• 1
    Eisenberg DM, Davis RB, Ettner SL, et al. Trends in alternative medicine use in the United States. 1990–97: results of a follow-up national survey [see comments]. J Am Med Assoc 1998; 280: 156975.
  • 2
    Angell M & Kassirer JP. Alternative medicine—the risks of untested and unregulated remedies. N Engl J Med 1998; 339: 83941(Editorial; Comment).
  • 3
    Vickers A & Zollman C. ABC of complementary medicine: herbal medicine. Br Med J 1999; 319: 10503.
  • 4
    Solecki RS. Shanidar IV, a neanderthal flower burial in northern Iraq. Science 1975; 190: 8801.
  • 5
    Guthrie DA. History of Medicine. London: Thomas Nelson and Sons Ltd, 1945.
  • 6
    Porter R. The Greatest Benefit to Mankind. A Medical History of Humanity from Antiquity to the Present. London: Harpers Collins, 1997.
  • 7
    Singer C. Greek Biology. Studies of History and Method of Science, Vol. 2. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1921: 5656.
  • 8
    Gunther R. The Greek Herbal of Discorides. New York: Hafner Publishers Co, 1934.
  • 9
    Cockayne T. Leechdomes, Wortcunning and Starcraft of Early England. London: HMSO, 1864.
  • 10
    Jaffrey MA. Taste of India. London: Pan Books, 1985.
  • 11
    Zollman C & Vickers A. ABC of complementary medicine. Users and practitioners of complementary medicine. Br Med J 1999; 319: 8368.
  • 12
    Bodeker G. Lessons on integration from the developing world’s experience. Br Med J 2001; 322: 1647.
  • 13
    Sutherland LR & Verhoef MJ. Why do patients seek a second opinion or alternative medicine? J Clin Gastroenterol 1994; 19: 1947.
  • 14
    Rawsthorne P, Shanahan F, Cronin NC, et al. An international survey of the use and attitudes regarding alternative medicine by patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Am J Gastroenterol 1999; 94: 1298303.
    Direct Link:
  • 15
    Moody GA, Eaden JA, Bhakta P, Sher K, Mayberry JF. The role of complementary medicine in European and Asian patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Public Health 1998; 112: 26971.
  • 16
    Hilsden RJ, Scott CM, Verhoef MJ. Complementary medicine use by patients with inflammatory bowel disease [see comments]. Am J Gastroenterol 1998; 93: 697701.
    Direct Link:
  • 17
    Langmead L, Chitnis M, Rampton DS. Complementary therapies in GI patients: who uses them and why? Gut 2000; 46(Suppl. II): A22A22(Abstract).
  • 18
    Smart HL, Mayberry JF, Atkinson M. Alternative medicine consultations and remedies in patients with the irritable bowel syndrome. Gut 1986; 27: 8268.
  • 19
    Moser G, Tillinger W, Sachs G, et al. Relationship between the use of unconventional therapies and disease-related concerns: a study of patients with inflammatory bowel disease. J Psychosom Res 1996; 40: 5039.
  • 20
    Davies GJ, Dettmar PW, Hoare RC. The influence of ispaghula husk on bowel habit. J R Soc Health 1998; 118: 26771.
  • 21
    McRorie JW, Daggy BP, Morel JG, Diersing PS, Miner PB, Robinson M. Psyllium is superior to docusate sodium for treatment of chronic constipation. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 1998; 12: 4917.DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-2036.1998.00336.x
  • 22
    Odes HS & Madar Z. A double-blind trial of a celandin, aloevera and psyllium laxative preparation in adult patients with constipation. Digestion 1991; 49: 6571.
  • 23
    Thamlikitkul V, Bunyapraphatsara N, Dechatiwongse T, et al. Randomized controlled trial of Cassia alata Linn. for constipation. J Med Assoc Thai 1990; 73: 21722.
  • 24
    Ramesh PR, Kumar KS, Rajagopal MR, Balachandran P, Warrier PK. Managing morphine-induced constipation: a controlled comparison of an Ayurvedic formulation and senna. J Pain Symptom Manage 1998; 16: 2404.
