SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • 1
    Lee WM. Hepatitis B virus infection. N Engl J Med, 1997; 337: 173345.
  • 2
    Maddrey WC. Hepatitis B: an important public health issue. J Med Virol 2000; 61: 3626.
  • 3
    Hoofnagle JH, Shafritz DA, Popper H. Chronic type B hepatitis and the ‘healthy’ HBsAg carrier state. Hepatology 1987; 7: 75863.
  • 4
    Liaw YF, Tai DI, Chu CM, Chen TJ. The development of cirrhosis in patients with chronic type B hepatitis: a prospective study. Hepatology 1988; 8: 4936.
  • 5
    Fattovich G, Brollo L, Giustina G, et al. Natural history and prognostic factors for chronic hepatitis type B. Gut 1991; 32: 2948.
  • 6
    Weissberg JI, Andres LL, Smith CI, et al. Survival in chronic hepatitis B. An analysis of 379 patients. Ann Intern Med 1984; 101: 6136.
  • 7
    De Jongh FE, Janssen HLA, De Man RA, Hop WCJ, Schalm SW, Van Blankenstein M. Survival and prognostic indicators in HBsAg-positive cirrhosis of the liver. Gastroenterology 1992; 103: 16305.
  • 8
    Realdi G, Fattovich G, Hadziyannis S, et al. Survival and prognostic factors in 366 patients with compensated cirrhosis type B: a multicenter study. J Hepatol 1994; 21: 65666.
  • 9
    Beasley RP. The major etiology of hepatocellular carcinoma. Cancer 1988; 61: 194256.
  • 10
    Maynard JE. Hepatitis B: global importance and need for control. Vaccine 1990; 8(Suppl.): S1820.
  • 11
    Margolis HS, Alter MJ, Hadler SC. Hepatitis B: evolving epidemiology and implications for control. Semin Liver Dis 1991; 11: 8492.
  • 12
    Lok AS, Heathcote EJ, Hoofnagle JH. Management of hepatitis B: 2000 — Summary of a workshop. Gastroenterology 2001; 120: 182853.
  • 13
    Hadziyannis SJ, Vassilopoulos D. Hepatitis B e antigen-negative chronic hepatitis B. Hepatology 2001; 34: 61724.
  • 14
    Lok ASF, McMahon BJ. Chronic hepatitis B. Hepatology 2001; 34: 122541.
  • 15
    Hoofnagle JH, Dusheiko GM, Seeff LB, Jones A, Waggoner JG, Bales ZB. Seroconversion from hepatitis B e antigen to antibody in chronic type B hepatitis. Ann Intern Med 1981; 94: 7448.
  • 16
    Fattovich G, Rugge M, Brollo L, et al. Clinical, virologic and histologic outcome following seroconversion from HBeAg to anti-HBe in chronic hepatitis type B. Hepatology 1986; 6: 16772.
  • 17
    Yang H-I, Lu S-N, Liaw Y-F, et al. Hepatitis B e antigen and the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. N Engl J Med 2002; 347: 16874.
  • 18
    Hadziyannis SJ. Hepatitis B e antigen negative chronic hepatitis B. From clinical recognition to pathogenesis and treatment. Vir Hep Rev 1995; 1: 736.
  • 19
    Hunt CM, McGill JM, Allen ML, Condreay LD. Clinical relevance of hepatitis B virus mutations. Hepatology 2000; 31: 103744.
  • 20
    Papatheodoridis GV, Hadziyannis SJ. Diagnosis and management of pre-core mutant chronic hepatitis B. J Viral Hepat 2001; 8: 31121.
  • 21
    Bonino F, Rosina F, Rizzetto M, et al. Chronic hepatitis in HBsAg carriers with serum HBV-DNA and anti-HBe. Gastroenterology 1986; 90: 126873.
  • 22
    Brunetto MR, Giarin M, Oliveri F, et al. Wild type and e antigen-minus hepatitis B virus in course of chronic hepatitis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1991; 88: 418690.
  • 23
    Hadziyannis S, Bramou A, Alexopoulou A, et al. Immunopathogenesis and natural course of anti-HBe-positive chronic hepatitis with replicating B virus. In: HollingerFB, LemonSM, MargolisHS, eds. Viral Hepatitis and Liver Disease. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1991: 6736.
  • 24
    Naoumov NV, Schneider R, Grotzinger T, et al. Precore mutant hepatitis B virus infection and liver disease. Gastroenterology 1992; 102: 53843.
  • 25
    Lai ME, Solinas A, Mazzoleni AP, et al. The role of pre-core hepatitis B virus mutants on the long-term outcome of chronic hepatitis B virus hepatitis. A longitudinal study. J Hepatol 1994; 20: 77381.
