• 1
    Kirsner J & Spencer J. Familial occurrences of ulcerative colitis, regional enteritis and ileocolitis. Ann Intern Med 1963; 59: 13344.
  • 2
    International human genome sequencing consortium. Initial sequencing and analysis of the human genome. Nature 2001; 409 (6822): 860921.
  • 3
    Venter JC, Adams ME, Myers EW, et al. The sequence of the human genome. Science 2001; 5507: 130451.
  • 4
    Sachar DB, Andrews HA, Farmer RG, et al. Proposed classification of patient subgroups in Crohn’s disease. Gastroenterol Int 1992; 5: 14154.
  • 5
    Hattersley A. Maturity-onset diabetes of the young: clinical heterogeneity explained by genetic heterogeneity. Diabetic Med 1998; 15: 1524.DOI: 10.1002/(sici)1096-9136(199801)15:1<15::aid-dia562>;2-m
  • 6
    Hattersley A. Can molecular genetics help in the clinic? Diabetic Med 1999; 16: 77992.
  • 7
    Roussomoustakaki M, Satsangi J, Welsh K, et al. Genetic markers may predict disease behaviour in patients with ulcerative colitis. Gastroenterology 1997; 112: 184553.
  • 8
    Bouma G, Crusius JB, Garcia-Gonzalez MA, et al. Genetic markers in clinically well defined patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). Clin Exp Immunol 1999; 115: 294300.DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-2249.1999.00797.x
  • 9
    Simmons J, Hoare A, Mcintyre A, Bunce M, Welsh K, Jewell D. Replication of HLA–DR associations with disease extent and severity in ulcerative colitis. Gut 2000; 46(Suppl. 11): A7A7(Abstract).
  • 10
    Brentnall TA, Rubin CE, Crispin DA, et al. A germ line substitution in the human MSH2 gene is associated with high-grade dysplasia and cancer in ulcerative colitis. Gastroenterology 1995; 109: 1515.
  • 11
    Tysk C, Lindberg E, Järnerot G, Flodérus-Myrhed B. Ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease in an unselected population of monozygotic and dizygotic twins. A study of heritability and the influence of smoking. Gut 1988; 29: 9906.
  • 12
    Orholm M, Binder V, Sorensen T, Kyvik K. Inflammatory bowel disease in a Danish twin register. Gut 1996; 39(Suppl. 3): A187A187(Abstract).
  • 13
    Thompson NP, Driscoll R, Pounder RE, Wakefield AJ. Genetics versus environment in inflammatory bowel disease: results of a British twin study. Br Med J 1996; 312: 956.
  • 14
    Subhani J, Montgomery S, Pounder R, Wakefield A. Concordance rates of twins and siblings in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Gut 1998; 42(Suppl. 1): A40A40(Abstract).
  • 15
    Sandler R. Epidemiology of inflammatory bowel disease. In: Targan S, Shanahan F, eds. Inflammatory Bowel Disease: from Bench to Bedside. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1994: 5–30.
  • 16
    Roth MP, Petersen GM, McElree C, Feldman E, Rotter JI. Geographic origins of Jewish patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Gastroenterology 1989; 97: 9004.
  • 17
    Farmer RG, Michener WM, Mortimer EA. Studies of family history among patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Clin Gastroenterol 1980; 9: 2717.
  • 18
    Mayberry JF, Rhodes J, Newcombe RG. Familial prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease in relatives of patients with Crohn’s disease. Br Med J 1980; 280: 8484.
  • 19
    Korelitz BI. Epidemiological evidence for a hereditary component in Crohn’s disease. In: Pena AS, Weterman IT, Booth CC, Strober W, eds. Recent Advances in Crohn’s Disease. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1981: 208–12.
  • 20
    Weterman I & Pena A. Familial incidence of Crohn’s disease in the Netherlands and a review of the literature. Gastroenterology 1984; 86: 44952.
  • 21
    Lashner B, Evans A, Kirsner J, Hanauer S. Prevalence and incidence of inflammatory bowel disease in family members. Gastroenterology 1986; 9: 2717.
