• 1
    Talley NJ, Weaver AL, Zinsmeister AR, et al. Functional constipation and outlet delay: a population based study. Gastroenterology 1993; 105: 7816.
  • 2
    Sonnenberg A, Koch TR. Physician visits in the United Statesfor constipation: 1958–1986. Dig Dis Sci 1989; 34: 60611.
  • 3
    Talley NJ, O'Keefe EA, Zinsmeister AR, et al. Prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms in the elderly: a population based study. Gastroenterology 1992; 102: 8959.
  • 4
    Preston DM, Pfeffer J, Lennard-Jones JE. Psychiatric assessment of patients with severe constipation. Gut 1984; 25: A5823.
  • 5
    Devroede G, Roy T, Bouchoucha M, et al. Idiopathic constipation by colonic dysfunction: relationship with personality and anxiety. Dig Dis Sci 1989; 34: 142834.
  • 6
    Leroi AM, Bernier C, Watier A, et al. Prevalence of sexual abuse among patients with functional disorders of the lower gastrointestinal tract. Int J Colorect Dis 1995; 10: 2006.
  • 7
    Mason HJ, Serrano-Ikkos E, Kamm MA. Psychological morbidity in women with idiopathic constipation. Am J Gastroenterol 2000; 95: 28527.
    Direct Link:
  • 8
    Glia A, Lindberg G. Quality of life in patients with different types of functional constipation. Scand J Gastroenterol 1997; 32: 10839.
  • 9
    Hinton JM, Lennard-Jones JE. Constipation: definition and classification. Postgrad Med J 1968; 44: 7203.
  • 10
    Evans RC, Kamm MA, Hinton JM, Lennard-Jones JE. The normal range and a simple diagram for recording whole gut transit time. Int J Colorect Dis 1992; 7: 157.
  • 11
    Preston DM, Lennard-Jones JE. Severe chronic constipation of young women: ‘idiopathic slow transit constipation’. Gut 1986; 27: 418.
  • 12
    Van Der Sijp JRM, Kamm MA, Nightingale JMD, et al. Disturbed gastric and small bowel transit in severe idiopathic constipation. Dig Dis Sci 1993; 38: 83744.
  • 13
    Gattuso JM, Kamm MA. Review article: the management of constipation in adults. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 1993; 7: 487500.
  • 14
    Cummings JH. The use and abuse of laxatives. In: BoucherIAD, ed. Recent Advances in Gastroenterology. London: Academic Press, 1976: 12449.
  • 15
    Ashraf W, Park F, Lof J, Quigley EM. Effects of psyllium therapy on stool characteristics, colon transit and anorectal function in chronic idiopathic constipation. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 1995; 9: 63947.
  • 16
    Jones M, Dubois D, Talley N. Laxatives in chronic constipation: a statistical meta-analysis [abstract]. Gastroenterology 1999; 116(4 Part 2): A67(Abstract).
  • 17
    Briejer MR, Akkermans LMA, Schuurkes JAJ. Gastrointestinal prokinetic benzamides: the pharmacology underlying stimulation of motility. Pharmacol Rev 1995; 47: 63151.
  • 18
    Grider JR, Foxx-Orenstein AE, Jin J-G. 5-Hydroxytryptamine4 receptor agonists initiate the peristaltic reflex in human, rat andguinea pig intestine. Gastroenterology 1998; 115: 37080.
  • 19
    Jin J-G, Foxx-Orenstein AE, Grider JR. Propulsion in guinea pig colon induced by 5-hydroxytryptamine (HT) via 5-HT4 and 5-HT3 receptors. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1999; 288: 937.
  • 20
    Basotti G, Gaburri M, Imbimbo B, et al. Colonic mass movements in idiopathic chronic constipation. Gut 1988; 29: 11739.
  • 21
    Emmanuel AV, Kamm MA, Roy AJ, Antonelli K. Effect of a novel prokinetic drug, RO93877, on gastrointestinal transit in healthy volunteers. Gut 1998; 42: 5116.
  • 22
    Bouras EP, Camilleri M, Burton DD, McKinzie S. Selective stimulation of colonic transit by the benzofuran 5HT4 agonist, prucalopride, in healthy humans. Gut 1999; 44: 6826.
  • 23
    Bouras EP, Camilleri M, Burton DD, Thomforde G, McKinzie S, Zinsmeister AR. Prucalopride accelerates gastrointestinal and colonic transit in patients with constipation without a rectal evacuation disorder. Gastroenterology 2001; 120: 35460.
  • 24
    Drossman DA, Sandler RS, McKee DC, et al. Bowel patterns amongst subjects not seeking health care. Use of a questionnaire to identify a population with bowel dysfunction. Gastroenterology 1982; 83: 52934.
  • 25
    O'Brien JD, Thompson DG, Burnham WR, et al. Action of centrally mediated autonomic stimulation on human upper gastrointestinal transit: a comparative study of two stimuli. Gut 1987; 28: 9609.
  • 26
    Kamm MA. Investigating constipation. Curr Med Lit (Gastroenterol) 1992; 11: 39.
  • 27
    McHorney C, Ware JE, Rogers E, et al. The validity and relative precision of MOS short and long form health status scales and Dartmouth COOP charts. Results from the medical outcomes study. Med Care 1992; 30: MS25365.
  • 28
    Zigmond AS, Snaith RP. The hospital anxiety and depression scale. Acta Psychiatr Scand 1983; 67: 36170.
  • 29
    Heaton KW, O'Donnell LJD, Braddon FEN, et al. Symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome in a British urban community: consulters and nonconsulters. Gastroenterology 1992; 102: 19628.
  • 30
    Prior A, Wilson K, Whorwell PJ, et al. Irritable bowel syndrome in the gynaecological clinic. Survey of 798 new referrals. Dig Dis Sci 1989; 34: 18208.
  • 31
    Kamm MA, Farthing MJG, Lennard-Jones JE, et al. Steroid hormone abnormalities in women with severe idiopathic constipation. Gut 1991; 32: 805.
  • 32
    Mannaert E, Van Bortel L, Woestenborghs R, Van Peer A. Single-dose and once-daily pharmacokinetics and effects of food on prucalopride in humans [abstract]. Gut 1999; 45(Suppl. V): P0252.
  • 33
    Vant Klooster G, De Pauw M, Crabbé R. Tolerability, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of prucalopride in healthy volunteers [abstract]. Gut 1999; 45(Suppl. V): P0264.
  • 34
    Wald A, Hinds JP, Caruana BJ. Psychological and physiological characteristics of patients with severe idiopathic constipation. Gastroenterology 1989; 97: 9327.
  • 35
    Wald A, Burgio K, Holeva K, Locher J. Psychological evaluation of patients with severe constipation: which instrument to use? Am J Gastroenterol 1992; 87: 97780.
  • 36
    Knowles CH, Scott SM, Wellmer A, et al. Sensory and autonomic neuropathy in patients with idiopathic slow transit constipation. Br J Surg 1999; 86: 5460.
  • 37
    De Medicis A, Badiali D, Corazziari E, et al. Rectal sensitivity in chronic constipation. Dig Dis Sci 1989; 34: 74752.
  • 38
    Wolf S, Wolf HG. Experimental study of changes in gastric function in response to varying life experiences. Rev Gastroenterol 1947; 14: 41926.
  • 39
    Almy TP. Experimental studies on the irritable colon. Am J Med 1951; 10: 607.