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Keywords:

  • brain;
  • hypoglycaemia;
  • interleukin-6;
  • metabolism

Abstract

Aim: This study evaluated if the fatigue and apathy arising during exercise with hypoglycaemia could relate to a lowering of the cerebral metabolic rates of glucose and oxygen.

Methods and results: Six males completed 3 h of cycling with or without glucose supplementation in random order. Cerebral blood flow, metabolism and interleukin-6 (IL-6) release were evaluated with the Kety–Schmidt technique. Blood glucose was maintained during the glucose trial, while it decreased from 5.2 ± 0.1 to 2.9 ± 0.3 mmol L−1 (mean ± SE) after 180 min of exercise in the placebo trial with a concomitant increase in perceived exertion (P < 0.05). During hypoglycaemia, the cerebral glucose uptake was reduced from 0.34 ± 0.05 to 0.28 ± 0.04 μmol g−1 min−1, while the cerebral uptake of β-hydroxybutyrate increased to 5 ± 1 pmol g−1 min−1 (P < 0.05). The reduced glucose uptake was accompanied by a lowering of the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen from 1.84 ± 0.19 mmol g−1 min−1 during exercise with glucose supplementation to 1.60 ± 0.16 mmol g−1 min−1 during hypoglycaemia (P < 0.05). In addition, the cerebral IL-6 release was reduced from 0.4 ± 0.1 to 0.0 ± 0.1 pg g−1 min−1 (P < 0.05).

Conclusions: Exercise-induced hypoglycaemia limits the cerebral uptake of glucose, exacerbates exercise, reduces the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen and attenuates the release of IL-6 from the brain.