SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • 1
    Gregory RA, Tracy HJ, French JM, Sircus W. Extraction of a gastrin-like substance from a pancreatic tumour in a case of Zollinger–Ellison Syndrome. Lancet 1960; 1: 10458.
  • 2
    Johnson LR, Guthrie P.D. Effect of secretin on colonic DNA synthesis. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1978; 158: 5213.
  • 3
    Seitz JF, Giovannini M, Gouvernet J, Gauthier AP. Elevated serum gastrin levels in patients with colorectal neoplasia. J Clin Gastroenterol 1991; 13(5): 5415.
  • 4
    Smith JP, Wood JG, Solomon TE. Elevated gastrin levels in patients with colon cancer or adenomatous polyps. Dig Dis Sci 1989; 34(2): 1714.
  • 5
    Wong K, Beardshall K, Waters CM, Calam J, Poston GJ. Postprandial hypergastrinaemia in patients with colorectal cancer. Gut 1991; 32(11): 13524.
  • 6
    Yapp R, Modlin IM, Kumar RR, Binder HJ, Dubrow R. Gastrin and colorectal cancer. Evidence against an association. Dig Dis Sci 1992; 37(4): 4814.
  • 7
    Suzuki H, Matsumoto K, Terashima H. Serum levels of gastrin in patients with colorectal neoplasia [see comments]. Dis Colon Rectum 1988; 31(9): 7167.
  • 8
    Kikendall JW, Glass AR, Sobin LH, Bowen PE. Serum gastrin is not higher in subjects with colonic neoplasia. Am J Gastroenterol 1992; 87(10): 13947.
  • 9
    Kochman ML, DelValle J, Dickinson CJ, Boland CR. Post-translational processing of gastrin in neoplastic human colonic tissues. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1992; 189(2): 11659.
  • 10
    Nemeth J, Taylor B, Pauwels S, Varro A, Dockray GJ. Identification of progastrin derived peptides in colorectal carcinoma extracts. Gut 1993; 34(1): 905.
  • 11
    Finley GG, Koski RA, Melhem MF, Pipas JM, Meisler AI. Expression of the gastrin gene in the normal human colon and colorectal adenocarcinoma. Cancer Res 1993; 53(12): 291926.
  • 12
    Ciccotosto GD, McLeish A, Hardy KJ, Shulkes A. Expression, processing, and secretion of gastrin in patients with colorectal carcinoma. Gastroenterology 1995; 109(4): 114253.
  • 13
    Van Solinge WW, Nielsen FC, Friis-Hansen L, Falkmer UG, Rehfeld JF. Expression but incomplete maturation of progastrin in colorectal carcinomas. Gastroenterology 1993; 104(4): 1099107.
  • 14
    Imdahl A, Mantamadiotis T, Eggstein S, Farthmann EH, Baldwin GS. Expression of gastrin, gastrin/CCK-B and gastrin/CCK-C receptors in human colorectal carcinomas. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 1995; 121(11): 6616.
  • 15
    Upp JRJr, Singh P, Townsend CMJr, Thompson JC. Clinical significance of gastrin receptors in human colon cancers. Cancer Res 1989; 49(2): 48892.
  • 16
    Reubi JC, Schaer JC, WaSeries B. Cholecystokinin (CCK)-A and CCK-B/gastrin receptors in human tumors. Cancer Res 1997; 57(7): 137786.
  • 17
    Matsushima Y, Kinoshita Y, Nakata H, et al. Gastrin receptor gene expression in several human carcinomas. Jpn J Cancer Res 1994; 85(8): 81924.
  • 18
    Okhura H, Hanafusa K, Marayama K, Kitoaka H, Watanabe S, Kameya T. Gastrin enhanced tumour growth of a xenotransplantable human gastric carcinoma in nude mice. Jpn J Clin Oncol 1980; 10: 25561.
  • 19
    Winsett OE, Townsend CMJr, Glass EJ, Thompson JC. Gastrin stimulates growth of colon cancer. Surgery 1986; 99(3): 3027.
  • 20
    Sumiyoshi H, Yasui W, Ochiai A, Tahara E. Effects of gastrin on tumor growth and cyclic nucleotide metabolism in xenotransplantable human gastric and colonic carcinomas in nude mice. Cancer Res 1984; 44(10): 427680.