  • 25
    Bone ME, Wilkinson DJ, Young JR, McNeil J, Charlton S. Ginger root—a new antiemetic. The effect of ginger root on postoperative nausea and vomiting after major gynaecological surgery [see comments]. Anaesthesia 1990; 45: 66971.
  • 26
    Phillips S, Ruggier R, Hutchinson SE. Zingiber officinale (ginger)—an antiemetic for day case surgery [see comments]. Anaesthesia 1993; 48: 7157.
  • 27
    Arfeen Z, Owen H, Plummer JL, Ilsley AH, Sorby-Adams RA, Doecke CJ. A double-blind randomized controlled trial of ginger for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting. Anaesth Intensive Care 1995; 23: 44952.
  • 28
    Visalyaputra S, Petchpaisit N, Somcharoen K, Choavaratana R. The efficacy of ginger root in the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting after outpatient gynaecological laparoscopy. Anaesthesia 1998; 53: 50610.DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-2044.1998.00369.x
  • 29
    Grontved A, Brask T, Kambskard J, Hentzer E. Ginger root against seasickness. A controlled trial on the open sea. Acta Otolaryngol 1988; 105: 459.
  • 30
    Fischer-Rasmussen W, Kjaer SK, Dahl C, Asping U. Ginger treatment of hyperemesis gravidarum [see comments]. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 1991; 38: 1924.
  • 31
    Ernst E & Pittler MH. Efficacy of ginger for nausea and vomiting: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials. Br J Anaesth 2000; 84: 36771.
  • 32
    Bensoussan A, Talley NJ, Hing M, Menzies R, Guo A, Ngu M. Treatment of irritable bowel syndrome with Chinese herbal medicine: a randomized controlled trial [see comments]. J Am Med Assoc 1998; 280: 15859.
  • 33
    Yadav SK, Jain AK, Tripathi SN, Gupta JP. Irritable bowel syndrome: therapeutic evaluation of indigenous drugs. Indian J Med Res 1989; 90: 496503.
  • 34
    Ligumsky MSS, Shapiro H, Ben-Ari E, Davidson R, Ginsberg G. Treatment of irritable bowel syndrome with Tibetan herbal multicompound, Padma-179: a controlled, double blind study. Gastroenterology 1999; 116(Suppl.): G4473G4473.
  • 35
    Jailwala J, Imperiale TF, Kroenke K. Pharmacologic treatment of the irritable bowel syndrome: a systematic review of randomized, controlled trials. Ann Intern Med 2000; 133: 13647.
  • 36
    Longstreth GF, Fox DD, Youkeles L, Forsythe AB, Wolochow DA. Psyllium therapy in the irritable bowel syndrome. A double-blind trial. Ann Intern Med 1981; 95: 536.
  • 37
    Baron JH & Sullivan FM, eds. Carbenoxolone Sodium. London: Butterworth, 1970.
  • 38
    Kang JY, Yeoh KG, Chia HP, et al. Chili—protective factor against peptic ulcer? Dig Dis Sci 1995; 40: 5769.
  • 39
    Yeoh KG, Kang JY, Yap I, et al. Chili protects against aspirin-induced gastroduodenal mucosal injury in humans. Dig Dis Sci 1995; 40: 5803.
  • 40
    Thamlikitkul V, Bunyapraphatsara N, Dechatiwongse T, et al. Randomized double blind study of Curcuma domestica Val. for dyspepsia. J Med Assoc Thai 1989; 72: 61320.
  • 41
    Al-Habbal MJ, Al-Habbal Z, Huwez FU. A double-blind controlled clinical trial of mastic and placebo in the treatment of duodenal ulcer. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 1984; 11: 5414.
  • 42
    Zhou Z, Hu Y, Pi D, et al. Clinical and experimental observations on treatment of peptic ulcer with wei yang an (easing peptic-ulcer) capsule. J Trad Chin Med 1991; 11: 349.
  • 43
    Zhong WR, Huang YX, Cui JP. [Clinical study on modified sijunzi decoction in treating intestinal metaplasia of gastric mucosa]. Chung Kuo Chung Hsi I Chieh Ho Tsa Chih 1997; 17: 4624(in Chinese).