  • 22
    Monsen U, Brostrom O, Nordenvadl B, Sorstad J, Hellers G. Prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease among relatives of patients with ulcerative colitis. Scand J Gastroenterol 1987; 22: 2148.
  • 23
    Satsangi J, Rosenberg WMC, Jewell DP. The prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease in relatives of patients with Crohn’s disease. Euro J Gastroenterol Hepatol 1994; 6: 4136.
  • 24
    Peeters M, Nevens H, Baert F, et al. Familial aggregation in Crohn’s disease: increased age adjusted risk and concordance in clinical characteristics. Gastroenterology 1996; 111: 597603.
  • 25
    Polito JM, Childs B, Mellits D, Tokayer AZ, Harris ML, Bayless TM. Crohn’s disease: influence of age at diagnosis on site and clinical type of disease. Gastroenterology 1996; 111: 5806.
  • 26
    Carbonnel F, Macaigne G, Beaugerie L, Gendre JP, Cosnes J. Crohn’s disease severity in familial and sporadic cases. Gut 1999; 44: 915.
  • 27
    Lennon A, Keegan D, Grant D, Hyland J, O'Donoghue D. Severity of disease in familial inflammatory bowel disease. Gastroenterology 2000; 118: A334A334.
  • 28
    Yang H, McElree C, Roth M-P, Shanahan F, Targan ST, Rotter JI. Familial empirical risks for inflammatory bowel disease: differences between Jews and non-Jews. Gut 1993; 34: 51724.
  • 29
    Brant S, LaBuda M, Lee S, et al. Younger age of diagnosis identifies families with greater linkage evidence for IBD Loci on Chromosome 1p, 3q, and 16. Gastroenterology 1999; 116: A673A673(Abstract).
  • 30
    Van-Heel D, Satsangi J, Carey A, Jewell D. Chromosome 12 Linkage for inflammatory Bowel Disease is greater in families identified by early age of diagnosis. Gut 2000; 46(Suppl. 11): A6A6(Abstract).
  • 31
    Orholm M, Munkolm P, Langholz E, Nielsen OH, Sorensen TI, Binder V. Familial occurrence of inflammatory bowel disease. N Engl J Med 1991; 324: 848.
  • 32
    Satsangi J, Grootscholten C, Holt H, Jewell DP. Clinical patterns of familial inflammatory bowel disease. Gut 1996; 38: 73841.
  • 33
    Bayless TM, Tokayer AZ, Polito JM, Quaskey SA, Mellits ED, Harris ML. Crohn’s disease: concordance for site and clinical type in affected family members—potential hereditary influences. Gastroenterology 1996; 111: 5739.
  • 34
    Colombel J-F, Grandbastian B, Gower-Rousseau C, et al. Clinical characteristics of Crohn’s disease in 72 families. Gastroenterology 1996; 111: 6047.
  • 35
    Fiocchi C. Inflammatory bowel disease: etiology and pathogenesis. Gastroenterology 1998; 115: 182205.
  • 36
    Satsangi J, et al. The genetics of inflammatory bowel disease: recent progress. In: McLeod RS, Martin F, Sutherland LR, Wallace JL, Williams CN, eds. Inflammatory Bowel Diseases. Lancaster: Kluwer, Academic Publishers, 1997: 21–8.
  • 37
    Becker KG, Simon RM, Bailey-Wilson JE, et al. Clustering of non-major histocompatibility complex susceptibility candidate loci in human autoimmune diseases. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1998; 95: 997984.
  • 38
    Satsangi J, Parkes M, Louis E, et al. Two-stage genome-wide search in inflammatory bowel disease provides evidence for susceptibility loci on chromosomes 3, 7 and 12. Nat Genet 1996; 14: 199202.
  • 39
    Ma Y, Ohmen J, Li Z, et al. A genome wide search identifies potential new susceptibility loci for Crohn’s disease. Inflammatory Bowel Dis 1999; 5: 2718.
  • 40
    Weissenbach J, Gyapay G, Dib C, et al. A second generation linkage map of the human genome. Nature 1992; 359: 794801.
