• 1
    Roosendaal R, Kuipers EJ, Buitenwerf J, van Uffelen C, Meuwissen SGM, van Kamp GJ, Vandenbroucke-Grauls CMJE. Helicobacter pylori and the birth cohort effect: evidence of a continuous decrease of infection rates in childhood. Am J Gastroenterol 1997; 92: 14802.
  • 2
    Replogle ML, Glaser SL, Hiatt RA, et al. Biologic sex as a risk factor for Helicobacter pylori infection in healthy young adults. Am J Epidemiol 1995; 142: 85663.
  • 3
    Smoak BL, Kelley PW, Taylor DN. Seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori infections in a cohort of U.S. Army recruits. Am J Epidemiol 1994; 139: 51319.
  • 4
    Parkinson AJ, Gold BD, Bulkow L, et al.High prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in the Alaska Native population and association with low serum ferritin levels in young adults. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 2000; November: 8858.
  • 5
    Fujisawa T, Kumagai T, Akamatsu T, Kiyosawa K, Matsunaga Y. Changes in sero-epidemiological pattern of Helicobacter pylori and hepatitis A virus over the last 20 years in Japan. Am J Gastroenterol 1999; 94: 20949.
    Direct Link:
  • 6
    Mitchell HM, Li YY, Hu PJ, et al. Epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori in southern China: identification of early childhood as the critical period for acquisition. J Infect Dis 1992; 166: 14952.
  • 7
    Lin JT, Wang JT, Wang TH, Wu MS, Lee TK, Chen CJ. Helicobacter pylori infection in a randomly selected population, healthy volunteers and patients with gastric ulcer and gastric adenocarcinoma. Scand J Gastroenterol 1993; 28: 106772.
  • 8
    Katelaris PH, Tippett GHK, Norbu P, Lowe DG, Brennan R, Farthing MJG. Dyspepsia, Helicobacter pylori, and peptic ulcer in a randomly selected population in India. Gut 1992; 33: 14626.
  • 9
    Buckley M, Mitchell HM, Bolin TD, Khin M, Tun KM, Flynn PJ. Impact of institutionalization on prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection. Gastroenterology 2001; 120: A735A735(abstract).
  • 10
    Megraud F, Brassens-Rabbe MP, Denis F, Belbouri A, Hoa DQ. Seroepidemiology of Campylobacter pylori infection in various populations. J Clin Microbiol 1989; 27: 18703.
  • 11
    Malaty HM, Paykov V, Bykova O, Ross A, Graham DP, Anneger JF, Graham DY. Helicobacter pylori and socioeconomic factors in Russia. Helicobacter 1996; 1: 827.
  • 12
    Vorobjova T, Grunberg H, Oona M, Maaroos HI, Nilsson I, Wadstrom T, Covacci A, Uibo R. Seropositivity to Helicobacter pylori and CagA protein in schoolchildren of different ages living in urban and rural areas in southern Estonia. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2000; 12: 9191.
  • 13
    Reshetnikov OV, Nikitin YP, Kholmogortsev MV, Kurilovich SA, Pycllik OA. Helicobacter pylori in a Chukotka Native male population. Int J Circumpolar Health 1998; 57(Suppl. 1): 2935.
  • 14
    Kumar A, Levinson JR, Sharma T, et al. Seroepidemiology of Helicobacter pylori in immigrants from the Former Soviet Union to the United States. Am J Gastroenterol 1994; 89: A1307A1307[abstract].
  • 15
    Malaty HM, Tanaka E, Kumagai T, Ota H, Akamatsu ET, Kiyosawa K, Graham DY, Katsuyama T. A birth cohort study of the seroepidemiologic association of Helicobacter pylori infection and hepatitis A virus in rural Japan. Gastroenterology 2001; 120: A128A128 [abstract].