  • 44
    Yin GY, He XF, Du YQ. [Clinical study on the piweiping capsule in treating patients with metaplasia of gastric mucosa]. Chung Kuo Chung Hsi I Chieh Ho Tsa Chih 1996; 16(5): 2836 (in Chinese).
  • 45
    Chen Q & Zhang H. Clinical study on 118 cases of ulcerative colitis treated by integration of traditional Chinese and Western medicine. J Trad Chin Med 1999; 19: 1635.
  • 46
    Wang B, Ren S, Feng W, Zhong Z, Qin C. Kui jie qing in the treatment of chronic non-specific ulcerative colitis. J Trad Chin Med 1997; 17: 103.
  • 47
    Chen ZS, Nie ZW, Sun QL. [Clinical study in treating intractable ulcerative colitis with traditional Chinese medicine]. Chung Kuo Chung Hsi I Chieh Ho Tsa Chih 1994; 14: 4002(in Chinese).
  • 48
    Gupta I, Parihar A, Malhotra P, et al. Effects of Boswellia serrata gum resin in patients with ulcerative colitis. Eur J Med Res 1997; 2: 3743.
  • 49
    Hruby K, Csomos G, Fuhrmann M, Thaler H. Chemotherapy of Amanita phalloides poisoning with intravenous silibinin. Hum Toxicol 1983; 2: 18395.
  • 50
    Carducci R, Armellino MF, Volpe C, et al. Silibinin and acute poisoning with Amanita phalloides. Minerva Anestesiol 1996; 62: 18793.
  • 51
    Sabeel AI, Kurkus J, Lindholm T. Intensive hemodialysis and hemoperfusion treatment of Amanita mushroom poisoning. Mycopathologia 1995; 131: 10714.
  • 52
    Salmi HA & Sarna S. Effect of silymarin on chemical, functional, and morphological alterations of the liver. A double-blind controlled study. Scand J Gastroenterol 1982; 17: 51721.
  • 53
    Trinchet JC, Coste T, Levy VG, et al. Treatment of alcoholic hepatitis with silymarin. A double-blind comparative study in 116 patients. Gastroenterol Clin Biol 1989; 13: 1204.
  • 54
    Pares A, Planas R, Torres M, et al. Effects of silymarin in alcoholic patients with cirrhosis of the liver: results of a controlled, double-blind, randomized and multicenter trial [see comments]. J Hepatol 1998; 28: 61521.
  • 55
    Ferenci P, Dragosics B, Dittrich H, et al. Randomized controlled trial of silymarin treatment in patients with cirrhosis of the liver. J Hepatol 1989; 9: 10513.
  • 56
    Das DG. A double-blind clinical trial of kamalahar, an indigenous compound preparation, in acute viral hepatitis. Ind J Gastroenterol 1993; 12: 1268.
  • 57
    Batey RG, Bensoussan A, Fan YY, Bollipo S, Hossain MA. Preliminary report of a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial of a Chinese herbal medicine preparation CH-100 in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 1998; 13: 2447.
  • 58
    Hirayama C, Okumura M, Tanikawa K, Yano M, Mizuta M, Ogawa N. A multicenter randomized controlled clinical trial of Shosaiko-to in chronic active hepatitis. Gastroenterol Jpn 1989; 24: 7159.
  • 59
    Oka H, Yamamoto S, Kuroki T, et al. Prospective study of chemoprevention of hepatocellular carcinoma with Sho-saiko-to (TJ-9). Cancer 1995; 76: 7439.
  • 60
    Chen C, Guo SM, Liu B. A randomized controlled trial of kurorinone versus interferon-alpha2a treatment in patients with chronic hepatitis B. J Viral Hepatol 2000; 7: 2259.
