• 1
    Wrighton SA, Stevens JC. The human hepatic cytochromes P450 involved in drug metabolism. Crit Rev Toxicol 1992; 22: 121.
  • 2
    Guengerich FP. Human cytochrome P450 enzymes. In Cytochrome P450: Structure, Mechanism and Biochemistry, ed. Ortiz de Montellano PR. New York: Plenum Press, 1995: 473535.
  • 3
    Watkins PB, Wrighton SA, Schuetz EG, Molowa DT, Guzelian PS. Identification of glucocorticoid-inducible cytochromes P-450 in the intestinal mucosa of rats and man. J Clin Invest 1987; 80: 10291036.
  • 4
    Shimada T, Yamazaki H, Mimura M, Inui Y, Guengerich FP. Interindividual variations in human liver cytochrome P-450 enzymes involved in the oxidation of drugs, carcinogens and toxic chemicals: studies with liver microsomes of 30 Japanese and 30 Caucasians. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1994; 270: 414423.
  • 5
    Lown KS, Kolars JC, Thummel KE, et al. Interpatient heterogeneity in expression of CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 in small bowel. Lack of prediction by the erythromycin breath test. Drug Metab Dispos 1994; 22: 947955[published erratum appears in Drug Metab Dispos 1995; 23: 3 following table of contents].
  • 6
    Watkins PB. Noninvasive tests of CYP3A enzymes. Pharmacogenetics 1994; 4: 171184.
  • 7
    Thummel KE, Shen DD, Podoll TD, et al. Use of midazolam as a human cytochrome P450, 3A probe: I. In vitroin vivo correlations in liver transplant patients. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1994; 271: 549556.
  • 8
    Thummel KE, Shen DD, Podoll TD, et al. Use of midazolam as a human cytochrome P450, 3A probe: II. Characterization of inter–and intraindividual hepatic CYP3A variability after liver transplantation. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1994; 271: 557566.
  • 9
    Kolars JC, Benedict P, Schmiedlin-Ren P, Watkins PB. Aflatoxin B1-adduct formation in rat and human small bowel enterocytes. Gastroenterology 1994; 106: 433439.
  • 10
    Yun CH, Shimada T, Guengerich FP. Roles of human liver cytochrome P4502C and 3A enzymes in the 3-hydroxylation of benzo (a) pyrene. Cancer Res 1992; 52: 18681874.
  • 11
    Guengerich FP. Metabolic activation of carcinogens. Pharmacol Ther 1992; 54: 1761.
  • 12
    Lown KS, Bailey DG, Fontana RJ, et al. Grapefruit juice increases felodipine oral availability in humans by decreasing intestinal CYP3A protein expression. J Clin Invest 1997; 99: 25452553.
  • 13
    White NJ. Antimalarial pharmacokinetics and treatment regimens. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1992; 34: 110.
  • 14
    Salako LA, Sowunmi A. Disposition of quinine in plasma, red blood cells and saliva after oral and intravenous administration to healthy adult Africans. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1992; 42: 171174.
  • 15
    Ho PC, Chalcroft SC, Coville PF, Wanwimolruk S. Grapefruit juice has no effect on quinine pharmacokinetics. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1999; 55: 393398.
  • 16
    White NJ, Chanthavanich P, Krishna S, Bunch C, Silamut K. Quinine disposition kinetics. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1983; 16: 399403.
  • 17
    Wanwimolruk S, Wong SM, Coville PF. In-vitro hepatic microsomal metabolism of quinine: identification of P450 enzymes responsible for quinine metabolism. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 1994; 72(Suppl 1): 294.
  • 18
    Zhang H, Coville PF, Walker RJ, Miners JO, Birkett DJ, Wanwimolruk S. Evidence for involvement of human CYP3A in the 3-hydroxylation of quinine. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1997; 43: 245252.
  • 19
    Watkins PB, Murray SA, Winkelman LG, Heuman DM, Wrighton SA, Guzelian PS. Erythromycin breath test as an assay of glucocorticoid-inducible liver cytochromes P-450. Studies in rats and patients. J Clin Invest 1989; 83: 688697.
  • 20
    Kharasch ED, Russell M, Mautz D, et al. The role of cytochrome P450 3A4 in alfentanil clearance. Implications for interindividual variability in disposition and perioperative drug interactions. Anesthesiology 1997; 87: 3650.