  • 16
    Nurgalieva ZZ, Malaty HM, Almuchambetova RK, et al.Importance of water source in childhood in the epidemiology of H. pylori in the new central Asian republic of Kazakhstan. Gastroenterology 2000; 118: A726A726[abstract].
  • 17
    Urita Y, Hike K, Torii N, Kikuchi Y, Kanda E, Sasajima M, Matsuzaki H, Miki K. High rates of seroconversion for Helicobacter pylori in Japanese older patients. Gastroenterology 2001; 120: A229A229[abstract].
  • 18
    Malaty HM, Graham DY, Elkasabany A, Reddy SG, Srinivasan SR, Berenson GS. Natural history of Helicobacter pylori infection from infancy to adulthood: a 21-year follow-up cohort study. Gastroenterology 2001; 120: A128A128[abstract].
  • 19
    Vaira D, Rugge M, Ricci C, et al.The natural history of H. pylori (HP) infection in asymptomatic individuals: should we test and treat everyone? Gastroenterology 2001; 120: A128A128[abstract].
  • 20
    Rupnow MFT, Shachter RD, Owens DK, Parsonnet J. A dynamic transmission model for predicting trends in Helicobacter pylori and associated diseases in the United States. Emerg Infect Dis 2000; 6: 22837.
  • 21
    Thomas JE, Gibson GR, Darboe MK, Dale A, Gibson GR. Isolation of H. pylori from human faeces. Lancet 1992; 340: 11945.
  • 22
    Rudi J, Toppe H, Marx N, et al. Risk of infection with Helicobacter pylori and hepatitis A virus in different groups of hospital workers. Am J Gastroenterol 1997; 92: 25862.
  • 23
    Young KA, Akyon Y, Rampton DS, et al. Quantitative culture of Helicobacter pylori from gastric juice: the potential for transmission. J Med Micro 2000; 49: 3437.
  • 24
    Parsonnet J, Shmuely H, Hagerty T. Fecal and oral shedding of Helicobacter pylori from healthy infected adults. JAMA 1999; 282: 22405. [Comments in JAMA 1999; 282: 2260–2]
  • 25
    Klein PD and the Gastrointestinal Physiology Working Group. Water source as a risk factor for Helicobacter pylori infection in Peruvian children. Lancet 1991; 337: 15036.
  • 26
    Hulten K, Han SW, Enroth H, et al. Helicobacter pylori in the drinking water in Peru. Gastroenterology 1996; 110: 10315.
  • 27
    Hopkins RJ, Vial PA, Ferreccio C, et al.Seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori in Chile: vegetables may serve as one route of transmission. J Infect Dis 1993, 168: 2226.
  • 28
    Goodman KJ, Correa P, Tengana Aux HJ, et al. Helicobacter pylori infection in the Colombian Andes: a population-based study of transmission pathways. Am J Epidemiol 1996; 144: 2909.
  • 29
    Mazarl-Hirlart M, Lopez-Vidal Y, Calva JJ. Helicobacter pylori in water systems for human use in Mexico City. Water Sci Technol 2001; 43: 938.
  • 30
    Torres J, Perez-Perez G, Goodman KJ, et al.A comprehensive review of the natural history of Helicobacter pylori infection in children. Arch Med Res 2000; 31: 43169.
  • 31
    Goodman KJ, Correa P. Transmission of Helicobacter pylori among siblings. Lancet 2000; 355: 35862.
  • 32
    Rothenbacher D, Inceoglu J, Bode G, Brenner H. Acquisition of Helicobacter pylori infection in a high-risk population occurs within the first 2 years of life. J Pediatr 2000; 136: 7448.
  • 33
    Klein PD, Gilman RH, Leon-Barua R, et al.The epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori. Peruvian children between 6 and 30 months of age. Am J Gastroenterol 1994; 89: 2196200.
  • 34
    Malaty HM, Logan ND, Graham DY, Ramchatesingh JE. Helicobacter pylori infection in preschool and school-aged minority children. Effect of socioeconomic indicators and breast-feeding practices. Clin Infect Dis 2001; 32: 138792.