  • 21
    Watson S, Durrant L, Morris D. Gastrin: growth enhancing effects on human gastric and colonic tumour cells. Br J Cancer 1989; 59(4): 5548.
  • 22
    Hoosein NM, Kiener PA, Curry RC, Rovati LC, McGilbra DK, Brattain MG. Antiproliferative effects of gastrin receptor antagonists and antibodies to gastrin on human colon carcinoma cell lines. Cancer Res 1988; 48(24 Part 1): 717983.
  • 23
    Lund T, Geurts van Kessel AH, Haun S, Dixon JE. The genes for human gastrin and cholecystokinin are located on different chromosomes. Human Genet 1986; 73(1): 7780.
  • 24
    Wiborg O, Berglund L, Boel E, et al. Structure of a human gastrin gene. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 1984; 81(4): 10679.
  • 25
    Walter P, Gilmore R, Blobel G. Protein translocation across the endoplasmic reticulum. Cell 1984; 38: 58.
  • 26
    Burgess T, Kelly R. Constitutive and regulated secretion of proteins. Annu Rev Cell Biol 1987; 3: 24393.
  • 27
    Calam J, Dockray GJ, Walker R, Tracy HJ, Owens D. Molecular forms of gastrin in peptic ulcer: comparison of serum and tissue concentrations of G17 and G34 in gastric and duodenal ulcer subjects. Eur J Clin Invest 1980; 10(3): 2417.
  • 28
    Dickinson CJ, Daugherty D, Guo YJ, Hughes P, Yamada T. Molecular analysis of dibasic endoproteolytic cleavage signals. J Biol Chem 1992; 267(30): 21795801 [published erratum appears in J Biol Chem Mar 1993; 5;268(7): 5340].
  • 29
    Dickinson CJ, Sawada M, Guo YJ, Finniss S, Yamada T. Specificity of prohormone convertase endoproteolysis of progastrin in AtT-20 cells. J Clin Invest 1995; 96(3): 142531.
  • 30
    Marino LR, Takeuchi T, Dickinson CJ, Yamada T. Expression and post-translational processing of gastrin in heterologous endocrine cells. J Biol Chem 1991; 266(10): 61336.
  • 31
    Scopsi L, Gullo M, Rilke F, Martin S, Steiner DF. Proprotein convertases (PC1/PC3 and PC2) in normal and neoplastic human tissues: their use as markers of neuroendocrine differentiation. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1995; 80(1): 294301.
  • 32
    Dickinson CJ, Yamada T. Gastrin-amidating enzyme in the porcine pituitary and antrum. Characterization of molecular forms and substrate specificity. J Biol Chem 1991; 266(1): 3348.
  • 33
    Bradbury A, Finnie M, Smyth D. Mechanism of C-terminal amide formation by pituitary enzymes. Nature 1982; 298: 6868.
  • 34
    Dickinson CJ, Takeuchi T, Guo YJ, Stadler BT, Yamada T. Expression and processing of prohormones in nonendocrine cells. Am J Physiol 1993; 264(3 Part 1): G55360.
  • 35
    Ochiai A, Yasui W, Tahara E. Growth-promoting effect of gastrin on human gastric carcinoma cell line TMK-1. Japn J Cancer Res 1985; 76(11): 106471.
  • 36
    McRae LJ, Kieng PA, Catina JJ. Role of gastrin and gastrin receptors in the growth of human colon carcinoma cells. J Cell Biol 1986; 103: 220220.
  • 37
    Kobori O, Vuillot MT, Martin F. Growth response of rat stomach cancer cells to gastro- entero-pancreatic hormones. Int J Cancer 1982; 30: 657.
  • 38
    Watson SA, Durrant LG, Morris DL. Growth-promoting action of gastrin on human colonic and gastric tumour cells cultured in vitro. Br J Surg 1988; 75(4): 3425.
  • 39
    Sirinek KR, Levine BA, Moyer MP. Pentagastrin stimulates in vitro growth of normal and malignant human colon epithelial cells. Am J Surg 1985; 149(1): 359.
