• 1
    Osborne CK, Fuqua AW. Mechanisms of tamoxifen resistance. Breast Cancer Res Treat 1994; 32: 4955.
  • 2
    Fisher B, Constantino JP, Wickerham DL, et al. Tamoxifen for prevention of breast cancer: report of the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project P-1 study. J Natl Cancer Inst 1998; 90: 13711388.
  • 3
    Foster AB, Griggs LJ, Jarman M, Van Maanen JMS, Schulten H-R. Metabolism of tamoxifen by rat liver microsomes: formation of the N-oxide, a new metabolite. Biochem Pharmacol 1978; 29: 19771979.
  • 4
    Ruenitz PC, Bagley JR, Pape CW. Some chemical and biochemical aspects of liver microsomal metabolism of tamoxifen. Drug Metab Dispos 1984; 12: 478483.
  • 5
    McCague R, Seago A. Aspects of metabolism of tamoxifen by rat liver microsomes. Identification of a new metabolite: E-1-[4-(2-dimethylaminoethoxy)-phenyl]-1, 2-diphenyl-1-buten-3-ol N-oxide. Biochem Pharmacol 1986; 35: 827834.
  • 6
    Fabian C, Tilzer L, Sternson L. Comparative binding affinities of tamoxifen, 4-hydroxytamoxifen, and desmethyltamoxifen for estrogen receptors isolated from human breast carcinoma: correlation with blood levels in patients with metastatic breast cancer. Biopharm Drug Dispos 1981; 2: 381390.
  • 7
    Mani C, Gelboin HV, Park SS, Pearce R, Parkinson A, Kupfer D. Metabolism of the antimammary cancer antiestrogenic agent tamoxifen. I. Cytochrome P-450-catalyzed N-demethylation and 4-hydroxylation. Drug Metab Dispos 1993; 21: 645656.
  • 8
    Dehal SS, Kupfer D. CYP2D6 catalyzes tamoxifen 4-hydroxylation in human liver. Cancer Res 1997; 57: 34023406.
  • 9
    Crewe HK, Ellis SW, Lennard MS, Tucker GT. Variable contribution of cytochromes P4502D6, 2C9 and 3A4 to the 4-hydroxylation of tamoxifen by human liver microsomes. Biochem Pharmacol 1997; 53: 171178.
  • 10
    Daly AK, Brockmöller J, Broly F, et al. Nomenclature for human CYP2D6 alleles. Pharmacogenetics 1996; 6: 193201.
  • 11
    Xie H-G, Stein CM, Kim RB, Wilkinson GR, Flockhart DA, Wood AJ. Allelic, genotypic and phenotypic distributions of S-mephenytoin 4′-hydroxylase (CYP2C19) in healthy Caucasian populations of European descent throughout the world. Pharmacogenetics 1999; 9: 539549.
  • 12
    Lang T, Klein K, Fischer J, et al. Extensive genetic polymorphism in the human CYP2B6 gene with impact on expression and function in human liver. Pharmacogenetics 2001; 11: 399415.
  • 13
    Crespi CL, Miller VP. The R144C change in the CYP2C9*2 allele alters interaction of the cytochrome P450 with NADPH. cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase. Pharmacogenetics 1997; 7: 203210.
  • 14
    Gotoh O. Substrate recognition sites in cytochrome P450 family 2 (CYP2) proteins inferred from comparative analyses of amino acid and coding nucleotide sequences. J Biol Chem 1992; 267: 8390.
  • 15
    Rettie AE, Wienkers LC, Gonzalez FJ, Trager WF, Korzekwa KR. Impaired (S)-warfarin metabolism catalysed by the R144C allelic variant of CYP2C9. Pharmacogenetics 1994; 4: 3942.
  • 16
    Sullivan-Klose TH, Ghanayem BI, Bell DA, et al. The role of the CYP2C9-Leu359 allelic variant in the tolbutamide polymorphism. Pharmacogenetics 1996; 6: 341349.
