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Summary

Hydrophobins are small proteins thought to be ubiquitous in filamentous fungi. They are usually secreted and are found on the outer surfaces of cell walls of hyphae and conidia where they mediate interactions between the fungus and the environment. We review here what is currently known about the primary and secondary structure of these proteins, as well as their post-translational modifications. We also discuss the diverse functions of hydrophobins in biology and development, with particular attention to fungi involved in pathogenesis and symbiosis.