• 1
    Arico, M., Basso, G., Mandelli, F., Rizzari, C., Colella, R., Barisone, E., Zanesco, L., Rondelli, R., Pession, A., Masera, G. (1995) Good steroid response in vivo predicts a favorable outcome in children with T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Cancer, 75, 1684 1693.
  • 2
    Bahner-Ennassih, E., Suciu, S., Bertrand, Y. (1995) Treatment results of the EORTC-Children's leukemia cooperative group (CLCG) protocols 58831/2 in 177 children with T-cell lymphoblastic leukemia or non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Annals of Hematology, 70, 131.
  • 3
    Campana, D. & Pui, C.H. (1995) Detection of minimal residual disease in acute leukemia: methodologic advances and clinical significance. Blood, 85, 1416 1434.
  • 4
    Chessells, J.M., Bailey, C., Richards, S.M. (1995) Intensification of treatment and survival in all children with lymphoblastic leukaemia: results of UK Medical Research Council trial UKALL X. Lancet, 345, 143 147.
  • 5
    Collet, D. (1994) Modelling Survival Data in Medical Research. Chapman and Hall, London.
  • 6
    Cortes, J.E. & Kantarjian, H.M. (1995) Acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a comprehensive review with emphasis on biology and therapy. Cancer, 76, 2393 2417.
  • 7
    Crist, W., Boyett, J., Pullen, J., Van Eys, J., Vietti, T. (1986) Clinical and biologic features predict poor prognosis in acute lymphoid leukemias in children and adolescents: Pediatric Oncology Group review. Medical Pediatric Oncology, 14, 135 139.
  • 8
    Crist, W., Carroll, A., Shuster, J., Behm, F.G., Whitehead, M., Vietti, T.J., Look, A.T., Mahoney, D., Ragab, A., Pullen, D.J., Land, V.J. (1990a) Poor prognosis of children with pre-B acute lymphoblastic leukemia is associated with the t(1;19)(q23;p13): Pediatric Oncology Group study. Blood, 76, 117 122.
  • 9
    Crist, W., Carroll, A., Shuster, J., Jackson, J., Head, D., Borowitz, M., Behm, F., Link, M., Steuber, P., Ragab, A., Hirt, A., Brock, B., Land, V., Pullen, J. (1990b) Philadelphia chromosome positive childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: clinical and cytogenetic characteristics and treatment outcome: Pediatric Oncology Group study. Blood, 76, 489 494.
  • 10
    Eden, O.B., Lilleyman, J.S., Richards, S., Shaw, M.P., Peto, J. (1991) Results of Medical Research Council childhood leukaemia trial UKALL VIII (report to the Medical Research Council on behalf of the working party on leukaemia in childhood). British Journal of Haematology, 78, 187 196.
  • 11
    Fletcher, J.A., Lynch, E.A., Kimball, V.A., Donnelly, M., Tantravahi, R., Sallan, S.E. (1991) Translocation (9;22) is associated with extremely poor prognosis in intensively treated children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Blood, 77, 435 439.
  • 12
    Gajjar, A., Ribeiro, R., Hancock, M.L., Rivera, G.K., Mahmoud, H., Sandlund, J.T., Crist, W.M., Pui, C.H. (1995) Persistence of circulating blasts after 1 week of multiagent chemotherapy confers a poor prognosis in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Blood, 86, 1292 1295.
  • 13
    Gibbons, B., Katz, F.E., Ganly, P., Chessels, J.M. (1990) Infant acute lymphoblastic leukaemia with t(11;19). British Journal of Haematology, 74, 264 269.
  • 14
    Hammond, D., Sather, H., Nesbit, M., Nesbit, M., Miller, D., Coccia, P., Bleyer, A., Lukens, J., Siegel, S. (1986) Analysis of prognostic factors in acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Medical Pediatric Oncology, 14, 124 134.
  • 15
    Harbott, J., Ritterbach, J., Janka-Schaub, G., Ludwig, W.D., Reiter, A., Riehm, H., Lampert, F. (1990) Cytogenetics of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia in multicenter trials. Haematology and Blood Transfusion, 33, 451 458.
