• 1
    Rodrigues AD. Integrated cytochrome P450 reaction phenotyping: attempting to bridge the gap between cDNA-expressed cytochromes P450 and native human liver microsomes. Biochem Pharmacol 1999; 57: 465480.
  • 2
    Ikeya K, Jaiswal AK, Owens RA, et al. Human CYP1A2: sequence, gene structure, comparison with the mouse and rat orthologous gene, and differences in liver 1A2 mRNA expression. Mol Endocrinol 1989; 3: 13991408.
  • 3
    Campbell ME, Grant DM, Inaba T, Kalow W. Biotransformation of caffeine, paraxanthine, theophylline, and theobromine by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-inducible cytochrome (s) in human liver microsomes. Drug Metab Dispos 1987; 15: 237249.
  • 4
    Bertilsson L, Carillo JA, Dahl M-L, et al. Clozapine disposition covaries with CYP1A2 activity determined by a caffeine test. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1994; 38: 471473.
  • 5
    Eaton DL, Gallagher EP, Bammler TK, Kunze KL. Role of cytochrome P4501A2 in chemical carcinogenesis: implications for human variablilty and enzyme activity. Pharmacogenetics 1995; 5: 259274.
  • 6
    Kalow W, Tang B-K. Caffeine as a metabolic probe: Exploration of the enzyme-inducing effect of cigarette smoking. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1991; 49: 4448.
  • 7
    Vistisen K, Poulsen HE, Loft S. Foreign compound metabolism capacity in man measured from metabolites of dietary caffeine. Carcinogenesis 1992; 13: 15611568.
  • 8
    Abernethy DR, Todd EL. Impairment of caffeine clearance by chronic use of low-dose oestrogen- containing oral contraceptives. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1985; 28: 425428.
  • 9
    Knutti R, Rothweiler H, Schlatter C. Effects of pregnancy on the pharmacokinetics of caffeine. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1981; 21: 121126.
  • 10
    Fuhr R. Simple and reliable CYP1A2 phenotyping by the paraxanthine/caffeine ratio in plasma and in saliva. Pharmacogenetics 1994; 4: 10916.
  • 11
    Andersen MR, Farin FM, Omiecinski CJ. Quantification of multiple human cytochrome P450 mRNA molecules using competitive reverse transcriptase-PCR. DNA Cell Biol 1998; 17: 231238.
  • 12
    Finnström N, Thorn M, Loof L, Rane A. Independent patterns of cytochrome P450 gene expression in liver and blood in patients with suspected liver disease. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2001; 57: 403409.
  • 13
    Schrenk D, Brockmeier D, Mörike K, Bock KW, Eichelbaum M. A distribution study of CYP1A2 phenotypes among smokers and non-smokers in a cohort of healthy Caucasian volunteers. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1998; 53: 361367.
  • 14
    Tantcheva-Poor I, Zaigler M, Rietbrock S, Fuhr U. Estimation of cytochrome P-450 CYP1A2 activity in 863 healthy Caucasians using a saliva-based caffeine test [published erratum appears in Pharmacogenetics 1999; 9: 781]. Pharmacogenetics 1999; 9: 131–144.
  • 15
    Ou-Yang DS, Huang SL, Wang W, et al. Phenotypic polymorphism and gender-related differences of CYP1A2 activity in a Chinese population. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2000; 49: 145151.
  • 16
    Chida M, Yokoi T, Fukui T, et al. Detection of three genetic polymorphisms in the 5′-flanking region and intron 1 of human CYP1A2 in the Japanese population. Jpn J Cancer Res 1999; 90: 899902.
  • 17
    Huang JD, Guo WC, Lai MD, Guo YL, Lambert GH. Detection of a novel cytochrome P-450 1A2 polymorphism (F21L) in Chinese. Drug Metab Dispos 1999; 27: 98101.
  • 18
    Sachse C, Brockmoller J, Bauer S, Roots I. Functional significance of a C [RIGHTWARDS ARROW] A polymorphism in intron 1 of the cytochrome P450 CYP1A2 gene tested with caffeine. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1999; 47: 445449.
  • 19
    Aitchison KJ, Gonzalez FJ, Quattrochi LC, et al. Identification of novel polymorphisms in the 5′ flanking region of CYP1A2, characterization of interethnic variability, and investigation of their functional significance. Pharmacogenetics 2000; 10: 695704.
  • 20
    Cnattingius S, Signorello LB, Anneren G, et al. Caffeine intake and the risk of first-trimester spontaneous abortion. N Engl J Med 2000; 343: 18391845.