  • 40
    Moyer MP, Armstrong A, Aust JB, Levine BA, Sirinek KR. Effects of gastrin, glutamine, and somatostatin on the in vitro growth of normal and malignant human gastric mucosal cells. Arch Surg 1986; 121(3): 2858.
  • 41
    Kelly RG. Pathways of protein secretion in eukaryotes. Science 1985; 230: 2531.
  • 42
    Varro A, Henry J, Vaillant C, Dockray GJ. Discrimination between temperature- and brefeldin A-sensitive steps in the sulfation, phosphorylation, and cleavage of progastrin and its derivatives. J Biol Chem 1994; 269(32): 2076470.
  • 43
    Hoosein NM, Kiener PA, Curry RC, Brattain MG. Evidence for autocrine growth stimulation of cultured colon tumor cells by a gastrin/cholecystokinin-like peptide. Exp Cell Res 1990; 186(1): 1521.
  • 44
    Watson SA, Durrant LG, Wencyk PM, Watson AL, Morris DL. Intracellular gastrin in human gastrointestinal tumor cells. J Nat Cancer Inst 1991; 83(12): 86671.
  • 45
    Hilsted L, Hint K, Christiansen J, Rehfeld JF. Neither glycine-extended gastrin nor the 1–13 fragment of gastrin 17 influences gastric acid secretion in humans. Gastroenterology 1988; 94(1): 96102.
  • 46
    Matsumoto M, Park J, Sugano K, Yamada T. Biological activity of progastrin posttranslational processing intermediates. Am J Physiology 1987; 252(3 Part 1): G3159.
  • 47
    DelValle J, Sugano K, Yamada T. Progastrin and its glycine-extended post-translational processing intermediates in human gastrointestinal tissues. Gastroenterology 1987; 97: 115963.
  • 48
    DelValle J, Sugano K, Yamada T. Glycine-extended processing intermediates of gastrin and cholecystokinin in human plasma. Gastroenterology 1989; 97(5): 115963.
  • 49
    Sugano K, Aponte GW, Yamada T. Identification and characterization of glycine-extended post-translational processing intermediates of progastrin in porcine stomach. J Biol Chem 1985; 260(21): 117249.
  • 50
    Sugano K, Park J, Dobbins WO, Yamada T. Glycine-extended progastrin processing intermediates: accumulation and cosecretion with gastrin. Am J Physiol 1987; 253(4 Part 1): G5027.
  • 51
    Pauwels S, Desmond H, Dimaline R, Dockray GJ. Identification of progastrin in gastrinomas, antrum, and duodenum by a novel radioimmunoassay. J Clin Invest 1986; 77(2): 37681.
  • 52
    Varro A, Voronina S, Dockray GJ. Pathways of processing of the gastrin precursor in rat antral mucosa. J Clin Invest 1995; 95(4): 16429.
  • 53
    Dickinson CJ, Marino L, Yamada T. Inhibition of the alpha-amidation of gastrin: effects on gastric acid secretion. Am J Physiol 1990; 258(5 Part 1): G8104.
  • 54
    Higashide S, Gomez G, Greeley GHJr, Townsend CMJr, Thompson JC. Glycine-extended gastrin potentiates gastrin-stimulated gastric acid secretion in rats. Am J Physiol 1996; 270(1 Part 1): G2204.
  • 55
    Kaise M, Muraoka A, Seva C, Takeda H, Dickinson C, Yamada T. Glycine-extended progastrin processing intermediates induce H+,K(+)-ATPase alpha-subunit gene expression through a novel receptor. J Biol Chem 1995; 270(19): 1115560.
  • 56
    Seva C, Dickinson CJ, Yamada T. Growth-promoting effects of glycine-extended progastrin. Science 1994; 265(5170): 4102.
  • 57
    Negre F, Fagot-Revurat P, Bouisson M, Rehfeld JF, Vaysse N, Pradayrol L. Autocrine stimulation of AR4-2J rat pancreatic tumor cell growth by glycine-extended gastrin. Int J Cancer 1996; 66(5): 6538.
  • 58
    Negre J, Fagot Revurat P, Vaysse N, Rehfeld JF, Pradayrol L. Progastrin induced autocrine/intracrine proliferative effects on pancreatic tumoral cells (AR42J). Gastroenterology 1994; 265: 4102.
