• 1
    Sands BE. Therapy of inflammatory bowel disease. Gastroenterology 2000; 118: S6882.
  • 2
    Parkes M, Jewell DP. Review article: the management of severe Crohn's disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2001; 15: 56373.
  • 3
    Heuschkel RB, Walker-Smith JA. Enteral nutrition in inflammatory bowel disease in childhood. J Parenter Enteral Nutr 1999; 23: S2932.
  • 4
    Beattie RM, Bentsen BS, MacDonald TT. Childhood Crohn's disease and the efficacy of enteral diets. Nutrition 1998; 14: 34550.
  • 5
    Escher JC, Taminiau JA. Treatment of inflammatory bowel disease in childhood. Scand J Gastroenterol Suppl 2001; 234: 4850.
  • 6
    Han PD, Burke A, Baldassano RN, Rombeau JL, Lichtenstein GR. Nutrition and inflammatory bowel disease. Gastroenterol Clin North Am 1999; 28: 42343.
  • 7
    Harries AD, Rhodes J. Undernutrition in Crohn's disease: an anthropometric assessment. Clin Nutr 1985; 4: 879.
  • 8
    Gassull MA, Abad A, Cabre E, et al. Enteral nutrition in inflammatory bowel disease. Gut 1986; 27: 7680.
  • 9
    Cabre E, Gassull MA. Nutrition in inflammatory bowel disease: impact on disease and therapy. Curr Opin Gastroenterol 2001; 17: 3429.
  • 10
    Dieleman LA, Heizer WD. Nutritional issues in inflammatory bowel disease. Gastroenterol Clin North Am 1998; 27: 43551.
  • 11
    Driscoll RH, Rosenberg IH. Total parenteral nutrition in inflammatory bowel disease. Med Clin North Am 1978; 62: 185201.
  • 12
    Al-Jaouni R, Hebuterne X, Pouget I, et al. Energy metabolism and substrate oxidation in patients with Crohn's disease. Nutrition 2000; 16: 1738.
  • 13
    Mingrone G, Capristo E, Greco AV, et al. Elevated diet-induced thermogenesis and lipid oxidation rate in Crohn's disease. Am J Clin Nutr 1999; 69: 32530.
  • 14
    Klein S, Meyers S, O'Sullivan P, et al. The metabolic impact of active ulcerative colitis: energy expenditure and nitrogen balance. J Clin Gastroenterol 1988; 10: 3440.
  • 15
    Kushner RF, Schoeller DA. Resting and total energy expenditure in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Am J Clin Nutr 1991; 53: 1615.
  • 16
    Chan ATH, Fleming R, O'Fallon WM, et al. Estimated versus measured basal energy requirements in patients with Crohn's disease. Gastroenterology 1986; 91: 7580.
  • 17
    Compston JE. Review article: osteoporosis, corticosteroids and inflammatory bowel disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 1995; 9(3): 23750.
  • 18
    Habtezion A, Silverberg MS, Parkes R, Mikolainis S, Steinhart AH. Risk factors for low bone density in Crohn's disease. Inflamm Bowel Dis 2002; 8: 8792.
  • 19
    Compston JE, Judd D, Crawley EO, et al. Osteoporosis in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Gut 1987; 28: 4105.
  • 20
    Clements D, Motley RJ, Evans WD, et al. Longitudinal study of cortical bone loss in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Scand J Gastroenterol 1992; 27: 105560.
  • 21
    Bjarnason I, Macpherson A, MacKintosh C, et al. Reduced bone density in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Gut 1997; 40: 22833.
  • 22
    Bernstein CN, Blanchard JF, Leslie W, et al. The incidence of fracture among patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Ann Intern Med 2000; 133: 7959.
  • 23
    Vestergaard P, Krogh K, Rejnmark L, et al. Fracture risk is increased in Crohn's disease, but not in ulcerative colitis. Gut 2000; 46: 17681.
  • 24
    Ahnen DJ. Gastrointestinal malignancies in inflammatory bowel disease. In: KirsnerJB, ed. Inflammatory Bowel Disease, 5th edn. Philadelphia: Saunders, 2000: 379409.
