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The aim of this article is to determine, by reviewing the literature, whether treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia affects symptoms. Ten publications were identified through a computerized and manual literature search, and the percentage of patients with symptom improvement after successful or unsuccessful eradication therapy for H. pylori infection was calculated. In the 10 studies, symptom improvement after treatment was found in 73% of the patients that became H. pylori-negative and 45% of the patients that remained H. pylori-positive. Symptom improvement was modified by various clinical features and methodological aspects. If eradication of H. pylori failed, symptoms only improved over a short period. Symptom improvement was more pronounced in dyspeptic patients in whom H. pylori was eradicated than in those in whom H. pylori infection persisted.