  • 41
    Lander ES & Kruglyak L. Genetic dissection of complex traits: guidelines for interpreting and reporting linkage results. Nature Genet 1995; 11: 2417.
  • 42
    Risch N & Merikangas K. The future of genetic studies of complex human diseases. Science 1996; 273: 15167.
  • 43
    Kruglyak L. Prospects for whole-genome linkage disequilibrium mapping of common disease genes. Nat Genet 1999; 22: 13944.DOI: 10.1038/9642
  • 44
    Moffatt MF, Traherne JA, Abecasis GR, Cooksoon WO. Single nucleotide polymorphism and linkage disequilibrium within the TCR alpha/delta locus. Human Molecular Genetics 2000; 9: 10119.DOI: 10.1093/hmg/9.7.1011
  • 45
  • 46
    Kruglyak L & Lander E. Limits on fine mapping of complex traits. Am J Hum Genet 1996; 58: 10923(Letter).
  • 47
    Freely associating. Nat Genet 1999; 22: 12(Editorial).DOI: 10.1038/8702
  • 48
    Gambaro G, Anglani F, D'Angelo A. Association studies of genetic polymorphisms and complex disease. Lancet 2000; 355: 30811.DOI: 10.1016/s0140-6736(99)07202-5
  • 49
    Spielman RS, McGinnis RE, Ewens WJ. Transmission test for linkage disequilibrium: the insulin gene region and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). Am J Hum Genet 1993; 52: 50616.
  • 50
    Hugot JP, Laurent-Puig P, Gower-Rousseau C, et al. Mapping of a susceptibility locus for Crohn’s disease on chromosome 16. Nature 1996; 379: 8212.
  • 51
    Cho JH, Nicolae DL, Gold LH, et al. Identification of novel susceptibility loci for inflammatory bowel disease on chromosomes 1p, 3q, and 4q: evidence for epistasis between 1p and IBD1. Proc Natl Acad Sci 1998; 95: 75027.
  • 52
    Hampe J, Schreiber S, Shaw S, et al. A genome-wide analysis provides evidence for novel linkages in inflammatory bowel disease in a large European cohort. Am J Hum Genet 1999; 64: 80816.DOI: 10.1086/302294
  • 53
    Rioux J, Silverberg M, Daly M, et al. Genome wide search in Canadian Families with Inflammatory Bowel Disease reveals two novel susceptibility Loci. Am J Hum Genet 2000; 66: 186370.DOI: 10.1086/302913
  • 54
    Duerr R, Barmada M, Zhang L, Pfutzer R, Weeks D. High-density genome scan in Crohn’s disease shows confirmed linkage to Chromosome 14q11–12. Am J Hum Genet 2000; 66: 185762.DOI: 10.1086/302947
  • 55
    Cho J, Nicolae D, Ramos R, et al. Linkage and linkage disequilibrium in chromosome 1p36 in American Chaldeans with inflammatory bowel disease. Human Mol Genet 2000; 9: 142532.
  • 56
    Parkes M, Satsangi J, Lathrop GM, Bell JI, Jewell DP. Susceptibility loci in inflammatory bowel disease. Lancet 1996; 348: 15881588(Letter).
  • 57
    Ohmen JD, Yang H, Yamomoto KK, et al. Susceptibility locus for IBD on chromosome 16 has a role in Crohn’s disease but not in ulcerative colitis. Hum Mol Gen 1996; 5: 167983.
  • 58
    Brant SR, Fu Y, Fields CT, et al. American families with Crohn’s disease have strong evidence for linkage to chromosome 16 but not chromosome 12. Gastroenterology 1998; 115: 105661.
  • 59
    Cavanaugh JA, Callen DF, Wilson SR, et al. Analysis of Australian Crohn’s disease pedigrees refines the localisation for susceptibility to inflammatory bowel disease on chromosome 16. Ann Hum Genet 1998; 2: 2918.
  • 60
    Mirza MM, Lee J, Teare D, et al. Evidence of linkage of the inflammatory bowel disease susceptibility locus on chromosome 16 (IBD1) to ulcerative colitis. J Med Genet 1998; 35: 21821.