  • 59
    Stepan VM, Sawada M, Yamada T, Dickinson CJ. Glycine-extended gastrin exerts growth-promoting effects on colon cancer cell lines. Gastroenterology 1996; 110(4): A1122A1122(Abstract).
  • 60
    Koh TJ, Dockray GJ, Varro A, et al. Overexpression of glycine-extended gastrin in transgenic mice results in increased colonic proliferation. J Clin Invest 1999; 103(8): 111926.
  • 61
    Wang TC, Koh TJ, Varro A, et al. Processing and proliferative effects of human progastrin in transgenic mice. J Clin Invest 1996; 98(8): 191829.
  • 62
    Baldwin GS. Gastrin receptor structure. In: Walsh JH, ed. Gastrin. New York: Raven, 1993: 195–207.
  • 63
    Pisegna JR, De Weerth A, Huppi K, Wank SA. Molecular cloning of the human brain and gastric cholecystokinin receptor: structure, functional expression and chromosomal localization. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1992; 189(1): 296303.
  • 64
    Lee YM, Beinborn M, McBride EW, Lu M, Kolakowski LFJr, Kopin AS. The human brain cholecystokinin-B/gastrin receptor. Cloning and characterization. J Biol Chem 1993; 268(11): 81649.
  • 65
    Miyake A, Mochizuki S, Kawashima H. Characterization of cloned human cholecystokinin-B receptor as a gastrin receptor. Biochem Pharmacol 1994; 47(8): 133943.
  • 66
    Silvente-Poirot S, Wank SA. A segment of five amino acids in the second extracellular loop of the cholecystokinin-B receptor is essential for selectivity of the peptide agonist gastrin. J Biol Chem 1996; 271(25): 14698706.
  • 67
    Watson S, Clarke P, Varro A, et al. Expression of gastrin/CCKB receptor isoforms in gastrointestinal tumour cells: Relationship to gastrin secretion. Proc AACR 1997; 38: 116116.
  • 68
    Song I, Brown DR, Wiltshire RN, Gantz I, Trent JM, Yamada T. The human gastrin/cholecystokinin type B receptor gene: alternative splice donor site in exon 4 generates two variant mRNAs. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 1993; 90(19): 90859.
  • 69
    Ohtaki T, Park I, Song I, et al. Short and long isoforms of the human CCKB receptor couple to post receptor signalling in a differential manner. Gastroenterology 1996; 110(4): A1104A1104(Abstract).
  • 70
    Ito M, Iwata N, Taniguchi T, Murayama T, Chihara K, Matsui T. Functional characterization of two cholecystokinin-B/gastrin receptor isoforms: a preferential splice donor site in the human receptor gene. Cell Growth Diff 1994; 5(10): 112735.
  • 71
    Biagini P, Monges G, Vuaroqueaux V, Parriaux D, Cantaloube J, De Micco P. The human gastrin/Cholecystokinin receptors: type B and type C expression in colonic tumours and cell lines. Life Sci 1997; 61(10): 100918.
  • 72
    Wank SA, Pisegna JR, Poirot SS. Fuctional significance of potential splice variants of the human cholecysyokinin CCKB receptor. Gastroenterology 1994; 106: A570A570(Abstract).
  • 73
    Miyake A. A truncated isoform of human CCK-B/gastrin receptor generated by alternative usage of a novel exon. Biochem Biophy Res Commun 1995; 208(1): 2307.
  • 74
    McWilliams DF, Watson SA, Crosbee DM, Michaeli D, Seth R. Coexpression of gastrin and gastrin receptors (CCK-B and delta CCK-B) in gastrointestinal tumour cell lines. Gut 1998; 42(6): 7958.
  • 75
    Weinstock J, Baldwin GS. Binding of gastrin (17) to human gastric carcinoma cell lines. Cancer Res 1988; 48(4): 9327.
  • 76
    Baldwin GS. Antiproliferative gastrin/cholecystokinin receptor antagonists target the 78-kDa gastrin-binding protein. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 1994; 91(16): 75937.
  • 77
    Baldwin GS. Binding of progastrin fragments to the 78 kDa gastrin-binding protein. FEBS Lett 1995; 359(1): 97100.
