SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • 1
    Beckingham IJ. ABC of diseases of liver, pancreas, and biliary system. Gallstone disease. Br Med J 2001; 322: 914.
  • 2
    Langman MJS. The Epidemiology of Digestive Disease. London: Edward Arnold, 1979.
  • 3
    Everhart JE, Khare M, Hill M, Maurer KR. Prevalence and ethnic differences in gallbladder disease in the United States. Gastroenterology 1999; 117: 6329.
  • 4
    Jensen KH, Jorgensen T. Incidence of gallstones in a Danish population. Gastroenterology 1991; 100: 7904.
  • 5
    Misciagna G, Leoci C, Guerra V, et al. Epidemiology of cholelithiasis in southern Italy. Part II. Risk factors. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 1996; 8: 58593.
  • 6
    Bateson MC. Gallstones and cholecystectomy in modern Britain. Postgrad Med J 2000; 76: 7003.
  • 7
    Holland C, Heaton KW. Increasing frequency of gall bladder operations in the Bristol clinical area. Br Med J 1972; 3: 6725.
  • 8
    Plant JC, Percy I, Bates T, Gastard J, De Nercy YH. Incidence of gallbladder disease in Canada, England, and France. Lancet 1973; 2: 24951.
  • 9
    Department of Health. An Introduction to HES, Overview of the Hospital Episode Statistics System. London: Department of Health, 1999.
  • 10
    Office of Population Censuses and Surveys. Tabular List of the Classification of Surgical Operations and Procedures, 4th revision consolidated version 1990. London: HMSO, 1990.
  • 11
    Lam CM, Murray FE, Cuschieri A. Increased cholecystectomy rate after the introduction of laparoscopic cholecystectomy in Scotland. Gut 1996; 38: 2824.
  • 12
    Van Der Linden W, Rentzhog U. The changing character of gallstone disease as observed in a hospital population. Acta Chir Scand 1960; 119: 489501.
  • 13
    Ahlberg J, Ewerth S, Hellers G, Holmstrom B. Decreasing frequency of cholecystectomies in the counties of Stockholm and Uppsala, Sweden. Acta Chir Scand Suppl 1978; 482: 213.
  • 14
    Kullman E, Dahlin LG, Hallhagen S, Segersvardh R, Borch K. Trends in incidence, clinical findings and outcome of acute and elective cholecystectomy, 1970–86. Eur J Surg 1994; 160: 60511.
  • 15
    Maram ES, Linos DA, Thistle JL, Linos A, O'Fallon WM, Kurland LT. The incidence of cholelithiasis and cholecystitis in Rochester, Minn, 1950 through 1969. Arch Intern Med 1990; 150: 18336.
  • 16
    McMahon AJ, Fischbacher CM, Frame SH, MacLeod MC. Impact of laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a population-based study. Lancet 2000; 356: 16327.
  • 17
    Steiner CA, Bass EB, Talamini MA, Pitt HA, Steinberg EP. Surgical rates and operative mortality for open and laparoscopic cholecystectomy in Maryland. N Engl J Med 1994; 330: 4038.
  • 18
    Zacks SL, Sandler RS, Rutledge R, Brown RS Jr. A population-based cohort study comparing laparoscopic cholecystectomy and open cholecystectomy. Am J Gastroenterol 2002; 97: 33440.
    Direct Link:
  • 19
    Varghese JC, Farrell MA, Courtney G, Osborne H, Murray FE, Lee MJ. A prospective comparison of magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in the evaluation of patients with suspected biliary tract disease. Clin Radiol 1999; 54: 51320.
  • 20
    McPherson K, Wennberg JE, Hovind OB, Clifford P. Small-area variations in the use of common surgical procedures: an international comparison of New England, England, and Norway. N Engl J Med 1982; 307: 13104.
  • 21
    Morgenstern H. Ecologic studies in epidemiology: concepts, principles, and methods. Annu Rev Public Health 1995; 16: 6181.
  • 22
    Angelico F, Del Ben M, Barbato A, Conti R, Urbinati G. Ten-year incidence and natural history of gallstone disease in a rural population of women in central Italy. The Rome Group for the Epidemiology and Prevention of Cholelithiasis (GREPCO). Ital J Gastroenterol Hepatol 1997; 29: 24954.
  • 23
    Prentice AM, Jebb SA. Obesity in Britain: gluttony or sloth? Br Med J 1995; 311: 4379.
  • 24
    Williams JG, Mann RY. Hospital episode statistics: time for clinicians to get involved? Clin Med 2002; 2: 347.