• 1
    Guengerich FP, Shimada T. Oxidation of toxic and carcinogenic chemicals by human cytochrome P-450 enzymes. Chem Res Toxicol 1991; 4: 391407.
  • 2
    Smith CAD, Smith G, Wolf CR. Genetic polymorphism in xenobiotic metabolism. Eur J Cancer 1994; 30A: 1921 1935.
  • 3
    Grant DM, Tang BK, Kalow W. A simple test for acetylator phenotype using caffeine. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1984; 17: 459464.
  • 4
    Relling MV, Lin JS, Ayers GD, Evans WE. Racial and gender differences in N-acetyltransferase, xanthine oxidase, and CYP1A2 activities. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1992; 52: 643658.
  • 5
    Tucker GT, Rostami-Hodjegan A, Jackson PR. Determination of drug-metabolizing enzyme activity in vivo: pharmacokinetic and statistical issues. Xenobiotica 1998; 28: 12551273.
  • 6
    Rostami-Hodjegan A, Nurminen S, Jackson PR, Tucker GT. Caffeine urinary ratios as markers of enzyme activity: a theoretical assessment. Pharmacogenetics 1996; 6: 121149.
  • 7
    Campbell ME, Spielberg SP, Kalow W. A urinary metabolite ratio that reflects systemic caffeine clearance. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1987; 42: 157165.
  • 8
    Notarianni LJ, Oliver SE, Dobrocky P, Bennett PN, Silverman BW. Caffeine as a metabolic probe: a comparison of the metabolite ratios used to assess CYP1A2. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1995; 39: 6569.
  • 9
    Kalow W, Tang BK. The use of caffeine for enzyme assays: a critical appraisal. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1993; 53: 503514.
  • 10
    Andersson T, Holmberg J, Röhss K, Walan A. Pharmacokinetics and effect on caffeine metabolism of the proton pump inhibitors, omeprazole, lansoprazole, and pantoprazole. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1998; 45: 369375.
  • 11
    Kashuba ADM, Bertino JS, Kearns GL et al. Quantitation of three-month intraindividual variability and influence of sex and menstrual cycle phase on CYP1A2, N-acetyltransferase-2, and xanthine oxidase activity determined with caffeine phenotyping. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1998; 63: 540551.
  • 12
    Sinués B, Sáenz MA, Lanuza J et al. Five caffeine metabolite ratios to measure tobacco-induced CYP1A2 activity and their relationships with urinary mutagenecity and urine flow. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 1999; 8: 159166.
  • 13
    Larsen JT, Hansen LL, Brosen K. Tacrine is not an ideal probe drug for measuring CYP1A2 activity in vivo. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1999; 48: 663668.
  • 14
    Bechtel YC, Lelouet H, Hrusovsky S et al. Caffeine metabolism before and after liver transplantation. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 2001; 39: 5360.
  • 15
    Lorenzo B, Reidenberg MM. Potential artefacts in the use of caffeine to determine acetylation phenotype. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1989; 28: 207208.
  • 16
    Butler MA, Lang NP, Young JF et al. Determination of CYP1A2 and NAT2 phenotypes in human populations by analysis of caffeine urinary metabolites. Pharmacogenetics 1992; 2: 116127.
  • 17
    Wong P, Villeneuve G, Tessier V et al. Stability of 5-acetamido-6-formylamino-3-methyluracil in buffers and urine. J Pharm Biomed Anal 2002; 28: 693700.
  • 18
    Graf T, Broly F, Hoffmann F, Probst M, Meyer UA, Howald H. Prediction of phenotype for acetylation and for debrisoquine hydroxylation by DNA-tests in healthy human volunteers. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1992; 43: 399403.
  • 19
    Bendriss EK, Bechtel YC, Paintaud G et al. Acetylation polymorphism expression in patients before and after liver transplantation: influence of host/graft genotypes. Pharmacogenetics 1998; 8: 201209.
  • 20
    Tang BK, Kadar D, Qian L, Iriah J, Yip J, Kalow W. Caffeine as a metabolic probe: validation of its use for acetylator phenotyping. Clin Phamacol Ther 1991; 49: 648657.
  • 21
    Zhao B, Seow A, Lee EJD, Lee HP. Correlation between acetylation phenotype and genotype in Chinese women. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2000; 56: 689692.
  • 22
    Guo R, Thormann W. Acetylator phenotyping via analysis of four caffeine metabolites in human urine by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography with multiwavelength detection. Electrophoresis 1993; 14: 547553.
  • 23
    Rodopoulos N, Norman A. Determination of caffeine and its metabolites in urine by high-performance liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 1994; 54: 305315.
  • 24
    Nyéki A, Biollaz J, Kesselring UW, Décosterd LA. Extractionless method for the simultaneous high-performance liquid chromatographic determination of urinary caffeine metabolites for N-acetyltransferase 2, cytochrome P450 1A2 and xanthine oxidase activity assessment. J Chromatogr B 2001; 755: 7384.
  • 25
    Fuchs P, Haefeli WE, Ledermann HR, Wenk M. Xanthine oxidase inhibition by allopurinol affects the reliability of urinary caffeine metabolic ratios as markers for N-acetyltransferase 2 and CYP1A2 activities. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1999; 54: 869876.