  • 61
    Annese V, Latiano A, Bovio P, et al. Genetic analysis in Italian families with inflammatory bowel disease supports linkage to IBD1 locus—a GISC study. Eur J Hum Genet 1999; 7: 56773.
  • 62
    Cavanaugh JThe IBD Consortium, . The International IBD. genetics consortium confirms linkage of Crohn’s disease to a locus on Chromosome 16 (IBD1). Gastroenterology 2000; 118: A3862A3862.
  • 63
    West G, Matsuura T, Levine A, Klein J, Fiocchi C. Interleukin 4 in inflammatory bowel disease and mucosal immune reactivity. Gastroenterology 1996; 110: 168395.
  • 64
    Schreiber S, Heinig T, Panzer U, et al. Impaired response of activated mononuclear phagocytes to interleukin 4 in inflammatory bowel disease. Gastroenterology 1995; 108: 2133.
  • 65
    Olavesen M, Hampe J, Mirza M, et al. Analysis of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the interleukin-4 receptor gene for association with inflammatory bowel disease. Immunogenetics 2000; 51: 17.
  • 66
    Hermiston M & Gordon J. In vivo analysis of cadherin function in the mouse intestinal epithelium: essential roles in adhesion, maintenance of differentiation and regulation of programmed cell death. J Cell Biol 1995; 129: 489506.
  • 67
    Demetter P, Baeten D, Keyser FD, et al. Subclinical gut inflammation in spondyloarthropathy patients is associated with upregulation of the E-cadherin/catenin complex. Ann Rheum Dis 2000; 59: 2116.
  • 68
    Hugot J, Zouali H, Colombel J. Mutation screening the CD19 and CD43 (sialophorin genes in Crohn’s disease patients. Gastroenterology 1999; 116: A493A493(Abstract).
  • 69
    Curran ME, Lau KF, Hampe J, et al. Genetic analysis of inflammatory bowel disease in a large European cohort supports linkage to chromosomes 12 and 16. Gastroenterology 1998; 115: 106671.
  • 70
    Duerr RH, Barmada MM, Zhang L, et al. Linkage and association between inflammatory bowel disease and a locus on chromosome 12. Am J Hum Genet 1998; 63: 95100.DOI: 10.1086/301929
  • 71
    Akolkar P, Gulwani B, Lin X, Danzi S, Terwilliger J, Silver J. Fine mapping of regions linked to Crohn’s disease on chromosomes 12 and 16. Am J Hum Genet 1998; 63: A279A279(Abstract).
  • 72
    Yang H, Ohmen JD, Ma R, et al. Linkage and association between Crohn’s disease and a putative locus on chromosome 12. Gastroenterology 1998; 114: A1119A1119(Abstract).
  • 73
    Parkes M, Barmada M, Satsangi J, Weeks D, Jewell D, Duerr R. Linkage heterogeneity between ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease at the IBD2 locus. Am J Hum Genet 2000; 67: 160510.DOI: 10.1086/316905
  • 74
    Simmons JD, Mullighan C, Welsh KI, Jewell DP, Vitamin D receptor gene polymorphism: association with Crohn’s disease susceptibility. Gut 2000; 47: 2114.
  • 75
    Stokkers P, Huibregtse K, Leegwater A, Reitsma P, Tytgat G, Vandeventer S. Analysis of a positional candidate gene for inflammatory bowel disease. Gastroenterology 1999; 116: A825A825(Abstract).
  • 76
    Mirza M, Rowley G, Hampe J, et al. Analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the NRAMP2 gene, for association with Inflammatory Bowel Disease. Gut 2000; 46(Suppl. 11): A4A4(Abstract).
  • 77
    Hamlin P, Komolmit P, Bransfield K, et al. Identification of multiple candidate genes for IBD susceptibility using high density transcript mapping in the IBD2 locus on Chromosome 12q. Gastroenterology 1999; 117: 102931.
  • 78
    Gleeson M, Walker J, Wentzel J, Chapman J, Harris R. Human leucocyte antigens in Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. Gut 1972; 13: 43840.