  • 35
    Dore MP, Sepulveda AR, El-Zimaity H, et al.Isolation of Helicobacter pylori from sheep – implications for transmission to humans. Am J Gastroenterol 2001; 96: 1396401.
  • 36
    Grubel P, Hoffman JS, Chong FK, et al. Vector potential of houseflies (Musca domestica) for Helicobacter pylori. J Clin Microbiol 1997; 35: 13003.
  • 37
    Stein M, Rappuoli R, Covacci A. The cag pathogenicity island. In: Mobley HLT, Mendz GL, Hazell SL, eds. Helicobacter pylori: Physiology and Genetics. Washington, DC: ASM Press, 2001, pp. 34553.
  • 38
    Covacci A, Telford JL, Del Giudice G, Parsonnet J, Rappuoli R. Helicobacter pylori virulence and genetic geography. Science 1999; 284: 132833.DOI: 10.1126/science.284.5418.1328
  • 39
    Van Doorn L-J, Figueiredo C, Megraud F, et al.Geographic distribution of vacA allelic types of Helicobacter pylori. Gastroenterology 1999; 116: 82330.
  • 40
    Censini S, Lange C, Xiang Z, et al. cag, a pathogenicity island of Helicobacter pylori, encodes type I-specific and disease- associated virulence factors. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 1996; 93: 1464853.
  • 41
    Crabtree JE, Taylor ID, Wyatt JI. Mucosal IgA recognition of Helicobacter pylori 120 kDa protein, peptic ulceration, and gastric pathology. Lancet 1991; 338: 3325.
  • 42
    Graham DY, Genta RM, Graham DP, et al. Serum CagA antibodies in asymptomatic subjects and patients with peptic ulcer: Lack of correlation of IgG antibody with peptic ulcer or asymptomatic Helicobacter pylori gastritis. J Clin Pathol 1996; 49: 82932.
  • 43
    Mitchell HM, Hazell SL, Li YY, et al. Serological response to specific Helicobacter pylori antigens: Antibody against CagA antigen is not predictive of gastric cancer in a developing country. Am J Gastroenterol 1996; 91: 17858.
  • 44
    Yamaoka Y, El-Zimaity HM, Gutierrez O, et al.Relationship between the cagA 3′ repeat region of Helicobacter pylori, gastric histology, and susceptibility to low pH. Gastroenterology 1999; 117: 3429.
  • 45
    Akopyants NS, Clifton SW, Kersulyte D, et al. Analyses of the cag pathogenicity island of Helicobacter pylori. Mol Microbiol 1998; 28: 3705337053.
  • 46
    Segal E, Cha J, Lo J, Falkow S, Tompkins LS. Altered states: Involvement of phosphorylated CagA in the induction of host cellular growth changes by Helicobacter pylori. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 1999; 96: 1455964.
  • 47
    Keates S, Hitti YS, Upton M, Kelly CP. Helicobacter pylori infection activates NF-κB in gastric epithelial cells. Gastroenterology 1997; 113: 1099109.
  • 48
    Isomoto H, Miyazaki M, Mizuta Y, et al.Expression of nuclear factor-κB in Helicobacter pylori-infected gastric mucosa detected with southwestern histochemistry. Scand J Gastroenterol 2000; 35: 24754.
  • 49
    Crabtree JE, Xiang Z, Lindley IJD, Tompkins DS, Rappuoli R, Covacci A. Induction of interleukin-8 secretion from gastric epithelial cells by cagA negative isogenic mutant of Helicobacter pylori. J Clin Path 1995; 48: 9679.
  • 50
    Eaton KA, Kersulyte D, Mefford M, Danon SJ, Krakowka S, Berg DE. Role of Helicobacter pylori cag region genes in colonization and gastritis in two animal models. Infect Imm 2001; 69: 29028.