  • 26
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Prevention of hepatitis A through active or passive immunization: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 1996; 45: 130.
  • 27
    Chevillotte G, Durbec JP, Gerolami A, Berthezene P, Bidart JM, Camatte R. Interaction between hepatitis B virus and alcohol consumption in liver cirrhosis: an epidemiologic study. Gastroenterology 1983; 85: 1415.
  • 28
    Brunetto MR, Oliveri F, Coco B, et al. Outcome of anti-HBe positive chronic hepatitis B in alpha-interferon treated and untreated patients: a long-term cohort study. J Hepatol 2002; 36: 26370.
  • 29
    Manesis E, Papatheodoridis GV, Sevastianos V, Cholongitas E, Papaioannou C, Hadziyannis SJ. Significance of hepatitis B viremia levels determined by a quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay in patients with HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B virus infection. Am J Gastroenterol 2003; 98: 22617.
  • 30
    Chu C-J, Hussain M, Lok ASF. Quantitative serum HBV DNA levels during different stages of chronic hepatitis B infection. Hepatology 2002; 36: 140815.
  • 31
    Wong DKH, Cheung AM, O'Rourke K, Naylor CD, Detsky AS, Heathcote J. Effect of alpha-interferon in patients with hepatitis B e antigen-positive chronic hepatitis B. A meta-analysis. Ann Intern Med 1993; 119: 31223.
  • 32
    Brook MG, Karayiannis P, Thomas HC. Which patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection will respond to α-interferon therapy? A statistical analysis of predictive factors. Hepatology 1989; 10: 7613.
  • 33
    Brunetto MR, Oliveri F, Colombatto P, Capalbo M, Barbera C, Bonino F. Treatment of chronic anti-HBe-positive hepatitis B with interferon-alpha. J Hepatol 1995; 22: 424.
  • 34
    Korenman J, Baker B, Waggoner J, Everhart JE, Di Bisceglie AM, Hoofnagle JH. Long-term remission of chronic hepatitis B after alpha-interferon therapy. Ann Intern Med 1991; 114: 62934.
  • 35
    Kuhns M, McNamara A, Mason A, Campbell C, Perrillo R. Serum and liver hepatitis B virus DNA in chronic hepatitis B after sustained loss of surface antigen. Gastroenterology 1992; 103: 164956.
  • 36
    Komori M, Yuki N, Nagaoka T, et al. Long-term clinical impact of occult hepatitis B virus infection in chronic hepatitis B patients. J Hepatol 2001; 35: 798804.
  • 37
    Niederau C, Heintges T, Lange S, et al. Long-term follow-up of HBeAg-positive patients treated with interferon alfa for chronic hepatitis B. N Engl J Med 1996; 334: 14227.
  • 38
    Hadziyannis SJ, Papatheodoridis GV, Vassilopoulos D. Treatment of HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B. Semin Liver Dis 2003; 23: 818.
  • 39
    Manesis EK, Hadziyannis SJ. Interferon-alpha treatment and retreatment of hepatitis B e antigen-negative chronic hepatitis B. Gastroenterology 2001; 121: 1019.
  • 40
    Papatheodoridis GV, Manesis E, Hadziyannis SJ. The long-term outcome of interferon-α treated and untreated patients with HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B. J Hepatol 2001; 34: 30613.
  • 41
    Gerken G, Gomez J, Lambertico P, et al. Clinical evaluation and applications of the Amplicor HBV Monitor test, a quantitative HBV DNA PCR assay. J Virol Meth 1998; 74: 15565.
  • 42
    Pawlotsky J-M. Molecular diagnosis of viral hepatitis. Gastroenterology 2002; 122: 155468.
  • 43
    Hoofnagle JH, Di Bisceglie AM. The treatment of chronic viral hepatitis. N Engl J Med 1997; 336: 34756.
  • 44
    Van Nunen AB, Hansen BE, Suh DJ, et al. Durability of HBeAg seroconversion following antiviral therapy for chronic hepatitis B: relation to type of therapy and pretreatment serum hepatitis B virus DNA and alanine aminotransferase. Gut 2003; 52: 4204.
  • 45
    Janssen HL, Gerken G, Carreno V, et al. Interferon alfa for chronic hepatitis B infection: increased efficacy of prolonged treatment. The European Concerted Action on Viral Hepatitis (EUROHEP). Hepatology 1999; 30: 23843.
  • 46
    Lampertico P, Del Ninno E, Vigano M, et al. Long-term suppression of hepatitis B e antigen-negative chronic hepatitis B by 24-month interferon therapy. Hepatology 2003; 37: 75663.
