• histopathology;
  • stingray;
  • TIA+ cells

Stingrays result in approximately 2000 stings annually in the U.S.A., and thus are one of the most important venomous marine animals. After envenomization, there is immediate, intense pain with subsequent oedema, cyanosis followed by local erythema and petechiae. Progressive local necrosis and ulceration is variable, sometimes leading to gangrene. To characterize the inflammatory infiltrate at the site of a stingray injury, we examined tissue obtained approximately 4 days after stingray envenomization. Routine histology and immunohistochemical stains for lymphoid markers, including CD3, CD4, CD8, CD20, KP-1 and TIA were performed, and demonstrated a central area of haemorrhagic necrosis with a surrounding infiltrate of lymphoid cells and eosinophils. Approximately one-third of the mononuclear cells were TIA+, and these cells appeared mainly to correspond to the cells which were CD3+ and CD4+. The inflammatory cells, including the lymphoid populations, suggest that an immunological reaction may contribute to the delayed healing of stingray injuries.