• 1
    Nutt JG, Fellman JH. Pharmacokinetics of levodopa. Clin Neuropharmacol 1984; 7: 3549.
  • 2
    Cedarbaum JM. Clinical pharmacokinetics of anti-parkinsonian drugs. Clin Pharmacokinet 1987; 13: 141178.
  • 3
    Dingemanse J, Kleinbloesem CH, Zurcher G, et al. Pharmacodynamics of benserazide assessed by its effects on endogenous and exogenous levodopa pharmacokinetics. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1997; 44: 4148.
  • 4
    Keränen T, Gordin A, Karlsson M, et al. Inhibition of soluble catechol-O-methyltransferase and single-dose pharmacokinetics after oral and intravenous administration of entacapone. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1994; 46: 151157.
  • 5
    Heikkinen H, Saraheimo M, Antila S, et al. Pharmacokinetics of entacapone, a peripherally acting catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibitor, in man. A study using a stable isotope technique. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2001; 56: 821826.
  • 6
    Kaakkola S. Clinical pharmacology, therapeutic use and potential of COMT inhibitors in Parkinson's disease. Drugs 2000; 59: 12331250.
  • 7
    Rinne UK, Larsen JP, Siden Å, et al. Entacapone enhances the response to levodopa in parkinsonian patients with motor fluctuations. Nomecomt Study Group Neurol 1998; 51: 13091314.
  • 8
    Parkinson Study Group. Entacapone improves motor fluctuations in levodopa-treated Parkinson's disease patients. Ann Neurol 1997; 42: 747755.
  • 9
    Myllylä VV, Kultalahti E-R, Haapaniemi H, et al. The Filomen Study Group. Twelve-month safety of entacapone in patients with Parkinson's disease. Eur J Neurol 2001; 8: 5360.
  • 10
    Waters C. Practical issues with COMT inhibitors in Parkinson's disease. Neurology 2000; 55: 5759.
  • 11
    Kaakkola S, Teräväinen H, Ahtila S, et al. Entacapone in combination with standard or controlled-release levodopa/carbidopa. a clinical and pharmacokinetic study in patients with Parkinson's disease. Eur J Neurol 1995; 2: 341347.
  • 12
    Ruottinen HM, Rinne UK. Entacapone prolongs levodopa response in a one month double blind study in parkinsonian patients with levodopa related fluctuations. J Neurol Neurosurg Psych 1996; 60: 3640.
  • 13
    Heikkinen H, Nutt JG, LeWitt PA, et al. The effects of different repeated doses of entacapone on the pharmacokinetics of l-dopa and on the clinical response to l-dopa in Parkinson's disease. Clin Neuropharmacol 2001; 24: 150157.
  • 14
    Wikberg T. Simultaneous determination of levodopa, its main metabolites and carbidopa in plasma by liquid chromatography. J Pharm Biomed Anal 1991; 9: 167176.
  • 15
    Karlsson M, Wikberg T. Liquid chromatographic determination of a new catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibitor, entacapone, and its Z-isomer in human plasma and urine. J Pharm Biomed Anal 1992; 10: 593600.
  • 16
    Wade D, Mearrick PT, Birkett DJ, Morris J. Variability of l-dopa absorption in man. Aust NZ J Med 1974; 4: 138 143.
  • 17
    Robertson DRC, George CF. Drug therapy for Parkinson's disease in the elderly. Br Med Bull 1990; 46: 124146.
  • 18
    Kaakkola S, Männistö PT, Nissinen E, et al. The effect of an increased ratio of carbidopa to levodopa on the pharmacokinetics of levodopa. Acta Neurol Scand 1985; 72: 385391.
  • 19
    Jorga K, Fotteler B, Schmitt M, et al. The effect of COMT inhibition by tolcapone on tolerability and pharmacokinetics of different levodopa/benserazide formulations. Eur Neurol 1997; 38: 5967.
  • 20
    Jorga K, Fotteler B, Sedek G, et al. The effect of tolcapone on levodopa pharmacokinetics is independent of levodopa/carbidopa formulation. J Neurol 1998; 245: 223230.
  • 21
    Muller T, Woitalla D, Schulz D, et al. Tolcapone increases maximum concentration of levodopa. J Neural Transm 2000; 107: 113119.
  • 22
    Mouradian M, Heuser JE, Baronti F, et al. Pathogenesis of dyskinesias in Parkinson's disease. Ann Neurol 1989; 25: 523526.
  • 23
    Pearce R, Heikkilä M, Linden I-B, Jenner P. l-dopa induces dyskinesia in normal monkeys. behavioural and pharmacokinetic observations. Psychopharmacology 2001; 156: 402409.
  • 24
    Ruottinen HM, Rinne UK. Effect of one month's treatment with peripherally acting catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibitor, entacapone, on pharmacokinetics and motor response to levodopa in advanced parkinsonian patients. Clin Neuropharmacol 1996; 19: 222233.
  • 25
    Vickers S, Stuart EK, Bianchine JR, et al. Metabolism of carbidopa (L-(-) -alfa-hydrazino-3, 4,–dihydroxy–alfa–methylhydrocinnamic acid monohydrate), an aromatic amino acid decarboxylase inhibitor, in the rat, dog, rhesus monkey, and man. Drug Metab Dispos 1974; 2: 922.
  • 26
    Durso R, Evans JE, Josephs E, et al. Variable absorption of carbidopa affects both peripheral and central levodopa metabolism. J Clin Pharmacol 2000; 40: 854860.
  • 27
    Hagan RM, Raxworthy MJ, Gulliver PA. Benserazide and carbidopa as substrates of catechol-O-methyltransferase: new mechanism of action in Parkinson's disease. Biochem Pharmacol 1980; 29: 31233126.
  • 28
    Keränen T, Gordin A, Harjola V-P, et al. The effect of catechol-O-methyl transferase inhibition by entacapone on the pharmacokinetics and metabolism of levodopa in healthy volunteers. Clin Neuropharmacol 1993; 16: 145156.
  • 29
    Sharpless NS, Tyce GM, Owen CAJ. Effect of chronic administration of l-dopa on catechol-O-methyltransferase in rat tissues. Life Sci 1973; 12: 97106.
  • 30
    Nissinen E, Tuominen R, Perhoniemi V, Kaakkola S. Catechol-O-methyltransferase activity in human and rat small intestine. Life Sci 1988; 42: 26092614.