  • 25
    Leonard-Jones JE. Cancer risk in ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease — strategies to avoid cancer deaths. In: AllanRN, RhodesJM, HanauerSB, KeighleyMRB, Alexander-WilliamsJ, FazioVW, eds. Inflammatory Bowel Disease. London: Churchill Livingstone, 1997: 67582.
  • 26
    Meyer F, White E. Alcohol and nutrients in relation to colon cancer in middle-aged adults. Am J Epidemiol 1993; 138: 22536.
  • 27
    Benito E, Stiggelbout A, Bosch F, et al. Nutritional factors in colorectal cancer risk: a case–control study in Majorca. Int J Cancer 1991; 49: 1617.
  • 28
    Freudenheim J, Graham S, Marshall J, Haughey B, Cholewinski S, Wilkinson G. Folate intake and carcinogenesis of the colon and rectum. Int J Epidemiol 1991; 20: 36874.
  • 29
    Lashner BA, Heidenreich PA, Su GL, Kane SV, Hanauer SB. Effect of folate supplementation on the incidence of dysplasia and cancer in chronic ulcerative colitis. Gastroenterology 1989; 97: 2559.
  • 30
    Lashner BA. Red cell folate is associated with the development of dysplasia and cancer in ulcerative colitis. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 1993; 119: 54954.
  • 31
    Lashner BA, Provencher KS, Seidner DL, Knesebeck A, Brzezinski A. The effect of folic acid supplementation on the risk for cancer or dysplasia in ulcerative colitis. Gastroenterology 1997; 112: 2932.
  • 32
    Bargen JA, Barker NW. Extensive arterial and venous thrombosis complicating chronic inflammatory bowel disease. Arch Intern Med 1936; 58: 1731.
  • 33
    Talbot RW, Heppell J, Dozois RR, et al. Vascular complications of inflammatory bowel disease. Mayo Clin Proc 1986; 61: 1405.
  • 34
    Papa A, De Stefano V, Danese S, et al. Hyperhomocysteinaemia and prevalence of polymorphisms of folate-metabolism-related enzymes in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Am J Gastroenterol 2001; 96: 267782.
    Direct Link:
  • 35
    Mahmud N, Molloy A, McPartlin J, et al. Increased prevalence of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T variant in patients with inflammatory bowel disease, and its clinical significance. Gut 1999; 45: 38994.
  • 36
    Chowers Y, Sela BA, Holland R, Fidder H, Simoni FB, Bar-Meir S. Increased levels of homocysteine in patients with Crohn's disease are related to folate levels. Am J Gastroenterol 2000; 95: 3498502.
    Direct Link:
  • 37
    Nielsen JN, Larsen TB, Fredholm L, et al. Increased prevalence of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T variant in patients with IBD. Gut 2000; 47: 4567.
  • 38
    McClain C, Soutor C, Zieve L. Zinc deficiency. A complication of Crohn's disease. Gastroenterology 1980; 78: 2729.
  • 39
    Kruis W, Rindfleisch GO, Weinzierl M. Zinc deficiency as a problem in patients with Crohn's disease and fistula formation. Hepatogastroenterology 1985; 32: 1334.
  • 40
    Reilly HM, Martineau JK, Moran A, Kennedy H. Nutritional screening — evaluation and implementation of a simple nutrition risk score. Clin Nutr 1995; 14: 26973.
  • 41
    Detsky AS, McLaughlin JR, Baker JP, et al. What is Subjective Global Assessment of nutritional status? J Parenter Enteral Nutr 1987; 11: 813.
  • 42
    Barak N, Wall-Alonso E, Sitrin MD. Evaluation of stress factors and body weight adjustments currently used to estimate energy expenditure in hospitalized patients. J Parenter Enteral Nutr 2002; 26: 2318.
  • 43
    Pierro A, Van Saene HK, Donnell SC. Microbial translocation in neonates and infants receiving long-term parenteral nutrition. Arch Surg 1996; 131: 1769.
  • 44
    Nakasaki H, Mitomi T, Tajima T, Ohnishi N, Fujii K. Gut bacterial translocation during total parenteral nutrition in experimental rats and its countermeasure. Am J Surg 1998; 175: 3843.
  • 45
    Jeejeebhoy KN. Total parenteral nutrition: potion or poison? Am J Clin Nutr 2001; 74: 1603.