  • 78
    Baldwin GS, Chandler R, Scanlon DB, Weinstock J. Identification of a gastrin binding protein in porcine gastric mucosal membranes by covalent cross-linking with iodinated gastrin. J Biol Chem 1986; 261(26): 122527.
  • 79
    Baldwin GS. Comparison of sequences of the 78 kDa gastrin-binding protein and some enzymes involved in fatty acid oxidation. Comp Biochem Physiol B Comp Biochem 1993; 104(1): 5561.
  • 80
    Monstein HJ, Nylander AG, Hakanson R. Widespread tissue expression of gastrin-binding-protein mRNA. Eur J Biochem 1997; 246(2): 5027.
  • 81
    Singh P, Xu Z, Dai B, Rajaraman S, Rubin N, Dhruva B. Incomplete processing of progastrin expressed by human colon cancer cells: role of noncarboxyamidated gastrins. Am J Physiol 1994; 266(3 Part 1): G45968.
  • 82
    Singh P, Owlia A, Espeijo R, Dai B. Novel gastrin receptors mediate mitogenic effects of gastrin and processing intermediates of gastrin on Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts. Absence of detectable cholecystokinin (CCK)-A and CCK-B receptors. J Biol Chem 1995; 270(15): 842938.
  • 83
    Seva C, Dickinson CJ, Sawada M, Yamada T. Characterisation of the glycine-extended gastrin (G-gly) receptor on AR42J cells. Gastroenterology 1995; A742A742(Abstract).
  • 84
    Seva C, Kowalski-Chauvel A, Blanchet JS, Vaysse N, Pradayrol L. Gastrin induces tyrosine phosphorylation of Shc proteins and their association with the Grb2/Sos complex. FEBS Lett 1996; 378(1): 748.
  • 85
    Todisco A, Takeuchi Y, Urumov A, Yamada J, Stepan VM, Yamada T. Molecular mechanisms for the growth factor action of gastrin. Am J Physiol 1997; 273(4 Part 1): G8918.
  • 86
    Tarasova NI, Wank SA, Hudson EA, et al. Endocytosis of gastrin in cancer cells expressing gastrin/CCK-B receptor. Cell Tissue Res 1997; 287(2): 32533.
  • 87
    Caplin M, Khan K, Michaeli D, et al. Nuclear expression of an epitope of the CCK-B/gastrin receptor. Gastroenterology 1997; 112: 1136A1136A.
  • 88
    Miyazaki Y, Shinomura Y, Tsutsui S, et al. Gastrin induces heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor in rat gastric epithelial cells transfected with gastrin receptor. Gastroenterology 1999; 116(1): 7889.
  • 89
    Fukui H, Kinoshita Y, Maekawa T, et al. Regenerating gene protein may mediate gastric mucosal proliferation induced by hypergastrinemia in rats. Gastroenterology 1998; 115(6): 148393.
  • 90
    Merchant JL, Shiotani A, Mortensen ER, Shumaker DK, Abraczinskas DR. Epidermal growth factor stimulation of the human gastrin promoter requires Sp1. J Biol Chem 1995; 270(11): 63149.
  • 91
    Godley JM, Brand SJ. Regulation of the gastrin promoter by epidermal growth factor and neuropeptides. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 1989; 86(9): 303640.
  • 92
    Howell GM, Ziober BL, Humphrey LE, et al. Regulation of autocrine gastrin expression by the TGF alpha autocrine loop. J Cellular Physiol 1995; 162(2): 25665.
  • 93
    Nakata H, Wang SL, Chung DC, Westwick JK, Tillotson LG. Oncogenic ras induces gastrin gene expression in colon cancer. Gastroenterology 1998; 115(5): 114453.
  • 94
    Smith AM, Clarke P, Griffin N, Varro A, Hardcastle JD, Watson SA. Gastrin gene activation an early event in gastrointestinal tumorigenesis. Br J Surg 1997; 84: 706706.
  • 95
    Smith A, Watson SA, Coaker J, Clarke P, Mathers JC, Fodde R, Varro A, Hardcastle JD. Gastrin precursors are present in adenomas in the mouse polyposis coli model APC1638N. Gut 1996; 39(Suppl. 1): A22A22(Abstract).