  • 47
    National Institute of Health. National Institute of Health Consensus Development Conference Statement: Management of hepatitis C: 2002 — June 10–12, 2002. Hepatology 2002; 36(Suppl. 1): S320.
  • 48
    Cooksley WG, Piratvisuth T, Lee SD, et al. Peginterferon alpha-2a (40 kDa): an advance in the treatment of hepatitis B e antigen-positive chronic hepatitis B. J Viral Hepat 2003; 10: 298305.
  • 49
    Vinayek R, Shakil O. Adverse events associated with interferon-alfa therapy in patients with chronic viral hepatitis. Viral Hep Rev 1997; 3: 16777.
  • 50
    Wong JB, Koff RS, Tine F, Pauker SG. Cost-effectiveness of interferon-alpha 2b treatment for hepatitis B e antigen-positive chronic hepatitis B. Ann Intern Med 1995; 122: 66475.
  • 51
    Jarvis B, Faulds D. Lamivudine. A review of its therapeutic potential in chronic hepatitis B. Drugs 1999; 58: 10141.
  • 52
    Lai C-L, Chien R-N, Leung NWY, et al. A one-year trial of lamivudine for chronic hepatitis B. N Engl J Med 1998; 339: 618.
  • 53
    Dienstag JL, Schiff ER, Wright TL, et al. Lamivudine as initial treatment for chronic hepatitis B in the United States. N Engl J Med 1999; 341: 125663.
  • 54
    Chien RN, Liaw YF, Atkins M. Pretherapy alanine transaminase level as a determinant for hepatitis B e antigen seroconversion during lamivudine therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis B. Hepatology 1999; 30: 7704.
  • 55
    Dienstag JL, Schiff ER, Mitchell M, et al. Extended lamivudine retreatment for chronic hepatitis B: maintenance of viral suppression after discontinuation of therapy. Hepatology 1999; 30: 10827.
  • 56
    Schiff E, Cianciara J, Karayalcin S, et al. Durable HBeAg and HBsAg seroconversion after lamivudine for chronic hepatitis B. J Hepatol 2000; 32(Suppl. 2): 99.
  • 57
    Chang TT, Lai CL, Liaw YF, et al. Incremental increases in HBeAg seroconversion and continued ALT normalisation in Asian chronic HBV (CHB) patients treated with lamivudine for four years. Antiviral Ther 2000; 5(Suppl. 1): 44.
  • 58
    Song B-C, Suh DJ, Lee HC, Chung Y-H, Lee YS. Hepatitis B e antigen seroconversion after lamivudine therapy is not durable in patients with chronic hepatitis B in Korea. Hepatology 2000; 32: 8036.
  • 59
    Leung NW, Liaw Y-F, Chang T-T, et al. Durable HBeAg response in Chinese patients treated with lamivudine. Hepatology 2001; 34: 348A.
  • 60
    Leung NWY, Lai CL, Chang TT, et al. Three year lamivudine therapy in chronic HBV. J Hepatol 1999; 30(Suppl. 1): 59.
  • 61
    Liaw Y-F, Leung NWY, Chang T-T, et al. Effects of extended lamivudine therapy in Asian patients with chronic hepatitis B. Gastroenterology 2000; 119: 17280.
  • 62
    Tassopoulos NC, Volpes R, Pastore G, et al. Efficacy of lamivudine in patients with hepatitis B e antigen-negative/hepatitis B virus DNA-positive (precore mutant) chronic hepatitis B. Hepatology 1999; 29: 88996.
  • 63
    Hadziyannis SJ, Papatheodoridis GV, Dimou E, Laras A, Papaioannou C. Efficacy of long-term lamivudine monotherapy in patients with HBeAg negative chronic hepatitis B. Hepatology 2000; 32: 84751.
  • 64
    Papatheodoridis GV, Dimou E, Laras A, Papadimitropoulos V, Hadziyannis SJ. Course of virologic breakthroughs under long-term lamivudine in HBeAg-negative precore mutant HBV liver disease. Hepatology 2002; 36: 21926.
  • 65
    Tassopoulos NC, Volpes R, Pastore G, et al. Post lamivudine treatment follow up of patients with HBeAg negative chronic hepatitis B. J Hepatol 1999; 30(Suppl. 1): 117.
  • 66
    Santantonio T, Mazzola M, Iacovazzi T, Miglietta A, Guastadisegni A, Pastore G. Long-term follow-up of patients with anti-HBe/HBV DNA-positive chronic hepatitis B treated for 12 months with lamivudine. J Hepatol 2000; 32: 3006.
