• 1
    Hawkey CJ. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug gastropathy. Gastroenterology 2000; 119: 52135.
  • 2
    Lipsky PE. Role of cyclooxygenase-1 and -2 in health and disease. Am J Orthop 1999; 28(Suppl. 3): 812.
  • 3
    Xie WL, Chipman JG, Robertson DL, Erikson RL, Simmons DL. Expression of a mitogen-responsive gene encoding prostaglandin synthase is regulated by mRNA splicing. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1991; 88: 26926.
  • 4
    Kujubu DA, Fletcher BS, Varnum BC, Lim RW, Herschman HR. TIS10, a phorbol ester tumor promoter-inducible mRNA from Swiss 3T3 cells, encodes a novel prostaglandin synthase/cyclooxygenase homologue. J Biol Chem 1991; 266: 12 866–72.
  • 5
    O'Banion MK, Sadowski HB, Winn V, Young DA. A serum- and glucocorticoid-regulated 4-kilobase mRNA encodes a cyclooxygenase-related protein. J Biol Chem 1991; 266: 23 261–7.
  • 6
    Sirois J, Richards JS. Purification and characterization of a novel, distinct isoform of prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase induced by human chorionic gonadotropin cells of rat preovullary follicles. J Biol Chem 1992; 267: 63828.
  • 7
    Vane JR, Bakhle YS, Botting RM. Cyclooxygenase 1 and 2. Ann Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 1998; 38: 97120.
  • 8
    Talley JJ, Brown DL, Carter JS, et al. 4-[5-Methyl-3-phenylisoxazol-4-yl]-benzenesulfonamide, valdecoxib: a potent and selective inhibitor of COX-2. J Med Chem 2000; 43: 7757.
  • 9
    Warner TD, Giuliano F, Vojnovic I, et al. Nonsteroid drug selectivities for cyclo-oxygenase-1 rather than cyclo-oxygenase-2 are associated with human gastrointestinal toxicity: a full in vitro analysis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1999; 96: 75638.
  • 10
    Jain KK. Evaluation of intravenous parecoxib for the relief of acute post-surgical pain. Expert Opin Invest Drugs 2000; 9: 271723.
  • 11
    Masferrer JL, Isakson PC, Seibert K. Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors. A new class of anti-inflammatory agents that spare the gastrointestinal tract. Gastroenterol Clin North Am 1996; 25: 36372.
  • 12
    Winter CA, Risley EA, Nuss GW. Carrageenan-induced edema in hind paw of the rat as an assay for antiinflammatory drugs. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1962; 305: 47984.
  • 13
    Kehl LJ, Trempe TM, Hargreaves KM. A new animal model for assessing mechanisms and management of muscle hyperalgesia. Pain 2000; 85: 33343.
  • 14
    Jaffee BD, Kerr JS, Jones EA, et al. The effect of immunomodulating drugs on adjuvant-induced arthritis in Lewis rats. Agents Actions 1989; 27: 3446.
  • 15
    Brennan TJ. Postoperative models of nociception. ILAR J 1999; 40: 12936.
  • 16
    Pharmacia Corporation. Bextra, valdecoxib tablets. Product information [online]. Available from URL:[Accessed November 5, 2002].
  • 17
    Karim A, Bradford D, Qian J, et al. Cyclooxygenase-2 specific inhibitor valdecoxib: single and multiple dose pharmacokinetic profile in healthy adults. Pharmacol Toxicol 2001; 89(Suppl. 1): 86.
  • 18
    Karim A, Laurent A, Slater ME, et al. A pharmacokinetic study of intramuscular (i.m.) parecoxib sodium in normal subjects. J Clin Pharmacol 2001; 41: 11119.
  • 19
    Ibrahim A, Karim A, Feldman J, Kharasch E. The influence of parecoxib, a parenteral cyclooxygenase-2 specific inhibitor, on the pharmacokinetics and clinical effects of midazolam. Anesth Analg 2002; 95: 66773.
  • 20
    Ibrahim A, Park S, Feldman J, Karim A, Kharasch ED. Effects of parecoxib, a parenteral COX-2-specific inhibitor, on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of propofol. Anesthesiology 2002; 96: 8895.
  • 21
    Kharasch E, Ibrahim A, Karim A, Feldman BS. Effects of paracoxib, a parenteral COX-2 specific inhibitor, on the pharmacokinetics and clinical effects of fentanyl and alfentanil. Anesthesiology 2001; 95: A450(Abstract).
  • 22
    Karim A, Laurent A, Dean D, et al. The COX-2 specific inhibitor, valdecoxib, does not affect the pharmacokinetics of methotrexate. Ann Rheum Dis 2002 in press.
