Identification of cytokinins produced by the plant parasitic nematodes Heterodera schachtii and Meloidogyne incognita

Authors

  • Jan De Meutter,

    1. Vakgroep Moleculaire Genetica, Departement Plantensysteembiologie, Vlaams Interuniversitair Instituut voor Biotechnologie (VIB), Universiteit Gent, K.L. Ledeganckstraat 35, B-9000 Gent, Belgium;
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      CropDesign NV, Technologiepark 3, B-9052 Gent, Belgium;
  • Tom Tytgat,

    1. Instituut voor Dierkunde, Universiteit Gent, K.L. Ledeganckstraat 35, B-9000 Gent, Belgium;
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  • Erwin Witters,

    1. Departement Biologie, Universiteit Antwerpen (UIA), Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Antwerpen, Belgium
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  • Greetje Gheysen,

    1. Vakgroep Moleculaire Genetica, Departement Plantensysteembiologie, Vlaams Interuniversitair Instituut voor Biotechnologie (VIB), Universiteit Gent, K.L. Ledeganckstraat 35, B-9000 Gent, Belgium;
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      ‡Vakgroep Moleculaire Biotechnologie, Faculteit Landbouwkundige en Toegepaste Biologische Wetenschappen, Universiteit Gent, Coupure links 653, B-9000 Gent, Belgium.
  • Henri Van Onckelen,

    1. Departement Biologie, Universiteit Antwerpen (UIA), Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Antwerpen, Belgium
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  • Godelieve Gheysen

    Corresponding author
    1. Vakgroep Moleculaire Genetica, Departement Plantensysteembiologie, Vlaams Interuniversitair Instituut voor Biotechnologie (VIB), Universiteit Gent, K.L. Ledeganckstraat 35, B-9000 Gent, Belgium;
    2. Departement Biologie, Universiteit Antwerpen (UIA), Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Antwerpen, Belgium
      Prof. G. Gheysen, Vakgroep Moleculaire Biotechnologie, Faculteit Landbouwkundige en Toegepaste Biologische Wetenschappen, Universiteit Gent, Coupure links 653, B-9000 Gent, Belgium. E-mail: godelieve.gheysen@UGent.be
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      ‡Vakgroep Moleculaire Biotechnologie, Faculteit Landbouwkundige en Toegepaste Biologische Wetenschappen, Universiteit Gent, Coupure links 653, B-9000 Gent, Belgium.

  • Present addresses: CropDesign NV, Technologiepark 3, B-9052 Gent, Belgium; ‡Vakgroep Moleculaire Biotechnologie, Faculteit Landbouwkundige en Toegepaste Biologische Wetenschappen, Universiteit Gent, Coupure links 653, B-9000 Gent, Belgium.

Prof. G. Gheysen, Vakgroep Moleculaire Biotechnologie, Faculteit Landbouwkundige en Toegepaste Biologische Wetenschappen, Universiteit Gent, Coupure links 653, B-9000 Gent, Belgium. E-mail: godelieve.gheysen@UGent.be

SUMMARY

The presence of different types of cytokinins was analysed in exudates and lysates of stage-2 juveniles of Heterodera schachtii and Meloidogyne incognita and in mixed stages of Caenorhabditis elegans. For all species, cytokinins were detected in lysates and exudates in which benzyladenine and zeatin-type cytokinins were the most prominent forms. The production of cytokinins by Meloidogyne was much higher than by Heterodera, and the detected levels were in a range which interfered with the physiological activities of the host plant. The presence of 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine hydrogen oxalate did not affect hormone production by H. schachtii, whereas resorcinol slightly stimulated hormone production by M. incognita. The exuded cytokinins may play a role in feeding site induction, more particularly in cell cycle activation and in establishing the feeding site as a nutrient sink.

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