• butterfly diversity;
  • chronosequence;
  • cutover land;
  • grassland;
  • Ogawa Forest Reserve;
  • old-growth forest;
  • secondary forest


Transect counts of butterflies were conducted in the northern part of Ibaraki, central Japan, from 1997 to 2001 at 11 census sites, composed of successive stages of deciduous forest development: grassland (one site, early abandoned stage); cutover land (one site, 1–5 years after clear-cutting); secondary forests (very young (two sites, 6–9 years), middle (two sites, 16–22 years) and old (two sites, 47–51 years)) and old-growth natural forests (three sites, ≥124 years old). A total of 86 species and 8858 individual butterflies were recorded by 29 sets (406 times) of transect counts. The species richness (number of species), abundance (number of individuals) and diversity indices (Shannon–Wiener H′ and Simpson's 1–λ) of butterflies were high in the early stages (grassland, cutover land and very young secondary forests) of secondary succession. Typical natural forest species increased with the progress of succession, and the old secondary forests and old-growth natural forests had similar species composition. In contrast, most of the typical natural grassland species were recorded only in the grassland site. In the cutover land site, the number of individuals of grassland species considerably decreased from the first to the second year; furthermore, only one typical natural grassland species was recorded. Thus, the suitable stage for grassland butterfly species lasts for only 1–2 years after clear-cutting. Old secondary forests (approximately>50 years old) would be able to give refuge to the forest butterfly species, including typical natural forest species. Based on the results, a practical, forestry-based plan to conserve butterfly diversity was proposed.