  • 23
    Daniels SE, Talwalker S, Hubbard RC, Recker DP, Verburg KM. Preoperative valdecoxib, a COX-2 specific inhibitor, provides effective and long lasting pain relief following oral surgery. Anesthesiology 2001; 95: A810(Abstract).
  • 24
    Daniels SE, Desjardins PJ, Talwalker S, Recker DP, Verburg KM. The analgesic efficacy of valdecoxib vs. oxycodone/acetaminophen after oral surgery. J Am Dent Assoc 2002; 133: 61121; quiz 625.
  • 25
    Fricke J, Varkalis J, Zwillich S, et al. Valdecoxib is more efficacious than rofecoxib in relieving pain associated with oral surgery. Am J Ther 2002; 9: 8997.
  • 26
    Camu F, Beecher T, Recker DP, Verburg KM. Valdecoxib, a COX-2 specific inhibitor, is an efficacious, opioid-sparing analgesic in patients undergoing hip arthroplasty. Am J Ther 2002; 9: 4351.
  • 27
    Desjardins P, Talwalker S, Hubbard R, Recker D, Verburg K. Preoperative administration of valdecoxib, a potent COX-2 specific inhibitor, provides effective postoperative analgesia. Anesthesiology 2001; 95: A811(Abstract).
  • 28
    Makarowski W, Zhao WW, Bevirt T, Recker DP. Efficacy and safety of the COX-2 specific inhibitor valdecoxib in the management of osteoarthritis of the hip: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled comparison with naproxen. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2002; 10: 2906.
  • 29
    Kivitz A, Eisen G, Zhao WW, Bevirt T, Recker DP. Randomized placebo-controlled trial comparing efficacy and safety of valdecoxib with naproxen in patients with osteoarthritis. J Fam Pract 2002; 51: 5307.
  • 30
    Bensen W, Weaver A, Espinoza L, et al. Valdecoxib, a new COX-2 specific inhibitor, is effective in treating the signs and symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 2001; 44: 369.
  • 31
    Torri S, Kuss ME, Talwalker S, Daniels SE, Snabes MC. The cyclooxygenase (COX-2) specific inhibitor valdecoxib effectively treats primary dysmenorrhea. Fertil Steril 2001; 76(Suppl. 1): S95.
  • 32
    Daniels SE, Talwalker S, Torri S, et al. Valdecoxib, a cyclooxygenase-2-specific inhibitor, is effective in treating primary dysmenorrhea. Obstet Gynecol 2002; 100: 3508.
  • 33
    Agrawal NM, Paperiello BA, Zhao WW, et al. Supratherapeutic doses of valdecoxib have a reduced incidence of gastroduodenal ulcers compared with conventional therapeutic doses of naproxen in osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis patients. Arthritis Rheum 2001; 44 (Suppl 1917): S372.
  • 34
    Goldstein JL, Kent J, Zhao W, Recker D, Verburg K. Reduced incidence of gastroduodenal ulcers with valdecoxib compared to diclofenac in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a multicenter trial. Am J Gastroenterol 2001; 96(Suppl. 9): S372.
  • 35
    Goldstein JL, Talwalker S, Verburg K, Recker D, Hubbard R. Comparative gastroduodenal mucosal effects of valdecoxib, a potent COX-2 specific inhibitor, compared with naproxen and placebo. In: Abstract presented at the 9th United European Gastroenterology Week, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, October 2001, Gut 2001; 45: 2166(Abstract).
  • 36
    Goldstein J, Zhao WW, Verburg KM, et al. Reduced incidence of gastroduodenal ulcers with valdecoxib, a potent COX-2 inhibitor, compared to ibuprofen and diclofenac in patients with osteoarthrosis: a multicenter trial. Gastroenterology 2001; 120(Suppl. 1): A597(Abstract).
  • 37
    Silverstein F, Faich G, Goldstein J, et al. Gastrointestinal toxicity with celecoxib vs non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. J Am Med Assoc 2000; 284: 124755.
  • 38
    Simon LS, Weaver AL, Graham DY, et al. Antiinflammatory and upper gastrointestinal effects of celecoxib in rheumatoid arthritis: a randomized controlled trial. J Am Med Assoc 1999; 282: 19218.
  • 39
    Watson DJ, Harper SE, Zhao PL, Bolognese JA, Simon TJ. Gastrointestinal medications and procedures in osteoarthritis patients treated with rofecoxib compared with non-selective NSAIDs. MedGenMed 2001; 3: 6.
  • 40
    Foral PA, Wilson AF, Nystrom KK. Gastrointestinal bleeds associated with rofecoxib. Pharmacotherapy 2002; 22: 3846.