  • 16
    Hecker, S., Sauerbrey, A., Volm, M. (1994) P53 expression and poor prognosis in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Anticancer Research, 14, 2559 2762.
  • 17
    Hiddeman, W., Sykora, R., Reiter, A., Ludwig, W.D., Schrappe, M., Harbott, J., Odenwald, E., Riehm, H. (1993) Definition of a favorable prognostic subgroup in childhood ALL by high-grade DNA aneuploidy: a BFM study group report. Proceedings of the American Society for Clinical Oncology, 12, 318.
  • 18
    Jacquillat, C., Weil, M., Auclerc, M.F., Chastang, C., Flandrin, G., Izrael, V., Schaison, G., Degos, L., Boiron, M., Bernard, J. (1978) Prognosis and treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology, 1, 113 122.
  • 19
    Kaspers, G.J.L., Pieters, R., Van Zantwijk, C.H., Van Weering, E.R., Van der Does-Van den Berg, A., Veerman, A.J.P. (1995) Drug resistance profile: strongest independent prognostic factor in childhood leukemia in a BFM-oriented treatment protocol. Annals of Hematology, 70, 129.
  • 20
    Lennard, L. & Lilleyman, J.S. (1989) Variable mercaptopurine metabolism and treatment outcome in childhood lymphoblastic leukemia. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 7, 1816 1823.
  • 21
    Lilleyman, J.S., Hann, I.M., Stevens, S.M., Richards, S.M., Eden, O.B., Chessels, J.M., Bailey, C.C. (1992) Cytomorphology of childhood leukaemia: a prospective study of 2000 patients. British Journal of Haematology, 81, 52 57.
  • 22
    Look, A.T., Roberson, P.K., Williams, D.L., Rivera, G., Bowman, W.P., Pui, C.H., Ochs, J., Abromowitch, M., Kalwinsky, D., Dahl, G.V., George, S., Murphy, S.B. (1985) Prognostic importance of blast cell DNA content in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Blood, 65, 1079 1086.
  • 23
    McLean, T.W., Ringold, S., Neuberg, D., Stegmaier, K., Tantravahi, R., Ritz, J., Koeffler, H.P., Takeuchi, S., Janssen, J.W.G., Seriu, T., Bartam, C.R., Sallan, S.E., Gilliland, D.G., Golub, T.R. (1996) TEL/AML 1 dimerizes and is associated with a favorable outcome in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Blood, 88, 4252 4258.
  • 24
    Mastrangelo, R., Poplack, D., Bleyer. A., Riccardi, R., Sather, H., D'angio, G. (1986) Report and recommendations of the Rome Workshop concerning poor-prognosis acute lymphoblastic leukemia in children: biologic bases for staging, stratification, and treatment. Medical Pediatric Oncology, 14, 191 194.
  • 25
    Miller, D.R., Coccia, P.F., Bleyer, A., Lukens, J.N., Siegel, S.E., Sather, H.N., Hammond, D. (1989) Early response to induction therapy as a predictor of disease-free survival and late recurrence of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a report from the childrens cancer study group. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 7, 1807 1815.
  • 26
    Miller, D.R., Leikin, S., Albo, V., Sather, H., Karon, M., Hammond, D. (1983) Prognostic factors and therapy in acute lymphoblastic leukemia of childhood: CCG-141. Cancer, 51, 1041 1049.
  • 27
    Nagelkerke, N.J.D. (1991) A note on a general definition of coefficient of determination. Biometrika, 78, 691 692.
  • 28
    Neglia, J.P., Day, D.L., Swanson, T.V., Ramsay, N.K.C., Robison, L.L., Nesbit, M.E. (1988) Kidney size at diagnosis of childhood leukemia: lack of prognostic significance for outcome. American Journal of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, 10, 296 300.
  • 29
    Pieters, R., Kaspers, G.J.L., Klumper, E., Veerman, A.J.P. (1994) Clinical relevance of in vitro resistance testing in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: the state of the art. Medical Pediatric Oncology, 22, 299 308.
  • 30
    Pieters, R., Huismans, D.R., Loonene, A.H., Peters, G.J., Hählen, K., Van der Does-van den Berg, A., Van Wering, A.E., Veerman, A.J.P. (1992) Adenosine deaminase and purine nucleoside phosphorylase in childhood lymphoblastic leukemia: relation with differentiation stage, in vitro drug resistance and clinical prognosis, Leukemia, 6, 375 380.
