• 1
    Springer TA. Traffic signals for lymphocyte re-circulation and leukocyte emigration: the multi-step paradigm. Cell 1994; 76: 30114.
  • 2
    Picker LJ, Butcher EC. Physiological and molecular mechanisms of lymphocyte homing. Ann Rev Immunol 1992; 10: 5619.
  • 3
    Farstad IN, Halstensen TS, Kvale D, Fausa O, Brandtzaeg P. Topographic distribution of homing receptors on B and T cells in human gut-associated lymphoid tissue. Am J Pathol 1997; 150: 18799.
  • 4
    Kunne S, Schafer F, Ecker K-W, Feifel G, Zeitz M, Stallmach A. Expression of β1-integrins on CD4-positive lamina propria lymphocytes (LPL) of patients with Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). Gastroenterology 1997; 112: A1021(Abstract).
  • 5
    Meenan J, Spaans J, Grool TA, Pals ST, Tytgat GNJ, Van Deventer SJH. Altered expression of α4β7, a gut homing integrin, by circulating and mucosal T-cells in colonic mucosal inflammation. Gut 1997; 40: 2416.
  • 6
    Issekutz TB. Inhibition of in vivo lymphocyte migration to inflammation and homing to lymphoid tissues by the TA-2 monoclonal antibody. J Immunol 1991; 147: 417884.
  • 7
    Podolsky DK, Lobb R, King N, et al. Attenuation of colitis in the cotton-top tamarin by anti-α4 integrin monoclonal antibody. J Clin Invest 1993; 92: 37280.
  • 8
    Hesterberg PE, Winsor-Hines D, Briskin MJ, et al. Rapid resolution of chronic colitis in the cotton-top tamarin with an antibody to gut-homing integrin α4β7. Gastroenterology 1996; 111: 137380.
  • 9
    Feagan BG, McDonald JWD, Greenberg G, et al. An ascending dose trial of a humanized α4β7 antibody in ulcerative colitis. Gastroenterology 2000; 118: G4851G4851.
  • 10
    Leger OJP, Yednock TA, Tanner L, et al. Humanization of a mouse antibody against human alpha-4 integrin: a potential therapeutic for the treatment of multiple sclerosis. Hum Antibodies 1997; 8: 314.
  • 11
    Yednock TA, Cannon C, Fritz LC, Sanchez-Madrid F, Steinman L, Karin N. Prevention of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by antibodies against α4β1 integrin. Nature 1992; 356: 636.
  • 12
    Tubridy N, Behan PO, Capildeo R, et al. The effect of anti-α4 integrin antibody on brain lesion activity in multiple sclerosis. Neurology 1999; 53: 46672.
  • 13
    A Phase I double-blind, placebo-controlled, ascending single intravenous dose, safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetic, immunogenicity and potency study in healthy male volunteers. Company information 1997, Elan Pharma (Europe) Ltd, Stevenage, UK. Athena Report No. AN100226-101.
  • 14
    Gordon FH, Lai CWY, Hamilton MI, et al. Randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial of recombinant humanised antibody to α4 integrin (Antegren™) in active Crohn's disease. Gastroenterology 1999; 116: G485G485.
  • 15
    Gordon FH, Lai CWY, Hamilton MI, et al. A randomized placebo-controlled trial of a humanized monoclonal antibody to alpha-4 integrin, in active Crohn's disease. Gastroenterology 2001; 121: 26874.
  • 16
    Singleton JW, Law DH, Kelley ML, Mekhjian HS, Sturdevant RA. National Cooperative Crohn's Disease Study: adverse reactions to study drugs. Gastroenterology 1979; 77: 87082.
  • 17
    Powell-Tuck J, Brown RL, Lennard-Jones JE. A comparison of oral prednisolone given as a single or multiple daily doses for active proctocolitis. Scand J Gastroenterol 1978; 13: 8337.
  • 18
    Riis P. Differential diagnosis, ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease and other disorders including diverticular disease. In: Allan RN, ed. Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, 2nd edn. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, 1990: 191–8.
  • 19
    Amlot PL, Tahami F, Chinn D, Rawlings E. Activation of antigen expression on human T cells. Analysis by two-colour flow cytometry of umbilical cord blood, adult blood and lymphoid tissue. Clin Exp Immunol 1996; 105: 17682.
  • 20
    Baron JH, Connell AM, Lennard-Jones JE. Variation between observers in describing mucosal appearance in proctocolitis. Br Med J 1964; 1: 8992.
  • 21
    Saverymuttu SH, Camilleri M, Rees H, Lavender JP, Hodgson HJF, Chadwick VS. Indium 111-granulocyte scanning in the assessment of disease extent and disease activity in inflammatory bowel disease. A comparison with colonoscopy, histology and fecal Indium 111-granulocyte excretion. Gastroenterology 1986; 90: 11218.
  • 22
    Guyatt G, Mitchell A, Irvine EJ, et al. A new measure of health status for clinical trials in inflammatory bowel disease. Gastroenterology 1989; 96: 80410.
  • 23
    Stack WA, Mann SD, Roy AJ, et al. Randomised controlled trial of CDP571 antibody to tumour necrosis factor-α in Crohn's disease. Lancet 1997; 349: 5214.