein Bestimmungsflora, 3rd edn. Hildesheim: Schmersow.
  • Sundermann H, Von Der Bank C. 1977. Neue Beitrage zur Zytotaxonomie der Erdorchideen. II. Ophrys, Orchis, Neotinea, Steveniella und Gennaria. Orchideen 28: 167175.
  • Swofford DL. 2000. PAUP*: Phylogenetic Analysis Using Parsimony, Version 4.0 Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution.
  • Tali K, Kull T. 2001. Highly variable flowering time in Orchis ustulata: consequences for population dynamics. Nordic Journal of Botany 21: 457465.
  • Tanaka R. 1965. Chromosome numbers of some species of Orchidaceae from Japan and its neighbouring areas. Journal of Japanese Botany 40: 6577.
  • Temple W. 2001. Does DNA reveal all about the evolution of terrestrial orchids? Hardy Orchid Society Newsletter 19: 1215; 20: 7–12; 21: 10–14.
  • Teppner H, Klein E. 1985. Karyologie und Fortpflanzungsmodus von Nigritella (Orchidaceae–Orchideae), inkl. N. archiducis-joannis spec. nov. und zweier Neukombinationen. Phyton (Horn) 25: 147176.
  • Teppner H, Klein E. 1989. Gymnigritella runei spec. nova (Orchidaceae–Orchideae) aus Schweden. Phyton (Horn) 29: 161173.
  • Teppner H, Klein E. 1998. Etiam atque etiam –Nigritella versus Gymnadenia: Neukombinationen und Gymnadenia dolomitensis spec. nova (Orchidaceae: Orchideae). Phyton (Horn) 38: 220224.
  • Teschner W. 1980. Sippendifferenzierung und Bestäubung bei Himantoglossum Koch. Jahresbericht naturwisschaften Vereins Wuppertal 33: 104115.
  • Tichy H, Del Prete C. 2001. Chromosome numbers of European orchids: interpreting data. Journal Europäischer Orchideen 33: 217234.
  • Tyteca D. 2001. Systematics and biostatistics of Dactylorhiza in western Europe: some recent contributions. Journal Europäischer Orchideen 33: 179199.
  • Uphoff W. 1979. Anthocyanins in the flowers of European orchids. Experientia 35: 10131014.
  • Uphoff W. 1980. Anthocyane und Evolution der Europäischen orchideen. Jahresberichte naturwisschaftlichen Vereins in Wuppertal 33: 123135.
  • Vermeulen P. 1947. Studies on dactylorchids. Utrecht, Netherlands: Schotanus & Jens.
  • Vermeulen P. 1972. Übersicht zur Systematik und Taxonomie der Gattung Orchis s.str. Jahresberichte naturwisschaftlichen Vereins in Wuppertal 25: 2236.
  • Vermeulen P. 1977. Orchideeën, systematisch ingedeeld. In: LandwehrJ, ed. Wilde orchideeën van Europa. Amsterdam, 551557.
  • Vöth W. 1999. Die Verwandtschaft zwishen Aceras und Orchis. Journal Europäischer Orchideen 31: 263276.
  • Vöth W. 2000. Gymnadenia, Nigritella und ihre Bestäuber. Journal Europäischer Orchideen 32: 547573.
  • Widmer A, Cozzolino S, Pellegrino G, Soliva M, Dafni A. 2000. Molecular analysis of orchid pollinaria and pollinaria-remains found on insects. Molecular Ecology 9: 19111914.
  • Wildhaber OJ. 1972. Zur Karpologie von Orchis. Jahresberichte naturwisschaftlichen Vereins in Wuppertal 25: 6166.
  • Wucherpfennig W. 1999. Gedanken zu einer Neuordnung der  Gattung Orchis L.: Nachtrag. Journal Europäischer Orchideen 31: 329346.
  • Yokota M. 1987. Karyotypes and phylogeny in Orchidinae and allied subtribes. In: SaitoK, TanakaR, eds. Proceedings of the 12th World Orchid Conference 1987. Tokyo: 12th World Orchid Conference Organizing Committee, 7079.