  • 46
    Gouma DJ, Von Meyenfeldt MF, Rouflart M, et al. Preoperative total parenteral nutrition in severe Crohn's disease surgery. Surgery 1988; 103: 64862.
  • 47
    A.S.P.E.N. Board of Directors and the Clinical Guidelines Task Force. Guidelines for the use of parenteral and enteral nutrition in adult and pediatric patients. J Parenter Enteral Nutr 2002; 26(Suppl.): 73SA74SA.
  • 48
    Agwunobi AO, Carlson GL, Anderson ID, Irving MH, Scott NA. Mechanisms of intestinal failure in Crohn's disease. Dis Colon Rectum 2001; 44: 18347.
  • 49
    Nightingale JMD, Leonard-Jones JE, Gertner DJ, Wood SR, Bartram CI. Colonic preservation reduces the need for parenteral therapy, increases the incidence of renal stones but does not change the high prevalence of gallstones in patients with a short bowel. Gut 1992; 33: 14937.
  • 50
    Dionogi P, Alessiani M, Ferrazi A. Irreversible intestinal failure, nutrition support, and small bowel transplantation. Nutrition 2001; 17: 74750.
  • 51
    Sundaram A, Koutkia P, Apovian CM. Nutritional management of short bowel syndrome in adults. J Clin Gastroenterol 2002; 34: 20720.
  • 52
    Lees CD, Steiger E, Hooley RA, et al. Home parenteral nutrition. Surg Clin North Am 1981; 61: 62133.
  • 53
    Fish J, Steiger E, Seidner AD. Recent developments in home total parenteral nutrition. Curr Gastroenterol Rep 2000; 2: 32730.
  • 54
    Nagatomo S, Umehara F, Hanada K, et al. Manganese intoxication during total parenteral nutrition: report of two cases and review of the literature. J Neurol Sci 1999; 162: 1025.
  • 55
    Spiegel JE, Willenbucher RF. Rapid development of severe copper deficiency in a patient with Crohn's disease receiving parenteral nutrition. J Parenter Enteral Nutr 1999; 23: 16972.
  • 56
    Hahn JS, Berquist W, Alcorn DM, Chamberlain L, Bass D. Wernicke encephalopathy and beri beri during total parenteral nutrition attributable to multivitamin infusion shortage. Paediatrics 1998; 101: E10.
  • 57
    Zak J3rd, Burns D, Lingenfelser T, Steyn E, Marks IN. Dry beriberi: unusual complication of prolonged parenteral nutrition. J Parenter Enteral Nutr 1991; 15: 2001.
  • 58
    Buchman AL. Complications of long-term total parenteral nutrition: their identification, prevention and treatment. Dig Dis Sci 2001; 45(1): 118.
  • 59
    Galandiuk S, O'Neill M, McDonald P, Fazio VW, Steiger E. A century of home parenteral nutrition for Crohn's disease. Am J Surg 1990; 159: 5404.
  • 60
    Terra RM, Plopper C, Waitzberg DZ, et al. Remaining small bowel length association with catheter sepsis in patients with short bowel syndrome receiving home total parenteral nutrition: evidence of bacterial translocation. World J Surg 2000; 24: 153741.
  • 61
    Grant D. Current results of intestinal transplantation. Lancet 1996; 347: 18013.
  • 62
    Burden S. Dietary treatment of irritable bowel syndrome: current evidence and guidelines for future practice. J Hum Nutr Diet 2001; 14: 23141.
  • 63
    Francis CY, Whorwell PJ. Bran and irritable bowel syndrome: time for reappraisal. Lancet 1994; 344: 3940.
  • 64
    Mishkin B, Yalovsky M, Mishkin S. Increased prevalence of lactose malabsorption in Crohn's disease patients at low risk for lactose malabsorption based on ethnic origin. Am J Gastroenterol 1997; 92: 114853.
  • 65
    Von Tirpitz C, Kohn C, Steinkamp M, et al. Lactose intolerance in active Crohn's disease: clinical value of duodenal lactase analysis. J Clin Gastroenterol 2002; 34: 4953.
  • 66
    Mishkin S. Dairy sensitivity, lactose malabsorption, and elimination diet in inflammatory bowel disease. Am J Clin Nutr 1997; 65: 5647.