  • 67
    Di Marco V, Marzano A, Lampertico P, et al. The course of anti-HBe/HBV-DNA positive chronic liver disease during long-term lamivudine treatment. J Hepatol 2003; 38(Suppl. 2): 25.
  • 68
    Papatheodoridis GV, Dimou E, Papadimitropoulos V. Nucleoside analogues for chronic hepatitis B: antiviral efficacy and viral resistance. Am J Gastroenterol 2002; 97: 161828.
    Direct Link:
  • 69
    Allen MI, Deslauriers M, Andrews CW, et al. Identification and characterization of mutations in hepatitis B virus resistant to lamivudine. Lamivudine Clinical Investigation Group. Hepatology 1998; 27: 16707.
  • 70
    Chayama K, Suzuki Y, Kobayashi M, et al. Emergence and takeover of YMDD motif mutant hepatitis B virus during long-term lamivudine therapy and re-takeover by wild type after cessation of therapy. Hepatology 1998; 27: 17116.
  • 71
    Melegari M, Scaglioni PP, Wands JR. Hepatitis B virus mutants associated with 3TC and famciclovir administration are replication defective. Hepatology 1998; 27: 62833.
  • 72
    Lau DTY, Khokhar MF, Doo E, et al. Long-term therapy of chronic hepatitis B with lamivudine. Hepatology 2000; 32: 82834.
  • 73
    Dienstag JL, Goldin RD, Heathcote EJ, et al. Histologic outcome during long-term lamivudine therapy. Gastroenterology 2003; 124: 10517.
  • 74
    Cundy KC. Clinical pharmacokinetics of the antiviral nucleotide analogues cidofovir and adefovir. Clin Pharmacokinet 1999; 36: 12743.
  • 75
    Marcellin P, Chang TT, Lim SG, et al. Adefovir dipivoxil for the treatment of hepatitis B antigen-positive chronic hepatitis B. N Engl J Med 2003; 348: 80816.
  • 76
    Hadziyannis SJ, Tassopoulos NC, Heathcote EJ, et al. Adefovir dipivoxil for the treatment of hepatitis B antigen-negative chronic hepatitis B. N Engl J Med 2003; 348: 8007.
  • 77
    Knight W, Hayashi S, Benhamou Y, et al. Dosing guidelines for adefovir dipivoxil in the treatment of HBV infected patients with renal or hepatic impairment. J Hepatol 2002; 36(Suppl. 1): 136.
  • 78
    Marcellin P, Chang TT, Lim SG, et al. Baseline ALT predicts histological and serological response in patients with HBeAg+ chronic hepatitis B treated with adefovir dipivoxil (ADV). J Hepatol 2002; 36(Suppl. 1): 1223.
  • 79
    Heathcote E, Jeffers L, Perrillo R, et al. Sustained antiviral response and lack of viral resistance with long-term adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) therapy in chronic HBV infection. J Hepatol 2002; 36(Suppl. 1): 1101.
  • 80
    Hadziyannis S, Tassopoulos N, Heathcote E, et al. Two year results from a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study of adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) for presumed precore mutant chronic hepatitis B. J Hepatol 2003; 38(Suppl. 2): 143.
  • 81
    Xiong S, Yang H, Westland CE, et al. Resistance surveillance of HBeAg-chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients treated for two years with adefovir dipivoxil (ADV). J Hepatol 2003; 38(Suppl. 2): 182.
  • 82
    Angus P, Vaughan R, Xiong S, et al. Resistance to adefovir dipivoxil therapy associated with the selection of a novel mutation in the HBV polymerase. Gastroenterology 2003; 125: 2927.
  • 83
    Hadziyannis SJ. Treatment options for chronic hepatitis B not responding to interferon. J Hepatol 2003; 38: 8535.
  • 84
    Carreno V, Marcellin P, Hadziyannis S, et al. Retreatment of chronic hepatitis B e antigen-positive patients with recombinant interferon alfa-2a. The European Concerted Action on Viral Hepatitis (EUROHEP). Hepatology 1999; 30: 27782.
  • 85
    Honkoop P, De Man RA, Niesters HGM, Zondervan PE, Schalm SW. Acute exacerbation of chronic hepatitis B virus infection after withdrawal of lamivudine therapy. Hepatology 2000; 32: 6359.
  • 86
    Hadziyannis SJ, Papatheodoridis GV. Treatment of HBeAg negative chronic hepatitis B with new drugs (adefovir and others). J Hepatol 2003; 39(Suppl. 1): S1726.