  • 21
    Wagner D. CYP3A4 and the erythromycin breath test. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1998; 63: 129130.
  • 22
    Wanwimolruk S, Wong SM, Zhang H, Coville PF. Simultaneous determination of quinine and a major metabolite 3-hydroxyquinine in biological fluids by HPLC without extraction. J Liq Chromatog Rel Technol 1996; 19: 293305.
  • 23
    Wanwimolruk S, Chalcroft S, Coville PF, Campbell AJ. Pharmacokinetics of quinine in young and elderly subjects. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 1991; 85: 714717.
  • 24
    Wanwimolruk S, Wong SM, Coville PF, Viriyayudhakorn S, Thitiarchakul S. Cigarette smoking enhances the elimination of quinine. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1993; 36: 610614.
  • 25
    Wanwimolruk S, Kang W, Coville PF, Viriyayudhakorn S, Thitiarchakul S. Marked enhancement by rifampicin and lack of effect of isoniazid on the elimination of quinine in man. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1995; 40: 8791.
  • 26
    Watkins PB, Wrighton SA, Schuetz EG, Maurel P, Guzelian PS. Macrolide antibiotics inhibit the degradation of the glucocorticoid-responsive cytochrome P-450p in rat hepatocytes in vivo and in primary monolayer culture. J Biol Chem 1986; 261: 62646271.
  • 27
    Wanwimolruk S, Wong SM, Zhang H, Coville PF, Walker RJ. Metabolism of quinine in man: identification of a major metabolite, and effects of smoking and rifampicin pretreatment. J Pharm Pharmacol 1995; 47: 957963.
  • 28
    Mirghani RA, Hellgren U, Westerberg PA, Ericsson O, Bertilsson L, Gustafsson LL. The roles of cytochrome P450 3A4 and 1A2 in the 3-hydroxylation of quinine in vivo. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1999; 66: 454460.
  • 29
    Floren LC, Bekersky I, Benet LZ, et al. Tacrolimus oral bioavailability doubles with coadministration of ketoconazole. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1997; 62: 4149.
  • 30
    Zhang Y, Hsieh Y, Izumi T, Lin ET, Benet LZ. Effects of ketoconazole on the intestinal metabolism, transport and oral bioavailability of K02, a novel vinylsulfone peptidomimetic cysteine protease inhibitor and a P450 3A, P–glycoprotein dual substrate, in male Sprague–Dawley rats. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1998; 287: 246252.
  • 31
    Kim RB, Wandel C, Leake B, et al. Interrelationship between substrates and inhibitors of human CYP3A and P-glycoprotein. Pharm Res 1999; 16: 408414.
  • 32
    Thiebaut F, Tsuruo T, Hamada H, Gottesman MM, Pastan I, Willingham MC. Cellular localization of the multidrug-resistance gene product P-glycoprotein in normal human tissues. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1987; 84: 77357738.
  • 33
    Zhang Y, Benet LZ. The gut as a barrier to drug absorption: combined role of cytochrome P4503A and P–glycoprotein. Clin Pharmacokinet 2001; 40: 159168.
  • 34
    Paine MF. Clin Pharmacol Ther (in press).
  • 35
    Aoyama T, Yamano S, Waxman DJ, et al. Cytochrome P-450 hPCN3, a novel cytochrome P-450 IIIA gene product that is differentially expressed in adult human liver. cDNA and deduced amino acid sequence and distinct specificities of cDNA-expressed hPCN1 and hPCN3 for the metabolism of steroid hormones and cyclosporine. J Biol Chem 1989; 264: 1038810395.
  • 36
    Kuehl P, Zhang J, Lin Y, et al. Sequence diversity in CYP3A promoters and characterization of the genetic basis of polymorphic CYP3A5 expression. Nat Genet 2001; 27: 383391.
  • 37
    Ged C, Rouillon JM, Pichard L, et al. The increase in urinary excretion of 6 beta-hydroxycortisol as a marker of human hepatic cytochrome P450IIIA induction. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1989; 28: 373387.
  • 38
    Kivisto KT, Kroemer HK. Use of probe drugs as predictors of drug metabolism in humans. J Clin Pharmacol 1997; 37 (1(Suppl): 40S48S.
  • 39
    Watkins PB. The erythromycin breath test, letter to the editor. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2000; 67: 577.
  • 40
    Kinirons MT, O'Shea D, Kim RB, et al. Reply: letter to the editor. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2000; 67: 577.