  • 67
    Capristo E, Mingrone G, Addolorato G, Greco AV, Gasbarrini G. Effect of a vegetable protein-rich polymeric diet treatment on body composition and energy metabolism in inactive Crohn's disease. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2000; 12: 511.
  • 68
    Russel RI. Review article: dietary and nutritional management of Crohn's disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 1991; 5: 21126.
  • 69
    Bernstein CN, Ament M, Artinian L, Ridgeway J, Shanahan F. Milk intolerance in adults with ulcerative colitis. Am J Gastroenterol 1994; 89: 8727.
  • 70
    Scott EM, Gaywood I, Scott BB. Guidelines for osteoporosis in coeliac disease and inflammatory bowel disease. Gut 2000; 46(Suppl. 1): i18.
  • 71
    Lichtenstein GR. Management of bone loss inflammatory bowel disease. Semin Gastrointest Dis 2001; 12: 27583.
  • 72
    Bernstein CN, Seeger LL, Anton PA, et al. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of calcium supplementation for decreased bone density in corticosteroid-using patients with inflammatory bowel disease: a pilot study. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 1996; 10: 77786.
  • 73
    Von Tirpitz C, Laus J, Bruckel J, et al. Increase of bone mineral density with sodium fluoride in patients with Crohn's disease. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2000; 12: 1924.
  • 74
    Vogelsang H, Ferenci P, Resch H, Kiss A, Gangl A. Prevention of bone mineral loss in patients with Crohn's disease with long term oral vitamin D supplementation. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 1995; 7: 60914.
  • 75
    American College of Rheumatology Task Force on Osteoporosis Guidelines. Recommendations for the prevention and treatment of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. Arthritis Rheum 1996; 39: 1791801.
  • 76
    Valentine JF, Sninsky CA. Prevention and treatment of osteoporosis in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Am J Gastroenterol 1999; 94: 87883.
    Direct Link:
  • 77
    Compston J. Prevention and treatment of osteoporosis: Clinical guidelines and new evidence. J R Coll Physicians Lond 2000; 34: 51821.
  • 78
    Ames BN. Micronutrient deficiencies. A major cause of DNA damage. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1999; 889: 87106.
  • 79
    Itzkowitz SH. Inflammatory bowel disease and cancer. Gastroenterol Clin North Am 1997; 26: 12939.
  • 80
    Jubb AM, Bell SM, Quirke P. Methylation and colorectal cancer. J Pathol 2001; 195: 11134.
  • 81
    Kim YI, Baik HW, Fawaz K, et al. Effects of folate supplementation on two provisional molecular markers of colon cancer: a prospective, randomized trial. Am J Gastroenterol 2001; 96: 18495.
    Direct Link:
  • 82
    Cravo ML, Pinto AG, Chaves P, et al. Effect of folate supplementation on DNA methylation of rectal mucosa of patients with colonic adenomas: correlation with nutrient intake. Clin Nutr 1998; 17: 459.
  • 83
    Cravo ML, Albuquerque CM, Salazar de Sousa L, et al. Microsatellite instability in non-neoplastic mucosa of patients with ulcerative colitis: effect of folate supplementation. Am J Gastroenterol 1998; 93: 20604.
    Direct Link:
  • 84
    Biasco G, Zannoni U, Paganelli GM, et al. Folic acid supplementation and cell kinetics of rectal mucosa in patients with ulcerative colitis. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 1997; 6: 46971.
  • 85
    Isgar B, Harman M, Whorwell PJ. Factors preceding relapse of ulcerative colitis. Digestion 1983; 26: 2368.
  • 86
    Gebhard RL, Greenberg HB, Singh N, et al. Acute viral enteritis and exacerbations of inflammatory bowel disease. Gastroenterology 1982; 83: 12079.
  • 87
    Probert CS, Bhakta P, Bhamra B, Jayanthi V, Mayberry JF. Diet of South Asians with inflammatory bowel disease. Arq Gastroenterol 1996; 33: 1325.
  • 88
    O'Morain C, Segal AW, Levi AJ. Elemental diet as primary treatment of acute Crohn's disease: a controlled trial. Br Med J 1984; 288: 185962.