  • 31
    Pinkel, D. (1996) Selecting treatment for children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Journal of Clinial Oncology 14, 4 6.
  • 32
    Privitera, E., Kamps, M.P., Hayashi, Y., Inaba, T., Shapiro, L.H., Raimondi, S.C., Behm, F., Hendershot, L., Carroll, A.J., Baltimore, D., Look, A.T. (1992) Different molecular consequences of the 1;19 chromosomal translocation in childhood B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Blood, 79, 1781 1788.
  • 33
    Pui, C.H., Williams, D.L., Raimondi, S.C., Rivera, G.K., Look, A.T., Dodge, R.K., George, S.L., Behm, F.G., Crist, W.M., Murphy, S.M. (1987) Hypodiploidy is associated with a poor prognosis in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Blood, 70, 247 253.
  • 34
    Pui, C.H., Frankel, L.S., Caroll, A.J., Raimondi, S.C., Shuster, J.J., Head, D.R., Crist, W.M., Land, V.J., Pullen, D.J., Steuber, C.P., Behm, F.G., Borowitz, M.J. (1991) Clinical characteristics and treatment outcome of childhood lymphoblastic leukemia with t(4;11)(q21;q23): a collaborative study of 40 cases. Blood, 77, 440 447.
  • 35
    Pui, C.H., Raimondi, S.C., Dodge, R.K., Rivera, G.K., Fuchs, L.A.H., Abromowitch, M., Look, A.T., Furman, W.L., Crist, W.M., Williams, D.L. (1989) Prognostic importance of structural chomosomal abnormalities in children with hyperdiploid (>50 chromosomes) acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Blood, 73, 1963 1967.
  • 36
    Pui, C.H., Williams, D.L., Roberson, P.K., Behm, F.G., Lewis, S.H., Rivera, G.K., Kalwinsky, D.K., Abromowitch, M., Crist, W.M., Murphy, S.M. (1988) Correlation of karyotype and immunophenotype in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Journal of Clinial Oncology, 6, 56 61.
  • 37
    Raimondi, S.C., Roberson, P.K., Pui, C.H., Behm, F.G., Rivera, G.K. (1992) Hyperdiploid (47-50) acute lymphoblastic leukemia in children. Blood, 79, 3245 3252.
  • 38
    Rautonen, J., Hovi, L., Siimes, M.A. (1988) Slow disappearance of peripheral blast cells: an independent risk factor indicating poor prognosis in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Blood, 71, 989 991.
  • 39
    Reiter, A., Schrappe, M., Ludwig, W.D., Hiddemann, W., Sauter, S., Henze, G., Zimmermann, M., Lampert, F., Niethammer, D., Odenwald, E., Ritter, J., Mann, G., Welte, K., Gadner, H., Riehm, H. (1994) Chemotherapy in 998 unselected childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients: results and conclusions of multicenter trial ALL-BFM 86. Blood, 84, 3122 3133.
  • 40
    Ribeiro, R.C. & Pui, C.H. (1993) Prognostic factors in childhood leukemia. Hematological Pathology, 7, 121 142.
  • 41
    Richards, S., Gray, S., Peto, R., Gaynon, P., Masera, G. (1996) Duration and intensity of maintenance chemotherapy in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia: overview of 42 trials involving 12000 randomised children. Lancet, 347, 1783 1788.
  • 42
    Riehm, H., Reiter, A., Schrappe, M., Berthold, F., Dopfer, R., Gerein, V., Ludwig, R., Ritter, J., Stollman, B., Henze, G. (1986) Die Corticosteroid-abhängige Dezimierung der Leukämiezellzahl im Blut als Prognosefaktor bei der Akuten Lymphoblastischen Leukämie im Kindesalter (Therapiestudie ALL-BFM 83). Klinische Pädiatrie, 199, 151 160.
  • 43
    Rivera, G.K., Pinkel, D., Simone, J.V., Hancock, M.L., Crist, W.M. (1993) Treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. 30 year's experience at St Jude Children's Research Hospital. New England Journal of Medicine, 329, 1289 1295.
