• 1
    Marshall BJ & Warren JR. Unidentified curved bacilli on gastric epithelium in active chronic gastritis. Lancet 1983; 1: 12735.
  • 2
    Graham DY, Lew GM, Klein PD, et al. Effect of treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection on the long-term recurrence of gastric or duodenal ulcer. A randomised, controlled study. Ann Intern Med 1992; 116: 7058.
  • 3
    Marshall BJ, Goodwin CS, Warren JR, et al. Prospective double-blind trial of duodenal ulcer relapse after eradication of Campylobacter pylori. Lancet 1988; 2: 143742.
  • 4
    Parsonnet J, Friedman GD, Vandersteen DP, et al. Helicobacter pylori infection and the risk of gastric carcinoma. N Engl J Med 1991; 325: 112731.
  • 5
    Parsonnet J, Hansen S, Rodriguez L, et al. Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric lymphoma. N Engl J Med 1994; 330: 126771.
  • 6
    McColl K, Murray L, El-Omar E, et al. Symptomatic benefit from eradicating Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with nonulcer dyspepsia. N Engl J Med 1998; 339: 186974.
  • 7
    The European Helicobacter pylori Study Group. Current European concepts in the management of Helicobacter pylori infection. The Maastricht consensus report. Gut 1997; 41: 813.
  • 8
    Breuer T, Sudhop T, Goodman KJ. How do practising clinicians manage Helicobacter pylori-related gastrointestinal disease in Germany? A survey of gastroenterology and family practitioners. Helicobacter 1998; 3: 18.
  • 9
    Martinez-Sanchez G, Saperas E, Benavent J, et al. The attitude of primary health care physicians in the metropolitan area of Barcelona about the diagnosis and treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection in gastroduodenal diseases. Gastroenterol Hepatol 1998; 21: 4738.
  • 10
    Lim AG, Martin RM, Montileone M, Walker AC, Gould SR. Helicobacter pylori serology and the management of young dyspeptics: a UK survey of gastroenterologists and general practitioners with an interest in gastroenterology. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 1997; 11: 299303.
  • 11
    Maconi G, Tosetti C, Miroglio G, et al. Management of Helicobacter pylori-related gastrointestinal diseases by general practitioners in Italy. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 1999; 13: 1499504.
  • 12
    Martin P, Thomsen AS, Rautanen K, Hjalt CA, Jonsson A, Loefroth G. Diffusion of knowledge of Helicobacter pylori and its practical application by Nordic clinicians. Scand J Gastroenterol 1999; 34: 97480.
  • 13
    Fendrick AM, Hirth RA, Chernew ME. Differences between generalist and specialist physicians regarding Helicobacter pylori and peptic ulcer disease. Am J Gastroenterol 1996; 91: 15448.
  • 14
    Breuer T, Goodman KJ, Malathy HM, Sudhop T, Graham DY. How do clinicians practising in the U.S. manage Helicobacter pylori-related gastrointestinal diseases? A comparison of primary care and specialist physicians. Am J Gastroenterol 1998; 93: 55361.
    Direct Link:
  • 15
    Gonvers JJ, Burnard B, Froehlich F, et al. Appropriateness and diagnostic yield of upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in an open-access endoscopy unit. Endoscopy 1996; 28: 6616.
  • 16
    Quine MA, Bell GD, McCloy RF, Devlin HB, Hopkins A, the Steering Group of the Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Audit Committee. Appropriate use of upper gastrointestinal endoscopy — a prospective audit. Gut 1994; 35: 120914.
  • 17
    Patel P, Khukusi S, Mendall MA, et al. Prospective screening of dyspeptic patients by Helicobacter serology. Lancet 1995; 346: 13158.
  • 18
    Briggs AH, Sculpher MJ, Logan RPH, Aldous J, Ramsay ME, Baron JH. Cost effectiveness of screening for and eradication of Helicobacter pylori in management of dyspeptic patients under 45 years of age. Br Med J 1996; 312: 13215.
  • 19
    Lassen AT, Pedersen FM, Bytzer P, Schaffalitzky de Muckadell OB. Helicobacter pylori test-and-eradicate versus prompt endoscopy for management of dyspeptic patients: a randomised trial. Lancet 2000; 356: 45560.
  • 20
    Fendrick AM, Chernew ME, Hirth RA, Bloom BS. Alternative management strategies for patients with suspected peptic ulcer disease. Ann Intern Med 1995; 123: 2608.
  • 21
    Sue Ling HM, Johnston D, Martin IG, et al. Gastric cancer: a curable disease in Britain. Br Med J 1993; 307: 5916.
  • 22
    Blum AL, Talley NJ, O'Morain C, et al. Lack of effect of treating Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with nonulcer dyspepsia. Omeprazole plus clarithromycin and amoxicillin effect one year after treatment (OKAY) study group. N Engl J Med 1998; 339: 187581.
  • 23
    Graham DY, Lew GM, Malaty HM, et al. Factors influencing the eradication of Helicobacter pylori with triple therapy. Gastroenterology 1992; 102: 4936.
  • 24
    Naji SA, Brunt PW, Hagen S, et al. Improving the selection of patients for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Gut 1993; 34: 18791.
  • 25
    Froehlich F, Burnand B, Pache I, et al. Overuse of upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in a country with open-access endoscopy: a prospective study in primary care. Gastrointest Endosc 1997; 45: 139.
  • 26
    Johnsson F, Joelsson B, Gudmundsson K, Greiff L. Symptoms and endoscopic findings in the diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux disease. Scand J Gastroenterol 1987; 22: 7148.
  • 27
    Fass R, Ofman JJ, Gralnek IM, et al. Clinical and economic assessment of the omeprazole test in patients with symptoms suggestive of gastroesophageal reflux disease. Arch Intern Med 1999; 159: 21618.
  • 28
    Minoli G, Prada A, Gambetta G, et al. The ASGE guidelines for the appropriate use of upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in an open access system. Gastrointest Endosc 1995; 42: 3879.