  • 89
    Heuschkel RB, Menache CC, Megerian JT, et al. Enteral nutrition and corticosteroids in the treatment of acute Crohn's disease in children. J Paediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2000; 31: 90510.
  • 90
    Fernandez Banares F, Cabre E, Esteve Comas M, et al. How effective is enteral nutrition in inducing clinical remission in active Crohn's disease? A meta-analysis of the randomised clinical trials. J Parenter Enteral Nutr 1995; 19: 35664.
  • 91
    Griffiths AM, Ohlsson A, Sherman PM, et al. Meta-analysis of enteral nutrition as a primary treatment of active Crohn's disease. Gastroenterology 1995; 108: 105667.
  • 92
    Messori A, Trallori G, D'Albasio G, et al. Defined-formula diets versus steroids in the treatment of active Crohn's disease: a meta-analysis. Scand J Gastroenterol 1996; 31: 26772.
  • 93
    Zachos M, Tondeur M, Griffiths AM. Enteral nutritional therapy for inducing remission of Crohn's disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2001; 3: CD000542.
  • 94
    Sandborn WJ, Feagan BG, Hanauer SB, et al. A review of activity indices and efficacy endpoints for clinical trials of medical therapy in adults with Crohn's disease. Gastroenterology 2002; 122: 51230.
  • 95
    Summers RW, Switz DM, Sessions JT, et al. National Cooperative Crohn's Disease Study: results of drug treatment. Gastroenterology 1979; 77: 84769.
  • 96
    Teahon K, Bjarnason I, Perason M, Levi AJ. Ten years' experience with an elemental diet in the management of Crohn's disease. Gut 1990; 31: 11337.
  • 97
    Yang YX, Lichtenstein GR. Corticosteroids in Crohn's disease. Am J Gastroenterol 2002; 97: 80323.
    Direct Link:
  • 98
    Dear KL, Compston JE, Hunter JO. Treatments for Crohn's disease that minimise steroid doses are associated with a reduced risk of osteoporosis. Clin Nutr 2001; 20: 5416.
  • 99
    O'Sullivan M, O'Morain C. Nutritional therapy in Crohn's disease. Inflamm Bowel Dis 1998; 4: 4553.
  • 100
    Middleton SJ, Rucker JT, Kirby GA, et al. Long-chain triglycerides reduce the efficacy of enteral feeds in patients with active Crohn's disease. Clin Nutr 1995; 14: 22936.
  • 101
    Geerling BJ, Badart-Smook A, Van Deursen C, et al. Nutritional supplementation with n-3 fatty acids and anitioxidants in patients with Crohn's disease in remission: effect on antioxidant and fatty acid profile. Inflamm Bowel Dis 2000; 6: 7784.
  • 102
    Lomer MC, Harvey RS, Evans SM, Thompson RP, Powell JJ. Efficacy and tolerability of a low microparticle diet in a double-blind, randomized, pilot study in Crohn's disease. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2001; 13: 1016.
  • 103
    Brennan E. Nutrition support in adult Crohn's disease. Complete Nutr 2002; 2: 157.
  • 104
    Sakurai T, Matsui T, Yao T, et al. Short-term efficacy of enteral nutrition in the treatment of active Crohn's disease: a randomized controlled trial comparing nutrient formulas. J Parenter Enteral Nutr 2002; 26: 98103.
  • 105
    Alun Jones V, Workman E, Freeman AH, et al. Crohn's disease: maintenance of remission by diet. Lancet 1985; ii: 17780.
  • 106
    Riordan AM, Hunter JO, Cowan RE, et al. Treatment of active Crohn's disease by exclusion diet. East Anglian Multicentre Controlled Trial. Lancet 1993; 342: 11314.
  • 107
    Woolner JT, Parker TJ, Kirby GA, Hunter JO. The development and evaluation of a diet for maintaining remission in Crohn's disease. J Hum Nutr Dietetics 1998; 11: 111.
  • 108
    Verma S, Holdsworth CD, Giaffer MH. Does adjuvant nutritional support diminish steroid dependency in Crohn's disease? Scand J Gastroenterol 2001; 4: 3838.