  • 79
    The MHC Sequencing Consortium. Complete sequence and gene map of a major histocompatability complex. Nature 1999; 401: 9213.DOI: 10.1038/44853
  • 80
    Schwartz S, Siegelbaum S, Fazio T, Hubbell C, Henry J. Regional enteritis: evidence for genetic transmission by HLA Typing. Ann Intern Med 1980; 93: 4247.
  • 81
    Achord J, Gunn G, Jackson J. Regional enteritis and HLA concordance in multiple siblings. Am J Hum Genet 1982; 27: 3302.
  • 82
    Eade O, Moulton C, MacPherson B, Andre-Ukena SS, Albertini R, Beeken W. Discordant HLA haplotype segregation in familial Crohn’s disease. Gastroenterology 1980; 79: 2715.
  • 83
    Pena A, Biemond I, Kuiper G, Weterman I, Leeuwen Av Schreuder I, et al. HLA antigen distribution and HLA haplotype segregation in Crohn’s disease. Tissue Antigens 1980; 16: 5661.
  • 84
    Satsangi J, Welsh KI, Bunce M, et al. Contribution of genes of the major histocompatibility complex to susceptibility and disease phenotype in inflammatory bowel disease. Lancet 1996; 347: 12127.
  • 85
    Yang H, Plevy S, Taylor K. Linkage of Crohn’s disease to the major histocompatibility complex region is detected by multiple non-parametric analyses. Gut 1999; 44: 51926.
  • 86
    Risch N. Assessing the role of HLA-linked and unlinked determinants of disease. Am J Hum Genet 1987; 40: 114.
  • 87
    Woodrow J, Lewkonia R, McConnell R, et al. HLA antigens in Inflammatory Bowel Disease. Tissue Antigens 1978; 11: 14752.
  • 88
    Smolen J, Gangl A, Polterauer P, Menzel E, Mayr W. HLA antigens in inflammatory bowel disease. Gastroenterology 1982; 82: 348.
  • 89
    Modena V, Amoroso A, Frattasio C, et al. HLA antigens and clinical manifestations in Crohn’s disease. Clin Exp Rheumatol 1988; 6: 2215.
  • 90
    Purrmann J, Bertrams J, Knapp M, et al. Gene and haplotype frequencies of HLA antigens in 269 patients with Crohn’s disease. Scand J Gastroenterol 1990; 25: 9815.
  • 91
    Nahir M, Gideoni O, Eidelman S, Barzilai A. HLA antigens in ulcerative colitis. Lancet 1976; 2: 573573.
  • 92
    Delpre G, Kadish U, Gazit E, Joshua H, Zamir R. HLA antigens in ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease in Israel. Gastroenterology 1980; 78: 14527.
  • 93
    Caruso C, Palmeri P, Oliva L, Orlando A, Cottone M. HLA Antigens in ulcerative colitis: a study in the Sicilian population. Tissue Antigens 1985; 25: 479.
  • 94
    Tsuchiya M, Yoshida T, Asakura H, et al. HLA antigens and ulcerative colitis. Digestion 1977; 15: 28694.
  • 95
    Hiwatashi N, Kikuchi T, Masamune O, Ouchi E, Watanabe H, Goto Y. HLA antigens in inflammatory bowel disease. Tohoku J Exp Med 1980; 131: 3815.
  • 96
    Sugimura K, Asakura H, Mizuki N, et al. Analysis of genes within the HLA region affecting susceptibility to ulcerative colitis. Human Immunol 1993; 36: 1128.
  • 97
    Stokkers PC, Reitsma PH, Van Tytgat GN, Deventer SJ. HLA-DR and -DQ phenotypes in inflammatory bowel disease: a meta-analysis. Gut 1999; 45: 395401.
  • 98
    Moum B, Ekbom A, Vatn M, Elgjok T. Change in the extent of colonoscopic and histological involvement in ulcerative colitis over time. Am J Gastroenterol 1999; 94: 15649.
    Direct Link:
  • 99
    Langholz E, Nielsen OH, Munkholm P, Davidsen M, Binder V. Course and prognostic factors influencing changes in the anatomical extent of ulcerative colitis. Gastroenterology 1995; 108: A857A857(Abstract).
