SummaryBackground Provocation tests in patients with food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (FDEIA) are often negative, even after a sufficient quantity of the implicated food and exercise have been taken.
Objectives To investigate the effect of aspirin in provocation tests and in skin prick testing (SPT) of patients with FDEIA. Gluten as a major allergen in wheat-dependent FDEIA was also investigated.
Methods Provocation tests and SPT with suspected foods were performed in 12 patients with FDEIA. Provocation tests were performed with combinations of foods, exercise and aspirin. Detection of gluten-specific IgE was also performed by the CAP System FEIA radioallergosorbent test, SPT and a histamine release test.
Results The SPT reaction was enhanced by pretreatment with oral aspirin in five of eight (62·5%) patients. Aspirin facilitated provocation in five of seven (71%) patients tested. Ingestion of wheat and aspirin without exercise provoked symptoms in two patients. Aspirin provoked symptoms even with a small amount of wheat and exercise in one patient. Only the combination of aspirin, wheat and exercise provoked anaphylaxis in one patient. Specific IgE, SPT and/or the histamine release test with gluten were positive in nine of 11 patients with wheat-dependent FDEIA.
Conclusions Aspirin enhances symptoms of FDEIA, and prior ingestion of aspirin under controlled conditions can be used to confirm FDEIA. In practice, such patients should avoid aspirin ingestion. Gluten appears to be the major allergen in these patients with wheat-dependent FDEIA.