We report a patient with reticular erythematous mucinosis (REM) syndrome. Content of hyaluronan in lesional skin was approximately 2·9-fold higher than in the patient's uninvolved skin, but its synthetic activity in fibroblasts explanted from lesional skin remained unchanged. Immunohistochemical study using antifactor XIIIa (anti-FXIIIa) antibody demonstrated that the number of FXIIIa+ cells in the lesional skin was significantly increased compared with those in the patient's uninvolved skin and in normal control skin samples (P < 0·01). As hyaluronan is considered to be synthesized by hyaluronan synthase (HAS), which is composed of three genetically distinct isoforms (HAS1, HAS2 and HAS3), the cells responsible for the accumulation of hyaluronan in lesional skin were immunohistochemically examined using antibodies for HAS1, HAS2 and HAS3. The specific antibody for HAS2 was found to react with some populations of FXIIIa+ cells in the involved skin, and the number of HAS2+ cells was significantly increased in the involved skin (P < 0·01). The results suggest that accumulation of hyaluronan in REM may be related to populations of FXIIIa+/HAS2+ dermal dendrocytes rather than to dermal fibroblasts.