  • 61
    Arase Y, Ikeda K, Murashima N, et al.The long term efficacy of glycyrrhizin in chronic hepatitis C patients. Cancer 1997; 79: 1494500.DOI: 10.1002/(sici)1097-0142(19970415)79:8<1494::aid-cncr8>;2-b
  • 62
    Feagan BG, McDonald JW, Koval JJ. Therapeutics and inflammatory bowel disease: a guide to the interpretation of randomized controlled trials. Gastroenterology 1996; 110: 27583.
  • 63
    Ernst E & Herxheimer A. The power of placebo. Br Med J 1996; 313: 156970(Editorial; Comment).
  • 64
    Nahin RL & Straus SE. Research into complementary and alternative medicine: problems and potential. Br Med J 2001; 322: 1614.
  • 65
    Zimba CG & Buggie SE. An experimental study of the placebo effect in African traditional medicine. Behav Med 1993; 19: 1039.
  • 66
    Hilsden RJ & Verhoef MJ. Complementary and alternative medicine: evaluating its effectiveness in inflammatory bowel disease. Inflamm Bowel Dis 1998; 4: 31823.
  • 67
    Plaskett LG. The Health and Medical Use of Aloe Vera. Tacoma, WA, USA: Life Sciences Press, 1998.
  • 68
    Sandoval-Chacon M, Thompson JH, Zhang XJ, et al.Antiinflammatory actions of cat’s claw: the role of NF-kappaB. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 1998; 12: 127989.
  • 69
    Jobin C, Bradham CA, Russo MP, et al. Curcumin blocks cytokine-mediated NF-kappa B activation and proinflammatory gene expression by inhibiting inhibitory factor I-kappa B kinase activity. J Immunol 1999; 163: 347483.
  • 70
    Kurihara K, Wardlaw AJ, Moqbel R, Kay AB. Inhibition of platelet-activating factor (PAF)-induced chemotaxis and PAF binding to human eosinophils and neutrophils by the specific ginkgolide-derived PAF antagonist, BN 52021. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1989; 83: 8390.
  • 71
    Pincemail J, Dupuis M, Nasr C, et al. Superoxide anion scavenging effect and superoxide dismutase activity of Ginkgo biloba extract. Experientia 1989; 45: 70812.
  • 72
    Langmead L, Banna N, Loo S, Rampton DS. Herbal therapies used by patients for inflammatory bowel disease are antioxidant in vitro. Gastroenterology 2000; 117: A583A583.
  • 73
    Anonymous. Herbal medicines—safe and effective? Drug Ther Bull 1986; 24: 97100.
  • 74
    De Smet PA. Should herbal medicine-like products be licensed as medicines [see comments]. Br Med J 1995; 310: 10234(Editorial).
  • 75
    Chandler RF. Herbs as foods and medicines. Drugs and therapeutics for maritime practitioners. 1987; 10: 2230.
  • 76
    Chitturi S & Farrell GC. Herbal hepatotoxicity: an expanding but poorly defined problem. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2000; 15: 10939.DOI: 10.1046/j.1440-1746.2000.02349.x
  • 77
    Stickel F, Egerer G, Seitz HK. Hepatotoxicity of botanicals [see comments]. Public Health Nutr 2000; 3: 11324.
  • 78
    McDermott WV & Ridker PM. The Budd–Chiari syndrome and hepatic veno-occlusive disease. Recognition and treatment. Arch Surg 1990; 125: 5257.
  • 79
    Hirono I, Mori H, Haga M. Carcinogenic activity of Symphytum officinale. J Natl Cancer Inst 1978; 61: 8659.
  • 80
    Harvey J & Colin-Jones DG. Mistletoe hepatitis. Br Med J 1981; 282: 1867.
  • 81
    Sullivan Jb Jr, Rumack BH, Thomas H Jr, Peterson RG, Bryson P. Pennyroyal oil poisoning and hepatotoxicity. J Am Med Assoc 1979; 242: 28734.
  • 82
    Larrey D, Vial T, Pauwels A, et al. Hepatitis after germander (Teucrium chamaedrys) administration: another instance of herbal medicine hepatotoxicity [see comments]. Ann Intern Med 1992; 117: 12932.
  • 83
    Benninger J, Schneider HT, Schuppan D, Kirchner T, Hahn EG. Acute hepatitis induced by greater celandine (Chelidonium majus). Gastroenterology 1999; 117: 12347.