  • 51
    Peek RM, Miller GG, Tham KT, Perez-Perez GI, Zao X, Atherton J, et al. Heightened inflammatory response and cytokine expression in vivo to cagA+ Helicobacter pylori strains. Lab Invest 1995; 71: 76070.
  • 52
    Eaton KA, Krakowa S. Effect of gastric pH on urease- dependent colonization of gnotobiotic piglets by Helicobacter pylori. Infect Immun 1994; 62: 36047.
  • 53
    Phadnis SH, Parlow MH, Levy M, et al. Surface localization of a Helicobacter pylori urease and heat shock protein homolog requires bacterial lysis. Infect Immun 1995; 64: 90512.
  • 54
    Ha N-C, Oh S-T, Sung JY, Cha KA, Lee MH, Oh B-H. Supramolecular assembly and acid resistance of Helicobacter pylori urease. Nature Struct Biol 2001; 8: 480482, 505–9.
  • 55
    Suzuki J, Muraoka H, Ohnishi H, et al. Evidence of the colonization of urease negative variants of Helicobacter pylori in Mongolian gerbils. Gastroenterology 1999; 116: A324A324[abstract].
  • 56
    Malaty HM, Engstrand L, Pederson NL, Graham DY. Helicobacter pylori infection: genetic and environmental influences: a study of twins. Ann Intern Med 1994; 120: 9826.
  • 57
    Haruma K, Komoto K, Kamada T, Ito M, Kitadai Y, Yoshihara M, Sumii K, Kajiyama G. Helicobacter pylori infection is a major risk factor for gastric carcinoma in young patients. Scand J Gastroenterol 2000; 35: 2559.
  • 58
    Dhillon PK, Farrow DC, Vaughan TL, et al.Family history of cancer and risk of esophageal and gastric cancers in the United States. Int J Cancer 2001; 93: 14852.
  • 59
    El-Omar EM, Wang C-D, McColl KE, Rabkin CS. Interleukin-10 polymorphisms influence risk of chronic H. pylori infection. Gastroenterology 2000; 118: A889A889[abstract].
  • 60
    El-Omar EM, Oien K, Murray LS, et al. Increased prevalence of precancerous changes in relatives of gastric cancer patients: critical role of H. pylori. Gastroenterology 2000; 118: 2230.
  • 61
    El-Omar EM, Carrington M, Chow WH, et al. Interleukin-1 polymorphisms associated with increased risk of gastric cancer. Nature 2000; 404: 398402.DOI: 10.1038/35006081
  • 62
    Takashima M, Furuta T, Hanai H, et al. Effects of Helicobacter pylori infection on gastric acid secretion and serum gastrin levels in Mongolian gerbils. Gut 2001; 48: 76573.DOI: 10.1136/gut.48.6.765
  • 63
    Watanabe T, Higuchi K, Tominaga K, Fujiwara Y, Arakawa T. Acid regulates inflammatory response in a rat model of induction of gastric ulcer recurrence by interleukin-1β. Gut 2001; 48: 77481.DOI: 10.1136/gut.48.6.774
  • 64
    Eskdale J, Stuart RC, Gallagher G. Interleukin-10 polymorphisms in gastroesophageal cancers. Gastroenterology 2000; 118(Suppl. 4): A432A432.
  • 65
    Leontiadis GI, Sharma VK, Howden CW. Non-gastrointestinal tract associations of Helicobacter pylori infection. Arch Intern Med 1999; 159: 92540.
  • 66
    Ashorn M, Ruuska T, Maekipernaa A. Helicobacter pylori and iron deficiency anemia in children. Scand J Gastroenterol 2001; 36: 7015.
  • 67
    Stolzenberg-Solomon RZ, Blaser MJ, Limburg PJ et al. Helicobacter pylori seropositivity as a risk factor for pancreatic cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 2001; 93: 93741.