• 1
    Hagymasi K, Blazovics A, Lengyel G, Kocsis I, Feher J. Oxidative damage in alcoholic liver disease. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2001; 13: 4953.DOI: 10.1097/00042737-200101000-00009
  • 2
    Lieber CS. Metabolism of alcohol. Clin Liver Dis 1998; 2: 673702.
  • 3
    McClain CJ, Barve S, Deaciuc I, Kugelmas M, Hill D. Cytokines in alcoholic liver disease. Semin Liver Dis 1999; 19: 20519.
  • 4
    Knight JA, Pieper RK, McClellan L. Specificity of the thiobarbituric acid reaction: its use in studies of lipid peroxidation. Clin Chem 1988; 34: 24338.
  • 5
    Rocchi E, Borghi A, Paolillo F, Pradelli M, Casalgrandi G. Carotenoids and liposoluble vitamins in liver cirrhosis. J Lab Clin Med 1991; 118: 17685.
  • 6
    Altomare E, Vendemiale G, Albano O. Hepatic glutathione content in patients with alcoholic and non alcoholic liver diseases. Life Sci 1988; 43: 9918.
  • 7
    Lu SC. Regulation of hepatic glutathione synthesis: current concepts and controversies. FASEB J 2000; 13: 116983.
  • 8
    Lecomte E, Herbeth B, Pirollet P, et al. Effect of alcohol consumption on blood antioxidant nutrients and oxidative stress indicators. Am J Clin Nutr 1994; 60: 25561.
  • 9
    Hammond CL, Lee TK, Ballatori N. Novel roles for glutathione in gene expression, cell death, and membrane transport of organic solutes. J Hepatol 2001; 34: 94654.
  • 10
    Duce AM, Ortiz P, Cabrero C, Mato JM. S-adenosyl-L-methionine synthetase and phospholipid methyltransferase are inhibited in human cirrhosis. Hepatology 1988; 8: 658.
  • 11
    Girre C, Hispard E, Therond P, Guedj S, Bourdon R, Dally S. Effect of abstinence from alcohol on the depression of glutathione peroxidase activity and selenium and vitamin E levels in chronic alcoholic patients. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 1990; 14: 90912.
  • 12
    Guemouri L, Artur Y, Herbeth B, Jeandel C, Cuny G, Siest G. Biological variability of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase in blood. Clin Chem 1991; 37: 19327.
  • 13
    Leo MA, Rosman AS, Lieber CS. Differential depletion of carotenoids and tocopherol in liver disease. Hepatology 1993; 17: 97786.
  • 14
    Akerboom TPM, Sies H. Assay of glutathione, glutathione disulfide, and glutathione mixed disulfides in biological samples. Methods Enzymol 1981; 77: 37382.
  • 15
    Zaman Z, Fielden P, Frost PG. Simultaneous determination of vitamins A and E and carotenoids in plasma by reversed-phase HPLC in elderly and younger subjects. Clin Chem 1993; 39: 222934.
  • 16
    Jentzsch AM, Bachmann H, Fürst P, Biesalski HK. Improved analysis of malondialdehyde in human body fluids. Free Rad Biol Med 1996; 20: 2516.
  • 17
    Ookhtens M, Kaplowitz N. Role of the liver in interorgan homeostasis of glutathione and cyst(e)ine. Semin Liver Dis 1998; 18: 31329.
  • 18
    Kleinman WA, Richie JP. Status of glutathione and other thiols and disulfides in human plasma. Biochem Pharm 2000; 60: 1929.
  • 19
    Loguercio C, Taranto D, Vitale LM, Beneduce F, Del Vecchio Blanco C. Effect of liver cirrhosis and age on the glutathione concentration in the plasma, erythrocytes and gastric mucosa of man. Free Rad Biol Med 1996; 20: 4838.
  • 20
    Loguercio C, Nardi G, Argenzio F, et al. Effect of S-adenosyl-L-methione administration on red blood cell cysteine and glutathione levels in alcoholic patients with and without liver disease. Alcohol Alcohol 1994; 29: 597604.
  • 21
    Mongiat R, Geril GC, Sandri MT, et al. Erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes in alcoholic liver disease. In: Rotilio G, ed. Superoxide and Superoxide Dismutase in Chemistry, Biology and Medicine. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1986: 670–2.
  • 22
    Ledig M, Doffoel M, Kopp P, Bockel R, Mandel P. Blood cell superoxide dismutase and enolase activities as markers of alcoholic and nonalcoholic liver diseases. Alcohol 1988; 5: 38791.
  • 23
    Rooprai HK, Pratt OE, Shaw GK, Thomson AD. Superoxide dismutase in the erythrocytes of acute alcoholics during detoxification. Alcohol Alcohol 1989; 24: 5037.
  • 24
    Feher J, Lengyel G, Blazovics A. Oxidative stress in the liver and biliary tract diseases. Scand J Gastroenterol 1998; 228(Suppl.): 3846.
  • 25
    Feinman L, Lieber CS. The role of nutritional factors in alcoholic liver disease. In: Hall P, ed. Alcoholic Liver Disease: Pathology and Pathogenesis, 2nd edn. London: Edward Arnold, 1995: 134–46.
  • 26
    Schmitz HH, Poor CL, Wellman RB, Erdman JW. Concentrations of selected carotenoids and vitamin A in human liver, kidney and lung tissue. J Nutr 1991; 121: 161321.
  • 27
    Floreani A, Baragiotta A, Martines D, Naccarato R, D'Odorico A. Plasma antioxidant levels in chronic cholestatic liver diseases. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2000; 14: 3538.DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-2036.2000.00729.x
  • 28
    Leo MA, Lieber CS. Alcohol, vitamin A and beta-carotene: adverse interactions, including hepatotoxicity and carcinogenicity. Am J Clin Nutr 1999; 69: 107185.
  • 29
    Polidori MC, Stahl W, Eichler O, Niestroj I, Sies H. Profiles of antioxidants in human plasma. Free Rad Biol Med 2001; 30: 45662.
  • 30
    Erdman JW. Variable bioavailability of carotenoids from vegetables. Am J Clin Nutr 1999; 70: 17980.
  • 31
    Jeejeebhoy KN. Nutrient requirements and nutrient deficiencies in gastrointestinal diseases. In: Sleisenger MH, Fordtran JS, eds. Gastrointestinal Disease. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders, 1993: 2017–47.
  • 32
    Ohrvall M, Tengblad S, Vessby B. Tocopherol concentrations in adipose tissue. Relationships of tocopherol concentrations and fatty acid composition in serum in a reference population of Swedish men and women. Eur J Clin Nutr 1994; 48: 2128.
  • 33
    Nagita A, Ando M. Assessment of hepatic vitamin E status in adult patients with liver disease. Hepatology 1997; 26: 3927.
  • 34
    Traber MG, Jialal I. Measurements of lipid-soluble vitamins, further adjustment needed? Lancet 2000; 355: 20134.
  • 35
    Vendemiale G, Grattagliano I, Portincasa P, Serviddio G, Palasciamo G, Altomare E. Oxidative stress in symptom-free HCV carriers: relation with ALT flare-up. Eur J Clin Invest 2001; 31: 5463.DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-2362.2001.00747.x