  • 84
    Sheikh NM, Philen RM, Love LA. Chaparral-associated hepatotoxicity. Arch Intern Med 1997; 157: 9139.
  • 85
    Escher M & Dsemeules J. Hepatitis associated with Kava, a herbal remedy for anxiety. Br Med J 2001; 322: 139139.
  • 86
    MacGregor FB, Abernethy VE, Dahabra S, Cobden I, Hayes PC. Hepatotoxicity of herbal remedies. Br Med J 1989; 299: 11567.
  • 87
    Ridker PM & McDermott WV. Comfrey herb tea and hepatic veno-occlusive disease. Lancet 1989; 1: 6578.
  • 88
    Segelman AB, Segelman FP, Karliner J, Sofia RD. Sassafras and herb tea. Potential health hazards. J Am Med Assoc 1976; 236: 477477.
  • 89
    Kane JA, Kane SP, Jain S. Hepatitis induced by traditional Chinese herbs; possible toxic components. Gut 1995; 36: 1467.
  • 90
    Perharic-Walton L & Murray V. Toxicity of Chinese herbal remedies. Lancet 1992; 340: 674674.
  • 91
    Vanherweghem JL, Depierreux M, Tielemans C, et al. Rapidly progressive interstitial renal fibrosis in young women: association with slimming regimen including Chinese herbs [see comments]. Lancet 1993; 341: 38791.
  • 92
    Lord GM, Tagore R, Cook T, Gower P, Pusey CD. Nephropathy caused by Chinese herbs in the UK [see comments]. Lancet 1999; 354: 4812(Letter).
  • 93
    Fugh-Berman A. Herb–drug interactions [published erratum appears in Lancet 2000; 355: 1020] [see comments]. Lancet 2000; 355: 1348.
  • 94
    Miller LG. Herbal medicinals: selected clinical considerations focusing on known or potential drug–herb interactions [see comments]. Arch Intern Med 1998; 158: 220011.
  • 95
    De Smet P. Drug interactions with herbal and other non-orthodox remedies. In: D’Arcy PF, McElnay JC, Welling PG, eds. Mechanisms of Drug Interactions. New York: Springer Publishing Co Inc, 1996: 327–52.
  • 96
    Atherton DA. Towards the safer use of traditional remedies [see comments]. Br Med J 1994; 308: 6734(Editorial).
  • 97
    Ernst E. Harmless herbs? A review of the recent literature. Am J Med 1998; 104: 1708.
  • 98
    D'Arcy PF. Adverse reactions and interactions with herbal medicines. Part 1. Adverse reactions. Adverse Drug React Toxicol Rev 1991; 10: 189208.
  • 99
    D'Arcy PF. Adverse reactions and interactions with herbal medicines. Part 2—Drug interactions. Adverse Drug React Toxicol Rev 1993; 12: 14762.
  • 100
    Penn R. Adverse reaction to herbal medicines. Adverse Drug Reaction Bull 1983; 102: 3769.
  • 101
    Mai I, Kruger H, Budde K, et al. Hazardous pharmacokinetic interaction of Saint John’s wort (Hypericum perforatum) with the immunosuppressant cyclosporin [In Process Citation]. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 2000; 38: 5002.
  • 102
    Obach RS. Inhibition of human cytochrome P450 enzymes by constituents of St John’s Wort, an herbal preparation used in the treatment of depression. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2000; 294: 8895.
  • 103
    Ernst E. Second thoughts about safety of St John’s wort [see comments] [published erratum appears in Lancet 2000; 355: 580]. Lancet 1999; 354: 20146.
  • 104
    Ko RJ. Adulterants in Asian patent medicines [see comments]. N Engl J Med 1998; 339: 847847(Letter).
  • 105
    DeSmet P. Toxicological outlook on the quality assurance of herbal remedies. In: de Smet PAGM, Keller K, Hansel R, Chandler RF, eds. Adverse Effects of Herbal Drugs, Vol. 1. Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag, 1992: 1–72.