  • 96
    Fearon ER, Vogelstein B. A genetic model for colorectal tumorigenesis. Cell 1990; 61: 75967.
  • 97
    He T-C, Sparks AB, Rago C, et al. Identification of c-MYC as a target of the APC pathway. Science 1998; 281(4 September): 15091512.
  • 98
    McGuigan JE, Trudeau WL. Serum gastrin concentrations in pernicious anemia. N Engl J Med 1970; 282(7): 35861.
  • 99
    Dockray GJ, Walsh JH, Passaro E. Relative abundance of big and little gastrins in the tumours and blood of patients with the Zollinger Ellison syndrome. Gut 1975; 16(5): 3538.
  • 100
    Creutzfeldt W, Arnold R, Creutzfeldt C, Track NS. Pathomorphologic, biochemical, and diagnostic aspects of gastrinomas (Zollinger–Ellison syndrome). Human Pathol 1975; 6(1): 4776.
  • 101
    Beardshall K, Moss S, Gill J, et al. Suppression of Helicobacter pylori reduces gastrin releasing peptide stimulated gastrin release in duodenal ulcer patients. Gut 1992; 33(5): 6013.
  • 102
    McColl KE, Fullarton GM, Chittajalu R, et al. Plasma gastrin, daytime intragastric pH, and nocturnal acid output before and at 1 and 7 months after eradication of Helicobacter pylori in duodenal ulcer subjects. Scand J Gastroenterol 1991; 26(3): 33946.
  • 103
    Graham DY, Opekun A, Lew GM, Klein PD, Walsh JH. Helicobacter pylori-associated exaggerated gastrin release in duodenal ulcer patients. The effect of bombesin infusion and urea ingestion. Gastroenterology 1991; 100(6): 15715.
  • 104
    Smith JT, Pounder RE, Nwokolo CU, et al. Inappropriate hypergastrinaemia in asymptomatic healthy subjects infected with Helicobacter pylori. Gut 1990; 31(5): 5225.
  • 105
    Penman ID, El-Omar E, Ardill JE, et al. Plasma gastrin concentrations are normal in patients with colorectal neoplasia and unaltered following tumor resection [see comments]. Gastroenterology 1994; 106(5): 126370.
  • 106
    Talley NJ, Chute CG, Larson DE, Epstein R, Lydick EG, Melton L. Risk for colorectal adenocarcinoma in pernicious anemia. A population-based cohort study [see comments]. Ann Int Med 1989; 111(9): 73842.
  • 107
    Elsborg L, Mosbech J. Pernicious anaemia as a risk factor in gastric cancer. Acta Med Scandinavica 1979; 206(4): 3158.
  • 108
    Brinton LA, Gridley G, Hrubec Z, Hoover R, Fraumeni JF. Cancer risk following pernicious anaemia. Br J Cancer 1989; 59(5): 8103.
  • 109
    Thorburn CM, Friedman GD, Dickinson CJ, Vogelman JH, Orentreich N, Parsonnet J. Gastrin and colorectal cancer: a prospective study. Gastroenterology 1998; 115(2): 27580.
  • 110
    Koh T, Goldenring J, Ito S, et al. Gastrin deficiency results in altered gastric differentiation and decreased colonic proliferation in mice. Gastroenterology 1997; 113: 101525.
  • 111
    Smith AM, Morris T, Rowlands BJ, Watson SA. Helicobacter pylori and omeprazole induced hypergastrinaemia promote colorectal carcinogenesis. Br J Surg 1999; 86(Suppl. 1):.
  • 112
    Renga M, Brandi G, Paganelli G, et al. Rectal cell proliferation and colon cancer risk in patients with hypergastrinaemia. Gut 1997; 41: 3302.
  • 113
    Lipkin M, Blattner W, Fraumeni JJ, Lynch H, Deschner E, Winawer S. Tritiated thymidine labeling distribution as a marker for heriditary predisposition to colon cancer. Cancer Res 1983; 43: 1899904.
  • 114
    Biasco G, Paganelli G, Miglioli M, Brillanti S, Di Febo G, Gizzi G. Rectal cell proliferation and colon cancer risk in ulcerative colitis. Cancer Res 1990; 50: 11569.
