• 1
    Locke GR III, Talley NJ, Fett SL, et al. Prevalence and clinical spectrum of gastroesophageal reflux: a population-based study in Olmstead County, Minnesota. Gastroenterology 1997; 112: 144856.
  • 2
    A Gallup Organization National Survey. Heartburn Across America. Princeton, NJ: Gallup, 1988.
  • 3
    Nebel OT, Fornes MF, Castell DO. Symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux: incidence and precipitating factors. Am J Dig Dis 1976; 21: 9536.
  • 4
    Spechler SJ. Epidemiology and natural history of gastro-oesophageal reflux: incidence and precipitating factors. Digestion 1992; 51(Suppl. 1): 249.
  • 5
    Lind T, Havelund T, Carlsson R, et al. Heartburn without oesophagitis: efficacy of omeprazole therapy and features determining therapeutic response. Scand J Gastroenterol 1997; 32: 9749.
  • 6
    Jones RH, Hungin ADS, Phillips J, et al. Gastroesophageal reflux disease in primary care in Europe: clinical presentation and endoscopic findings. Eur J Gen Pract 1995; 1: 14954.
  • 7
    Bate CM, Griffin SM, Keeling PW, et al. Reflux symptoms relief with omeprazole in patients without unequivocal oesophagitis. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 1996; 10: 54755.
  • 8
    Richter JE, Kovacs TOG, Greski-Rose PA, et al. Lansoprazole in the treatment of heartburn in patients without erosive oesophagitis. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 1996; 13: 795804.
  • 9
    Shi G, Bruley des Varannes S, Scarpignato C, et al. Reflux related symptoms in patients with normal oesophageal exposure to acid. Gut 1995; 37: 45764.
  • 10
    Drossman DA, Corazziari R, Talley NJ, et al. and the Rome II Multinational Working Teams. Rome II. The functional esophageal disorders. In: DrossmanDA, ed. Rome II, 2nd edn. Lawrence: Allen Press, 2000.
  • 11
    Dent J, Brun J, Fendrick AM, et al. An evidence-based appraisal of reflux disease management — the Genval Workshop Report. Gut 1999; 44(Suppl. 2): S116.
  • 12
    Hetzel DJ, Dent J, Reed WD, et al. Healing and relapse of severe peptic esophagitis after treatment with omeprazole. Gastroenterology 1988; 95: 90312.
  • 13
    Sampliner RE, Fennerty MB, Garewal HS. Reversal of Barrett's esophagus with acid suppression and multipolar electrocoagulation: preliminary results. Gastrointest Endosc 1996; 44: 5325.
  • 14
    Weiner GJ, Morgan TM, Copper JB, et al. Ambulatory 24-hour esophageal pH monitoring, reproducibility and variability of pH parameters. Dig Dis Sci 1988; 33: 112733.
  • 15
    Wiener GJ, Richter JE, Cooper JB, et al. The symptom index: a clinically important parameter of ambulatory 24-hour esophageal pH monitoring. Am J Gastroenterol 1988; 83: 3589.
  • 16
    Fass R, Fennerty MB, Vakil N. Nonerosive reflux disease — current concepts and dilemmas. Am J Gastroenterol 2001; 96(2): 30314.
  • 17
    Richter JE. Long-term management of gastroesophageal reflux disease and its complications. Am J Gastroenterol 1997; 92(Suppl. 4): 30S35S.
  • 18
    DeBoer WA, Tytgat GNG. Drug therapy for reflux oesophagitis. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 1994; 8: 14757.
  • 19
    Schenk BE, Kuipers EJ, Klinkenberg-Knol EC, et al. Omeprazole as a diagnostic tool in gastroesophageal reflux disease. Am J Gastroenterol 1997; 92: 19972000.
  • 20
    Smout AJPM. Endoscopy-negative acid reflux disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 1997; 11(Suppl. 2): 815.
  • 21
    Orlando RC. Review article: oesophageal mucosal resistance. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 1998; 12: 1917.
  • 22
    Rayment SA, Liu B, Offner GD, et al. Salivary mucin: a factor in the lower prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease in African-Americans? Am J Gastroenterol 2000; 95(11): 306470.
    Direct Link:
  • 23
    Baldi F, Ferrarini F, Longanese A, et al. Acid gastroesophageal reflux and symptom occurrence: analysis of some factors influencing their association. Dig Dis Sci 1989; 12: 18903.
  • 24
    Trimble KC, Pryde A, Heading RC. Lowered oesophageal sensory thresholds in patients with symptomatic but not excess gastro-oesophageal reflux: evidence for a spectrum of visceral sensitivity in GORD. Gut 1995; 37: 712.
  • 25
    Mayer EA. Spinal and supraspinal modulation of visceral sensation. Gut 2000; 47(Suppl. 4): iv6972.
  • 26
    Baker LH, Lieberman D, Oehlke M. Psychological distress in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease. Am J Gastroenterol 1995; 90(10): 1797803.
  • 27
    McDonald-Haile J, Bradley LA, Bailey MA, et al. Relaxation training reduces symptom reports and acid exposure in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease. Gastroenterology 1994; 107: 619.
  • 28
    Richter JE, Bradley LA. Psychophysiological interactions in esophageal diseases. Semin Gastrointest Dis 1995; 7: 16984.
  • 29
    Fass R, Malagon IB, Naliboff B, et al. Effect of psychologically induced stress on symptom perception & autonomic nervous system response of patients (PTS) with erosive esophagitis (EE) and non-erosive reflux disease (NERD). Gastroenterology 2000; 118(4): A637 3250(Abstract).
  • 30
    Meyer JH, Lembo A, Elashoff JD, et al. Duodenal fat intensifies the perception of heartburn. Gut 2001; 49: 6248.
  • 31
    Singh S, Richter JE, Bradley LA, et al. The symptom index: differential usefulness in suspected acid-related complaints of heartburn and chest pain. Dig Dis Sci 1993; 38: 14028.
  • 32
    Fass R, Naliboff B, Higa L, et al. Differential effect of long-term esophageal acid exposure on mechanosensitivity and chemosensitivity in humans. Gastroenterology 1998; 115: 136373.
  • 33
    Pehlivanov ND, Liu J, Mittal R. Sustained esophageal contraction. A motor correlate of heartburn symptom. Gastroenterology 1999; 116: G4613(Abstract).
  • 34
    Vela MF, Camacho-Lobato L, Srinivasan R, et al. Simultaneous intraesophageal impedance and pH measurement of acid and nonacid gastroesophageal reflux: effect of omeprazole. Gastroenterology 2001; 120(7): 1599606.
  • 35
    Sifrim D, Holloway R, Silny J, et al. Acid, nonacid, and gas reflux in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease during ambulatory 24-hour pH-impedance recordings. Gastroenterology 2001; 120(7): 158898.
  • 36
    Watson RGP, Tham TCK, Johnston BT, et al. Double blind cross-over placebo controlled study of omeprazole in the treatment of patients with reflux symptoms and physiological levels of acid reflux: the ‘sensitive oesophagus. ’ Gut 1997; 40: 58790.