  • 87
    Perrillo R, Schiff E, Yoshida E, et al. Adefovir dipivoxil for the treatment of lamivudine-resistant hepatitis B mutants. Hepatology 2000; 32: 12934.
  • 88
    Ahmad J, Dodson SF, Balan V, et al. Adefovir dipivoxil suppresses lamivudine resistant hepatitis B virus in liver transplant recipients. Hepatology 2000; 32(Suppl.): 292A.
  • 89
    Perrillo R, Schiff E, Hann H-WL, et al. The addition of adefovir dipivoxil to lamivudine in decompensated chronic hepatitis B patients with YMDD variant HBV and reduced response to lamivudine — preliminary 24 week results. Hepatology 2001; 34: 349A.
  • 90
    Schiff E, Neuhaus P, Tillmann H, et al. Adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) for the treatment of lamivudine resistant HBV (LAM-R) in post liver transplant (post-OLT) patients. J Hepatol 2002; 36(Suppl. 1): 32.
  • 91
    Westland CE, Yang H, Namimi H, et al. Comparison of anti-HBV activity of adefovir against different lamivudine-resistant HBV strains in vitro and in liver transplant patients. Hepatology 2001; 34: 446A.
  • 92
    Peters M, Hann HW, Martin P, et al. Adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) alone and in combination with lamivudine (LAM) suppresses YMDD mutant hepatitis B virus replication: 16 week preliminary analysis. Hepatology 2002; 36: 374A.
  • 93
    Yamanaka G, Wilson T, Innaimo S, et al. Metabolic studies on BMS-200475, a new antiviral compound active against hepatitis B virus. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1999; 43: 1903.
  • 94
    De Man R, Wolters L, Nevens F, et al. A study of oral entecavir given for 28 days in both treatment-naive and pre-treated subjects with chronic hepatitis. Hepatology 2000; 32(Suppl.): 376A.
  • 95
    Tassopoulos N, Hadziyannis S, Cianciara J, et al. Entecavir is effective in treating patients with chronic hepatitis B who have failed lamivudine therapy. Hepatology 2001; 34: 340A.
  • 96
    Chang T-T, Hadziyannis S, Cianciara J, et al. Sustained viral load and ALT reduction following 48 weeks of entecavir treatment in subjects with chronic hepatitis B who have failed lamivudine. Hepatology 2002; 36: 300A.
  • 97
    Shakil AO, Lilly L, Angus P, et al. Entecavir significantly reduces viral load in liver transplant recipients failing lamivudine therapy for chronic hepatitis B infection. J Hepatol 2002; 36(Suppl. 1): 122.
  • 98
    Torresi J, Locarnini S. Antiviral chemotherapy for the treatment of hepatitis B virus infections. Gastroenterology 2000; 118(Suppl.): S83103.
  • 99
    Shaw T, Locarnini S. Combination chemotherapy for hepatitis B virus: the final solution? Hepatology 2000; 32: 4302.
  • 100
    Schalm SW, Heathcote J, Cianciara J, et al. Lamivudine and alpha interferon combination treatment of patients with chronic hepatitis B infection: a randomised trial. Gut 2000; 46: 5628.
  • 101
    Barbaro G, Zechini F, Pellicelli AM, et al. Long-term efficacy of interferon alpha-2b and lamivudine in combination compared to lamivudine monotherapy in patients with chronic hepatitis B. An Italian multicenter, randomized trial. J Hepatol 2001; 35: 40611.
  • 102
    Sung JJY, Chan HLY, Hui AY, et al. Combination of pegylated interferon and lamivudine is superior to lamivudine monotherapy in the treatment of chronic hepatitis B — a randomized trial. J Hepatol 2003; 38(Suppl. 2): 33.
  • 103
    Santantonio T, Anna NG, Sinisi E, et al. Lamivudine/interferon combination therapy in anti-HBe positive chronic hepatitis B patients: a controlled pilot study. J Hepatol 2002; 36: 799804.
  • 104
    Schiff ER, Dienstag JL, Karayalcin S, et al. Lamivudine and 24 weeks of lamivudine/interferon combination therapy for hepatitis B e antigen-positive chronic hepatitis B in interferon nonresponders. J Hepatol 2003; 38: 81826.
  • 105
    Sung JJY, Lai JY, Zeuzem S, et al. A randomised double-blind phase II study of lamivudine (LAM) compared to lamivudine plus adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) for treatment naive patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB): week 52 analysis. J Hepatol 2003; 38(Suppl. 2): 256.
  • 106
    Mailliard ME, Gollan JL. Suppressing hepatitis B without resistance — so far, so good. N Engl J Med 2003; 348: 84850.