  • 115
    Sobhani I, Lehy T, Laurent-Puig P, Cadiot G, Ruszniewski P, Mignon M. Chronic endogenous hypergastrinemia in humans: evidence for a mitogenic effect on the colonic mucosa. Gastroenterology 1993; 105(1): 2230.
  • 116
    Rovati A. The relationship between chemical structure of a new dicarboxylic amino acid derivative and anti-gastrin activity in the rat. Br J Pharmacol 1968; 34: 67782.
  • 117
    Yuki H, Nishida A, Miyake A, et al. YM022, a potent and selective gastrin/CCK-B receptor antagonist, inhibits peptone meal-induced gastric acid secretion in Heidenhain pouch dogs. Dig Dis Sci 1997; 42(4): 70714.
  • 118
    Takinami Y, Yuki H, Nishida A, et al. YF476 is a new potent and selective gastrin/cholecystokinin-B receptor antagonist in vitro and in vivo. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 1997; 11(1): 11320.
  • 119
    Watson SA, Crosbee DM, Morris DL, et al. Therapeutic effect of the gastrin receptor antagonist, CR2093 on gastrointestinal tumour cell growth. Br J Cancer 1992; 65(6): 87983.
  • 120
    Watson SA, Morris DL, Durrant LG, Robertson JF, Hardcastle JD. Inhibition of gastrin-stimulated growth of gastrointestinal tumour cells by octreotide and the gastrin/cholecystokinin receptor antagonists, proglumide and lorglumide. Eur J Cancer 1992; 28A(8–9): 14627.
  • 121
    Watson S, Durrant L, Elston P, Morris D. Inhibitory effects of the gastrin receptor antagonist (L-365,260) on gastrointestinal tumor cells. Cancer 1991; 68(6): 125560.
  • 122
    Seva C, De Vries L, Scemama JL, et al. Gastrin modulates growth of a rat acinar pancreatic cell line: receptor analysis and signal transduction. Digestion 1990; 46(Suppl. 2): 1669.
  • 123
    Piontek MK, Hengels KJ. Differential mode of action of high- and low-affinity CCK/gastrin receptor antagonists in growth inhibition of gastrin – responsive human gastric adenocarcinoma cells in vitro. Anticancer Res 1993; 13(3): 71520.
  • 124
    Harrison JD, Jones JA, Morris DL. The effect of the gastrin receptor antagonist proglumide on survival in gastric carcinoma. Cancer 1990; 66(7): 144952.
  • 125
    Morris DL, Charnley RM, Ballantyne KC, Jones J. A pilot randomized control trial of proglumide (a gastrin receptor antagonist) in advanced colorectal cancer. Eur J Surg Oncol 1990; 16(5): 4235.
  • 126
    DelValle J, Yamada T. Amino acids and amines stimulate gastrin release from canine antral G-cells via different pathways. J Clin Invest 1990; 85(1): 13943.
  • 127
    Brand SJ, Stone D. Reciprocal regulation of antral gastrin and somatostatin gene expression by omeprazole-induced achlorhydria. J Clin Invest 1988; 82(3): 105966.
  • 128
    Reubi JC, Laissue J, Wasr B, Horisberger U, Schaer JC. Expression of somatostatin receptors in normal, inflamed and neoplastic human gastrointestinal tissues. Ann NY Acad Sci 1994; 73: 1222137.
  • 129
    Laws SAM, Gough AC, Bains MA., Primrose, JN. The distribution of somatostatin subtypes in normal and malignant colonic epithelium. Gut 1995; 37(Suppl 2): A36A36(Abstract).
  • 130
    Bauer W, Briner U, Doefner W, et al. SMS 201-995: a very potent and selective octapeptide analogue of somatostatin with prolonged action. Life Sci 1982; 31: 113340.
  • 131
    Schally AV. Oncological applications of somatostatin canalogues. Cancer Res 1988; 48: 697785.
  • 132
    Liebovitz P, Finley GG, Melhem M, Dagnal E, Meisler AI. The role of gastrin in colorectal cancer cell lines. AACR Proc 1994; 35: 4242.