  • 109
    Fell JME, Paintin M, Arnaud-Battandier F, et al. Mucosal healing and a decrease in mucosal proinflammatory cytokine mRNA induced by a specific oral polymeric diet in pediatric Crohn's disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2000; 14: 2819.
  • 110
    Lochs H, Steinhardt HJ, Klaus-Weitz M, et al. Comparison of enteral nutrition and drug treatment in active Crohn's disease. Results of the European Cooperative Crohn's Disease Study IV. Gastroenterology 1991; 101: 8818.
  • 111
    Malchow H, Steinhardt HJ, Lorenz-Meyer H, et al. European Cooperative Crohn's Disease Study III. Scand J Gastroenterol 1990; 25: 23544.
  • 112
    Geerling BJ, Van Houwelingen AC, Badart-Smook A, et al. The relation between antioxidant status and alterations in fatty acid profile in patients with Crohn's disease and controls. Scand J Gastroenterol 1999; 34: 110816.
  • 113
    Belluzi A, Boschi S, Brignola C, et al. Polyunsaturated fatty acids and inflammatory bowel disease. Am J Clin Nutr 2000; 71(Suppl. 1): 339S342S.
  • 114
    Belluzi A, Brignola C, Campieri M, Pera A, Boschi S, Miglioli M. Effect of an enteric-coated fish-oil preparation on relapses in inflammatory bowel disease. N Engl J Med 1996; 334: 155760.
  • 115
    Lorenz-Meyer H, Bauer P, Nicolay C, et al. Omega-3 fatty acids and low carbohydrate diet for maintenance of remission in Crohn's disease. A randomised controlled multi-centre trial. Study Group Members (German Crohn's Disease Study Group). Scand J Gastroenterol 1996; 31: 77885.
  • 116
    Endres S, Lorenz R, Loeschke K. Lipid treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 1999; 2: 11720.
  • 117
    Aslan A, Triadafilopoulos G. Fish oil fatty acid supplementation in active ulcerative colitis. Am J Gastroenterol 1992; 87: 4327.
  • 118
    Middleton SJ, Naylor S, Woolner J, Hunter JO. A double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial of essential fatty acid supplementation in the maintenance of remission of ulcerative colitis. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2002; 16: 11315.
  • 119
    Scolapio JS. The role of total parenteral nutrition in the management of patients with acute attacks of inflammatory bowel disease. J Clin Gastroenterol 1999; 29: 2234.
  • 120
    Duerksen DR, Nehra V, Bistrian BR, Blackburn GL. Appropriate nutritional support in acute and complicated Crohn's disease. Nutrition 1998; 14: 4625.
  • 121
    Greenberg GR, Fleming CR, Jeejeebhoy KN, et al. Controlled trial of bowel rest and nutritional support in the management of Crohn's disease. Gut 1988; 29: 130915.
  • 122
    Lochs H, Meryn S, Marosi L, et al. Has total bowel rest a beneficial effect in the treatment of Crohn's disease. Clin Nutr 1983; 2: 614.
  • 123
    Makhdoom ZA, Komar MJ, Still CD. Nutrition and enterocutaneous fistulas. J Clin Gastroenterol 2000; 31: 195204.
  • 124
    Khanna MP, Gordon PH. Gastrocolic fistulization in Crohn's disease: a case report and a review of the literature. Can J Surg 2000; 43: 536.
  • 125
    Jackson NC, Carroll PV, Russel-Jones DL, Sonksen PH, Treacher DF, Umpleby AM. Effects of glutamine supplementation, GH, and IGH-1 on glutamine metabolism in critically ill patients. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2000; 278: E22633.
  • 126
    Chen K, Okuma T, Okamura K, et al. Glutamine-supplemented parenteral nutrition improves gut mucosa integrity and function in endotoxemic rats. J Parenter Enteral Nutr 1994; 18: 16771.
  • 127
    Kudsk KA, Wu Y, Fukatsu K, et al. Glutamine-enriched total parenteral nutrition maintains intestinal interleukin-4 and mucosal immunoglobulin A levels. J Parenter Enteral Nutr 2000; 24: 2704.
  • 128
    Kolstad O, Jenssen TG, Ingebretsen OC, Vinnars E, Revhaug A. Combination of recombinant human growth hormone and glutamine-enriched total parenteral nutrition to surgical patients: effects on circulating amino acids. Clin Nutr 2001; 20: 50310.