  • 100
    Concha EDL, Fernandez-Arquero M, Martinez A, et al. Amino acid polymorphism at residue 71 in HLA-DR beta chain plays a critical role in susceptibility to ulcerative colitis. Dig Dis Sci 1999; 44: 23249.
  • 101
    Orchard TR, Thiyagaraja S, Welsh KI, Wordsworth BP, Jewell DP. Genes of the HLA region are important phenotype determining genes in the arthropathies of IBD. Gut 1998; 42(Suppl. 1): A9A9(Abstract).
  • 102
    Orchard T, Thiyagaraja S, Welsh K, Wordsworth B, Gaston J, Jewell D. Clinical phenotype is related to HLA genotype in the peripheral arthropathies of inflammatory bowel disease. Gastroenterology 2000; 118: 2748.
  • 103
    Bouma G, Poen AC, Garcia-Gonzalez MA, et al. HLA-DRB1*03, but not the TNF?-308 promoter gene polymorphism, confers protection against fistulising Crohn’s disease. Immunogenetics 1998; 47: 4515.DOI: 10.1007/s002510050382
  • 104
    Heresbach D, Alizadeh M, Bretagne J, et al. Investigation of the association of major histocompatibility complex genes, including HLA class I, class II and Tap genes, with clinical forms of Crohn’s disease. Eur J Immunogenetics 1996; 23: 14151.
  • 105
    Reinecker H & Steffen M. Enhanced secretion of tumour necrosis factor-alpha, IL-6 and IL-1 beta by isolated lamina propria mononuclear cells from patients with ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease. Clin Exp Immunol 1993; 94: 17481.
  • 106
    Targan S, Hanauer S, Van-Deventer S, et al. A short-term study of anti-tumour necrosis factor-alpha chimeric monoclonal antibody (cA2) in Crohn’s disease. N Engl J Med 1997; 337: 102935.
  • 107
    Present D, Rutgeerts P, Targan S, et al. Inflixamab for the treatment of fistulas in patients with Crohn’s disease. N Eng J Med 1999; 340: 1398405.
  • 108
    Wilson AG, Symons JA, McDowell TL, Di Giovine FS, Duff GW. Effects of a tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) promoter base transition on transcriptional activity. Br J Rheumatol 1994; 33: 8989.
  • 109
    Bouma G, Crusius J, Oudkerk P, Kolkman J, Blomberg Bv Kostense P, et al. Secretion of tumour necrosis factor alpha and lymphotoxin alpha in relation to polymorphisms in TNF genes and HLA-DR alleles. Relevance for inflammatory bowel disease. Scand J Immunol 1996; 43: 45663.
  • 110
    Koss K, Satsangi J, Fanning G, Welsh K, Jewell D. Cytokine (TNF, LT, IL-10) polymorphisms in inflammatory bowel disease and normal controls: differential effects on production and allele frequencies. Genes and Immunity 2000; 1: 18590.
  • 111
    Bouma G, Xia B, Crusius JBA, et al. Distribution of four polymorphisms in the tumour necrosis factor (TNF) genes in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Clin Exp Immunol 1996; 103: 3916.
  • 112
    Louis E, Satsangi J, Roussomoustakaki M, et al. Cytokine gene polymorphisms in inflammatory bowel disease. Gut 1996; 39: 70510.
  • 113
    Negoro K, Kinouchi Y, Hiwatashi N, et al. Crohn’s disease is associated with novel polymorphisms in the 5′ flanking region of the tumour necrosis gene. Gastroenterology 1999; 117: 10628.
  • 114
    Kinouchi Y, Van Simmons J, Heel D, Jewell D. Polymorphism at position-1031 in the TNF gene confers susceptibility to Crohn’s disease. Gut 2000; 46(Suppl. 11): A7A7(Abstract).
  • 115
    Plevy SE, Targan SR, Yang H, Fernandez D, Rotter JI, Toyoda H. Tumor necrosis factor microsatellites define a Crohn’s disease-associated haplotype on chromosome 6. Gastroenterology 1996; 110: 105360.