  • 133
    Dy D, Whjiehead RH, Morris DL. Sms 201–995 inhibits in vitro and in vivo growth of human colonic cancer. Cancer Res 1992; 52: 91723.
  • 134
    Watson SA, Morris DL, Durrant LG, Robertson JF, Hardcastle JD. Inhibition of gastrin-stimulated growth of gastrointestinal tumour cells by octreotide and the gastrin/cholecystokinin receptor antagonists, proglumide and lorglumide. Eur J Cancer 1992; 28A: 14627.
  • 135
    Radulovic S, Comaruschally AM, Milovanovic S, Schally AV. Somatostatin analogue RC-160 and LH-RH antagonist SB-75 inhibit growth of MIA PACA-2 human pancreatic cancer xenografts in nude mice. Pancreas 1993; 8: 8897.
  • 136
    Qin Y, Schally AV, Willems G. Treatment of liver metastases of human colon cancers in nude mice with somatostatin analogue RC-160. Int J Cancer 1992; 52: 7916.
  • 137
    Watson SA, Morris TM, Crosbee DM, Steele RJC, Hardcastle JD. The somatostatin analogue, RC-160 inhibits hepatic invasion by a human colonic xenograft. Br Ass Surg Oncol 1994 (Abstract).
  • 138
    Smith JP, Doll D, Croitoru R, Thornton C, Perry MC. Octreotide has no effect on advanced cancer. J Clin Gastroenterol 1994; 18: 25447.
  • 139
    Ebert M, Freiss H, Beger HG, Buchler MW. Role of octreotide in the treatment of pancreatic cancer. Digestion 1994; 55: 4851.
  • 140
    Freiss H, Buchler M, Ebert M, Malfertheiner P, Dennler JH, Beger HG. Treatment of advanced pancreatic cancer with high dose octrotide. Int J Pancreatology 1993; 14: 2901.
  • 141
    Poston GJ. Somatostatin and the treatment of pancreatic cancer. Ann Thr Royal Coll Surg Eng 1994; 76: 1724.
  • 142
    Garner A, Hampson SE, Stanier AM, Curry BJ, Valcaccia BE, Woodburn JR, et al. Effect of inhibition of endogenous gastrin on growth of intestinal tumours. Gut 1992; 33: S63S63.
  • 143
    Watson SA, Michaeli D, Morris TM, Robinson G, Hardcastle JD. Gastrimmune inhibits the primary and secondary growth of 2 rat colon carcinomas. Procs AACR 1994; 35: 257257.
  • 144
    Makishima R, Larkin D, Michaeli D, Gaginella TS. Active immunisation against gastrin-17 with an N-terminal derived immunogen inhibits gastric and duodenal lesions in rats. Gastroenterology 1995; 106: A824A824(Abstract).
  • 145
    Justin T, Watson S, Michaeli D, Hardcastle J, Steele R. Gastric acid supression using anti-gastrin17 antibodies produced by a gastrin immunogen, Gastrimmune, in an in vivo pig model. Gastroenteology 1995; 108(4): A125A125(Abstract).
  • 146
    Watson SA, Michaeli D, Grimes S, et al. Anti-gastrin antibodies raised by gastrimmune inhibit growth of the human colorectal tumour AP5. Int J Cancer 1995; 61(2): 23340.
  • 147
    Watson SA, Morris TM, Robinson G, Varro A, Michaeli D. Therapeutic effects of anti-gastrin antibodies raised by Gastrimmune on a human gastric cancer ascites line, MGLVA1. Procs AACR 1995; 36: 253253.
  • 148
    Watson SA, Michaeli D, Grimes S, et al. Gastrimmune raises antibodies that neutralise amidated and glycine-extended gastrin-17 and inhibit the growth of colon cancer. Cancer Res 1996; 56: 8805.
  • 149
    Smith A, Justin T, Watson SA, Michaeli D, Broome P, Maxwell-Armstrong C. Clinical outcome of advanced colorectal cancer patients treated with the anti-gastrin immunogen, Gastrimmune. Br J Surg 1998; 85: 15561556.
  • 150
    Caygill CP, Leach SA, Kirkham JS, Northfield TC, Hall CN, Hill HJ. IARC Scientific Publications1987; 84: 5246.