  • 129
    Den Hond E, Hiele M, Peeters M, Ghoos Y, Rutgeerts P. Effect of long-term oral glutamine supplements on small intestinal permeability in Crohn's disease. J Parenter Enteral Nutr 1999; 23: 711.
  • 130
    Akobeng AK, Miller V, Stanton J, Elbadri AM, Thomas AG. Double-blind randomized controlled trial of glutamine-enriched polymeric diet in the treatment of active Crohn's disease. J Paediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2000; 30: 7884.
  • 131
    Linskens RK, Huijsdens XW, Savelkoul PH, Vandernbroucke-Grauls CM, Meuwissen SG. The bacterial flora in inflammatory bowel disease: current insights in pathogenesis and the influence of antibiotics and probiotics. Scand J Gastroenterol Suppl 2001; 234: 2940.
  • 132
    Campieri M, Gionchetti P. Bacteria as the cause of ulcerative colitis. Gut 2001; 48: 1325.
  • 133
    Chapman MA. The role of the colonic flora in maintaining a healthy large bowel mucosa. Ann R Coll Surg Engl 2001; 83: 7580.
  • 134
    Shanahan F. Probiotics and inflammatory bowel disease: is there a scientific rationale? Inflamm Bowel Dis 2000; 6: 10715.
  • 135
    Schultz M, Sartor RB. Probiotics and inflammatory bowel disease. Am J Gastroenterol 2000; 95: S1921.
  • 136
    D'Angenio G, Mazzacca G. Short chain fatty acids in the human colon: relationship to inflammatory bowel disease and colon cancer. Adv Exp Med Biol 1999; 472: 14958.
  • 137
    Segain JP, Raingeard de la Bletierre D, Bourreille A, et al. Butyrate inhibits inflammatory responses through NF-kB inhibition: implications for Crohn's disease. Gut 2000; 47: 397403.
  • 138
    Liu Q, Shimoyama T, Suzuki K, Umeda T, Nakaji S, Sugawara K. Effect of sodium butyrate on reactive oxygen species generation by human neutrophils. Scand J Gastroenterol 2001; 36: 74450.
  • 139
    Scheppach W, Christl SU, Bartram HP, Richter F, Kasper H. Effects of short-chain fatty acids on the inflamed colonic mucosa. Scand J Gastroenterol Suppl 1997; 222: 537.
  • 140
    Fukuda M, Kanauchi O, Araki Y, et al. Prebiotic treatment of experimental colitis with germinated barley foodstuff: a comparison with probiotic or antibiotic treatment. Int J Mol Med 2002; 9: 6570.
  • 141
    Araki Y, Andoh A, Koyama S, et al. Effects of germinated foodstuff on microflora and short chain fatty acid production and dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis in rats. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2000; 64: 1794800.
  • 142
    Kanauchi O, Andoh A, Iwanaga T, et al. Germinated barley foodstuffs attenuate colonic mucosal damage and mucosal nuclear factor kappa B activity in a spontaneous colitis model. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 1999; 14: 11739.
  • 143
    Mitsuyama K, Saiki T, Kanauchi O, et al. Treatment of ulcerative colitis with germinated barley foodstuff feeding: a pilot study. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 1998; 12: 122530.
  • 144
    Kanauchi O, Iwanaga T, Mitsuyama K. Germinated barley foodstuff feeding. A novel neutraceutical strategy for ulcerative colitis. Digestion 2001; 63: 607.
  • 145
    Araki Y, Andoh A, Fujiyama Y, et al. Germinated barley foodstuff exhibits different adsorption properties for hydrophilic versus hydrophobic bile acids. Digestion 2001; 64: 24854.
  • 146
    Fernandez-Banares F, Hinojosa J, Sanchez-Lombrana JL, et al. Randomised clinical trial of Plantago ovata seeds (dietary fiber) compared with mesalamine in maintaining remission in ulcerative colitis. Spanish Group for the Study of Crohn's Disease and Ulcerative Colitis. Am J Gastroenterol 1999; 94: 42733.
    Direct Link:
  • 147
    O'Sullivan M, O'Morain C. Liquid diets for Crohn's disease. Gut 2001; 48: 757.