  • 116
    Vermeir S, Monsuu F, Groenen P, Peeters M, Vlietinck R, Rutgeerts P. Response to anti-TNFa treatment is associated with the TNFa-308*1 allele. Gastroenterology 2000; 118 (Suppl. 2): A3595A3595(Abstract).
  • 117
    Marion J, Bodian C, Lisa T, Chapman M, Scherl E, Present D. TNF microsatellite polymorphism does not predict response to infliximab in patients with Crohn’s disease. Gastroenterology 2000; 118(Suppl. 2): A3596A3596(Abstract).
  • 118
    Groh V, Steinle A, Bauer S, Spies T. Recognition of stress-induced MHC molecules by intestinal epithelial gamma delta T cells. Science 1998; 279: 173740.DOI: 10.1126/science.279.5357.1737
  • 119
    Zwirner N, Fernandez-Vina M, Sastny P. MICA, a new polymorphic HLA related antigen, is expressed mainly by keratinocytes, endothelial cells and monocytes. Immunogenetics 1998; 47: 13948.DOI: 10.1007/s002510050339
  • 120
    Bauer S, Groh V, Wu J, et al. Activation of NK cells and T cells by NKG2D, a receptor for stress-inducible MICA. Science 1999; 285: 7279.DOI: 10.1126/science.285.5428.727
  • 121
    Sugimura K, Matsuzawa J, Mizuki N. Novel association of triplet repeat polymorphism in mica gene on chromosome 6 with ulcerative colitis. Gastroenterology 1999; 116: G3590G3590.
  • 122
    Nemetz A, Naipal A, Doxiadis I, Tulassay Z, Peoa A. A novel polymorphism in class 1 major histocompatability complex chain related gene A is associated with Crohn’s disease. Gastroenterology 2000; 118 (Suppl. 2): A335A335(Abstract).
  • 123
    Orchard TR, Vaughan R, Simmons JD, Welsh KI, Jewell DP. MHC Class I like gene-A (MICA) is associated with ulcerative colitis but not Crohn’s disease. Gastroenterology 1999; 116: A789A789(Abstract).
  • 124
    Orchard T, Vaughan R, Welsh K, Jewell D. Association of the peripheral arthropathies of inflammatory bowel disease and oral ulceration with the MHC class I chain like molecule (MICA). Gastroenterology 1999; 116: A789A789(Abstract).
  • 125
    Vermeire S, Vlietinck R, Groenen P, Peeters M, Rutgeerts P. Replication of linkage on 14q11–12 in inflammatory bowel disease. Gastroenterology 2000; 118(Suppl. 2): A338A338 (Abstract).
  • 126
    Hampe J, Lynch N, Daniels S, et al. Fine mapping of the chromosome 3P susceptibility locus in inflammatory bowel disease. Gastroenterology 2000; 118(Suppl. 2): A332A332 (Abstract).
  • 127
    Hampe J, Shaw S, Saiz R, et al. Linkage of inflammatory bowel disease to human chromosome 6p. Am J Hum Genet 1999; 65: 164755.DOI: 10.1086/302677
  • 128
    Parkes M, Satsangi J, Merriman A, Jewell DP. Precision mapping of chromosome 12 linkage in IBD. evidence for a haplotype association. Gastroenterology 1998; 114: A1058A1058(Abstract).
  • 129
    Hampe J, Lynch N, Bridger S, et al. High density mapping of pericentromeric chromosome 12 in inflammatory bowel disease. Gastroenterology 2000; 118(Suppl. 2): A332A332 (Abstract).
  • 130
    Martin E, Gilbert J, Lai E, et al. Analysis of association at single nucleotide polymorphisms in the APOE region. Genomics 2000; 63: 712.DOI: 10.1006/geno.1999.6057
  • 131
    Risch N. Searching for genetic determinants in the new millennium. Nature 2000; 405: 84756.DOI: 10.1038/35015718
  • 132
    Baird P, Anderson T, Newcombe H, Lowry R. Genetic studies in children and young adults: a population study. Am J Hum Genet 1988; 42: 67793.