  • 41
    Hawkey CJ, Jackson L, Harper SE, et al. Review article: the gastrointestinal safety profile of rofecoxib, a highly selective inhibitor of cyclo-oxygenase-2, in humans. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2001; 15: 19.
  • 42
    Wallace JL, McKnight W, Reuter BK, Vergnolle N. NSAID-induced gastric damage in rats: requirement for inhibition of both cyclooxygenase 1 and 2. Gastroenterology 2000; 119: 70614.
  • 43
    Goldstein JL, Stenson WF, Agrawal N, et al. Valdecoxib is associated with a significantly lower incidence of ulcer complications and symptomatic ulcers in arthritis patients as compared to NSAID. Gastroenterology 2002; 122(Suppl. 1): A469(Abstract).
  • 44
    Bombardier C, Laine L, Reicin A, et al. Comparison of upper gastrointestinal toxicity of rofecoxib and naproxen in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. VIGOR Study Group. N Engl J Med 2000; 343: 15208.
  • 45
    Silverstein FE, Faich G, Goldstein JL, et al. Gastrointestinal toxicity with celecoxib vs nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis: the CLASS study: a randomized controlled trial. Celecoxib Long-Term Arthritis Safety Study. J Am Med Assoc 2000; 284: 124755.
  • 46
    Rainsford KD. The ever-emerging anti-inflammatories. Have there been any real advances? J Physiol Paris 2001; 95: 119.
  • 47
    Peskar BM, Ehrlich K, Peskar BA. Role of ATP-sensitive potassium channels in prostaglandin-mediated gastroprotection in the rat. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2002; 301: 96974.
  • 48
    Leese PT, Recker D, Kuss ME. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study to evaluate the effects of valdecoxib, a novel COX-2 specific inhibitor, on platelet function in the elderly. Ann Surg 2002 in press.
  • 49
    Leese P, Recker D, Kuss M. The novel COX-2 specific inhibitor valdecoxib does not affect platelet function in healthy adults. Am J Emerg Med in press.
  • 50
    Leese PT, Talwalker S, Kent JD, Recker DP. Valdecoxib does not impair platelet function. Am J Emerg Med 2002; 20: 27581.
  • 51
    Schafter AI. Effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory therapy on platelets. Am J Med 1999; 106(Suppl. 5B): 25S35S.
  • 52
    McAdam BF, Catella-Lawson F, Mardini IA, et al. Systemic biosynthesis of prostacyclin by cyclooxygenase COX-2: the human pharmacology of a selective inhibitor of COX-2. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1999; 96: 2727.
  • 53
    Rossat J, Maillard M, Nussberger J, Brunner HR, Burnier M. Renal effects of selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition in normotensive salt-dependent subjects. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1999; 66: 7684.
  • 54
    Swan S, Rudy DW, Lasseter KC, et al. Effect of cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition on renal function in elderly persons receiving a low-salt diet. Ann Intern Med 2000; 133: 19.
  • 55
    Beiche F, Scheuerer S, Brune K, Geisslinger G, Goppelt-Struebe M. Up-regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 mRNA in the rat spinal cord following peripheral inflammation. FEBS Lett 1996; 390: 1659.
  • 56
    Maihofner C, Tegeder I, Euchenhofer C, et al. Localization and regulation of cyclo-oxygenase-1 and -2 and neuronal nitric oxide synthase in mouse spinal cord. Neuroscience 2000; 101: 1093108.
  • 57
    Breder CD, Smith WL, Raz A, et al. Distribution and characterization of cyclooxygenase immunoreactivity in the ovine brain. J Comp Neurol 1992; 322: 40938.
  • 58
    Breder CD, DeWitt DL, Kraig R. Characterization of inducible cyclooxygenase in the rat brain. J Compar Neurol 1995; 355: 296315.
  • 59
    Geisslinger G, Yaksh TL. Spinal actions of cyclooxygenase isozyme inhibitors. In: Proceedings of the 9th World Congress on Pain. Progress in Pain Management. Seattle: IASP Press, 2000; 771–85.
  • 60
    Penning TD, Talley JJ, Bertenshaw SR, et al. Synthesis and biological evaluation of the 1,5-diarylpyrazole class of cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors: identification of 4-[5-(4-methylphenyl)-3-(trifluoromethyl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl]benzenesulfonamide (SC-58635, celecoxib). J Med Chem 1997; 40: 134765.
  • 61
    Paulson SK, Vaughn MB, Jessen SM, et al. Pharmacokinetics of celecoxib after oral administration in dogs and humans: effect of food and site of absorption. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2001; 297: 63845.