  • 17
    Miners JO, Birkett DJ. Cytochrome P4502C9. An enzyme of major importance in human drug metabolism. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1998; 45: 525538.
  • 18
    Yasar U, Tybring G, Hidestrand M, et al. Role of CYP2C9 polymorphism in losarton oxidation. Drug Metab Dispos 2001; 29: 10511056.
  • 19
    Haining RL, Hunter AP, Veronses ME, Trager WF, Rettie AE. Allelic variants of human cytochrome P450 2C9: Baculovirus-mediated expression, purification, structural characterization, substrate stereoselectivity, and prochiral selectivity of the wild-type and I359L mutant forms. Arch Biochem Biophys 1996; 333: 447458.
  • 20
    Steward DJ, Haining RL, Henne KR, et al. Genetic association between sensitivity to warfarin and expression of CYP2C9*. 3 Pharmacogenetics 1997; 7: 361367.
  • 21
    Forrester LM, Henderson CJ, Glancey MJ, et al. Relative expression of cytochrome P450 isoenzymes in human liver and association with the metabolism of drugs and xenobiotics. Biochem J 1992; 281: 359368.
  • 22
    Venkatakrishnan K, Von Moltke LL, Court MH, Harmatz JS, Crespi CL, Greenblatt DJ. Comparison between cytochrome P450 (CYP) content and relative activity approaches to scaling from cDNA-expressed CYPs to human liver microsomes: Ratios of accessory proteins as sources of discrepancies between the approaches. Drug Metab Dispos 2000; 28: 14931504.
  • 23
    Newton DJ, Wang RW, Lu AYH. Cytochrome P450 inhibitors: Evaluation of specificities in the in vitro metabolism of therapeutic agents by human liver microsomes. Drug Metab Dispos 1995; 23: 154158.
  • 24
    Eagling VA, Tija JF, Back DJ. Differential selectivity of cytochrome P450 inhibitors against probe substrates in human and rat liver microsomes. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1998; 45: 107114.
  • 25
    Sai Y, Dai R, Yang TJ, et al. Assessment of specificity of eight chemical inhibitors using cDNA-expressed cytochromes P450. Xenobiotica 2000; 30: 327343.
  • 26
    Zanger UM, Hauri HP, Loeper J, Homberg JC, Meyer UA. Antibodies against human cytochrome P-450db1 in autoimmune hepatitis type II. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1988; 85: 82568260.
  • 27
    Zanger UM, Fischer J, Raimundo S, et al. Comprehensive analysis of the genetic factors determining expression and function of hepatic CYP2D6. Pharmacogenetics 2001; 11: 573585.
  • 28
    Stüven T, Griese EU, Kroemer HK, Eichelbaum M, Zanger UM. Rapid detection of CYP2D6 null alleles by long distance- and multiplex-polymerase chain reaction. Pharmacogenetics 1996; 6: 417421.
  • 29
    Griese EU, Zanger UM, Brudermanns U, et al. Assessment of the predictive power of genotypes for the in-vivo catalytic function of CYP2D6 in a German population. Pharmacogenetics 1998; 8: 1526.
  • 30
    Hickman D, Wang J-P, Unadkat JD. Evaluation of the selectivity of in vitro probes and suitability of organic solvents for the measurement of human cytochrome P450 monooxygenase activities. Drug Metab Dispos 1998; 26: 207215.
  • 31
    Chauret N, Gauthier A, Nicoll-Griffith DA. Effect of common organic solvents on in vitro cytochrome P450-mediated metabolic activities in human liver microsomes. Drug Metab Dispos 1998; 26: 14.
  • 32
    Bubsy WF, Ackermann JM, Crespi CL. Effect of methanol, ethanol, dimethyl sulfoxide, and acetonitrile on in vitro activities of cDNA-expressed human cytochromes P-450. Drug Metab Dispos 1999; 27: 246249.