  • 21
    Signorello LB, Nordmark A, Granath F, et al. Caffeine metabolism and the risk of spontaneous abortion of normal karyotype fetuses. Obstet Gynecol 2001; 98: 10591066.
  • 22
    Nordmark A, Lundgren S, Cnattingius S, Rane A. Dietary caffeine as a probe agent for assessment of cytochrome P4501A2 activity in random urine samples. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1999; 47: 397402.
  • 23
    Campbell ME, Spielberg SP, Kalow W. A urinary metabolite ratio that reflects systemic caffeine clearance. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1987; 42: 157165.
  • 24
    Smith CAD, Wadelius M, Gough AC, et al. A simplified assay for the arylamine N-acetyltransferase 2 polymorphism validated by phenotyoing with isoniazid. J Med Genet 1997; 34: 758760.
  • 25
    Olsson P, Kylenstierna F, Johansson C-J, Gunnarsson P, Bende M. Pharmacokinetics of nicotine after intranasal administration. In Effects of Nicotine on Biological Systems. Advances in Pharmacological Sciences, eds AldkoflerF, ThurauK. Basel: Birkhauser, 1991; pp. 5761.
  • 26
    Peacock JL, Cook DG, Carey IM, et al. Maternal cotinine level during pregnancy and birthweight for gestational age. Int J Epidemiol 1998; 27: 647656.
  • 27
    Livak KJ. Allelic discrimination using fluorogenic probes and the 5′ nuclease assay. Genet Anal 1999; 14: 143149.
  • 28
    Han XM, Ou-Yang DS, Lu PX, et al. Plasma caffeine metabolite ratio (17X/137X) in vivo associated with G- 2964A and C734A polymorphisms of human CYP1A2. Pharmacogenetics 2001; 11: 429435.
  • 29
    Tsutsumi K, Kotegawa T, Matsuki S, et al. The effect of pregnancy on cytochrome P4501A2, xanthine oxidase, and N- acetyltransferase activities in humans. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2001; 70: 121125.
  • 30
    Basile VS, Ozdemir V, Masellis M, et al. A functional polymorphism of the cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) gene: association with tardive dyskinesia in schizophrenia. Mol Psychiatry 2000; 5: 410417.
  • 31
    Schulze TG, Schumacher J, Muller DJ, et al. Lack of association between a functional polymorphism of the cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) gene and tardive dyskinesia in schizophrenia. Am J Med Genet 2001; 105: 498501.
  • 32
    Christiansen L, Bygum A, Jensen A, et al. Association between CYP1A2 polymorphism and susceptibility to porphyria cutanea tarda. Hum Genet 2000; 107: 612 614.
  • 33
    Rasmussen BB, Brösen K. Determination of urinary metabolites of caffeine for the assessment of cytochrome P4501A2, xanthine oxidase and N-acetyltransferase activity in humans. Ther Drug Monit 1996; 18: 254262.
  • 34
    Fuhr U, Rost KL, Engelhardt R, et al. Evaluation of caffeine as a test drug for CYP1A2, NAT2 and CYP2E1 phenotyping in man by in vivo versus in vitro correlations. Pharmacogenetics 1996; 6: 159176.
  • 35
    Carrillo JA, Christensen M, Ramos SI, et al. Evaluation of caffeine as an in vivo probe for CYP1A2 using measurements in plasma, saliva, and urine. Ther Drug Monit 2000; 22: 409417.
  • 36
    Rostami-Hodjegan A, Nurminen S, Jackson PR, Tucker GT. Caffeine urinary metabolite ratios as markers of enzyme activity: a theoretical assessment. Pharmacogenetics 1996; 6: 121149.
  • 37
    Sesardic D, Boobis AR, Edwards RJ, Davies DS. A form of cytochrome P450 in man, orthologous to form d in the rat, catalyses the O-de-ethylation of phenacetin and is inducible by cigarette smoking. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1988; 26: 363372.
  • 38
    Cheng WS, Murhy TL, Smith MT, et al. Dose-dependent pharmacokinetics of caffeine in humans: relevance as a test of quantitative liver function. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1990; 47: 516524.
  • 39
    Denaro CP, Brown CR, Wilson M, Jacob P, Benowitz NL. Dose-dependency of caffeine metabolism with repeated dosing. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1990; 48: 277285.
  • 40
    Horn EP, Tucker MA, Lambert G, et al. A study of gender-based cytochrome P4501A2 variability: a possible mechanism for the male excess of bladder cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 1995; 4: 529533.