AIDS-related neutropenia and neutrophil dysfunction can (partly) be reversed by granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF). We studied the effect of G-CSF on neutrophil increment and levels of soluble Fcγ receptor type III in 15 patients with AIDS-related lymphoma (ARL) undergoing chemotherapy. In six of these patients we performed a detailed kinetic analysis of the membrane expression of the functionally important Fcγ-receptors type I, II and III. In all these patients G-CSF induced FcγRI positive neutrophils with a decreased expression of the FcγRIII receptor. These changes were similar to those seen both in healthy volunteers and in non-HIV-infected individuals treated with chemotherapy. Interestingly, the mean neutrophil and sFcγRIII increment were significantly lower and more patients had a nadir granulocyte count < 0.5 × 109/l after the first cycle than after the second cycle of chemotherapy. This may be related to a therapy-associated decrease in HIV-1 viral load.
The conclusion is that patients treated with chemotherapy for ARL have a qualitatively normal response to G-CSF.