Aims To evaluate relapse prevention (relapse prevention) and contingency management (contingency management) for optimizing smoking cessation outcomes using nicotine replacement therapy for methadone-maintained tobacco smokers.
Design Experimental, 2 (relapse prevention)×2 (contingency management) repeated measures design using a platform of nicotine replacement therapy featuring a 2-week baseline period, followed by randomization to 12weeks of treatment, and 6- and 12-month follow-up visits.
Setting Three narcotic treatment centers in Los Angeles.
Participants One hundred and seventy-five participants who met all inclusion and no exclusion criteria.
Intervention Participants received 12weeks of nicotine replacement therapy and assignment to one of four conditions: patch-only, relapse prevention + patch, contingency management + patch and relapse prevention + contingency management + patch.
Measurements Thrice weekly samples of breath (analyzed for carbon monoxide) and urine (analyzed for metabolites of opiates and cocaine) and weekly self-reported numbers of cigarettes smoked.
Findings Participants (73.1%) completed 12weeks of treatment. During treatment, those assigned to receive contingency management showed statistically higher rates of smoking abstinence than those not assigned to receive contingencies (F3,4680=6.3, P=0.0003), with no similar effect observed for relapse prevention. At follow-up evaluations, there were no significant differences between conditions. Participants provided more opiate and cocaine-free urines during weeks when they met criteria for smoking abstinence than during weeks when they did not meet these criteria (F1,2054=14.38, P=0.0002; F1,2419=16.52, P<0.0001).
Conclusions Contingency management optimized outcomes using nicotine replacement therapy for reducing cigarette smoking during treatment for opiate dependence, although long-term effects are not generally maintained. Findings document strong associations between reductions in cigarette smoking and reductions in illicit substance use during treatment.