  • 44
    Robison, L., Sather, H., Coccia, P., Nesbit, M.E., Hammond, G.D. (1980) Assessment of the interrelationship of prognostic factors in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. American Journal of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, 1, 3 5.
  • 45
    Russo, C., Carroll, A., Kohler, S., Borowitz, M., Amylon, M., Homans, M., Kedar, A., Shuster, J., Land, V., Crist, W., Pullen, J., Link, M. (1991) Philadelphia chromosome and monosomy 7 in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a Pediatric Oncology Group study. Blood, 77, 1050 1056.
  • 46
    Santana, V.M., Dodge, R.K., Crist, W.M., Rivera, G.K., Look, A.T., Behm, F.G., Raimondi, S.C., Pui, C.H. (1990) Presenting features and treatment outcome of adolescents with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Leukemia, 4, 87 90.
  • 47
    Schaison, G., Sommelet, D., Bancillon, A., Perel, Y., Leblanc, T., Bergeron, C., Lejars, O., Baruchel, A., Lepage, E., Leverger, G. (1992) Treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia: French protocol Fralle 83–87. Leukemia, 6, 148 152.
  • 48
    Schemper, M. & Smith, T.L. (1996) A note on quantifying follow-up in studies of failure time. Controlled Clinical Trials, 17, 343 346.
  • 49
    Schemper, M. & Stare, J. (1996) Explained variation in survival analysis. Statistics in Medicine, 15, 1999 2012.
  • 50
    Schorin, M.A., Blattner, S., Gelber, R.D., Tarbell, N.J., Donnelly, M., Dalton, V., Cohen, H.J., Sallan, S.E. (1994) Treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: results of Dana-Farber Cancer Institute/Children's Hospital acute lymphoblastic leukemia consortium Protocol 85-01. Journal of Clinial Oncology, 12, 740 747.
  • 51
    Secker-Walker, L.M., Chessels, J.M., Stewart, E.L., Swansbury, G.J., Richards, S., Lawler, S.D. (1989) Chromosomes and other prognostic factors in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia: a long-term follow-up. British Journal of Haematology, 72, 336 342.
  • 52
    Smith, M., Arthur, D., Camitta, B., Caroll, A.J., Crist, W., Gaynon, P., Gelber, R., Heerema, N., Korn, E.L., Link, M., Murphy, S., Pui, C.H., Pullen, J., Reaman, G., Sallan, S.E., Sather, H., Shuster, J., Simon, R., Trigg, M., Tubergen, D., Uckun, F., Ungerleider, R. (1996) Uniform approach to risk-classification and treatment assignment for children with ALL. Journal of Clinial Oncology, 14, 18 24.
  • 53
    Steinherz, P.G., Gaynon, P.S., Breneman, J.C., Cherlow, J.M., Grossman, N.J., Kersey, J.H., Johnstone, H.S., Sather, H.N., Trigg, M.E., Chappell, R., Hammond, D., Bleyer, W.A. (1996) Cytoreduction and prognosis in acute lymphoblastic leukemia: the importance of early marrow response: report from the Childrens Cancer Study Group. Journal of Clinial Oncology, 14, 389 398.
  • 54
    Steinherz, P.G., Siegel, S.E., Bleyer, W.A., Kersey, J., Chard, R., Coccia, P., Leikin, S., Lukens, J., Neerhout, R., Nesbit, M., Miller, D.R., Reaman, G., Sather, H. (1991) Lymphomatous presentation of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Cancer, 68, 751 758.
  • 55
    Uckun, F.M., Sather, H., Gaynon, P., Arthur, D.C., Trigg, M.E., Tubergen, D.G., Nachman, J., Steinherz, P.G., Sensel, M.G., Reaman, G.H. (1997) Clinical features and treatment outcome of children with myeloid antigen positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a report from the Children's Cancer Group. Blood, 90, 28 35.
  • 56
    Uckun, F.M., Sather, H., Reaman, G., Shuster, J., Land, V., Trigg, M., Gunther, R., Chelstrom, L., Bleyer, A., Gaynon, P., Crist, W. (1995) Leukemic cell growth in SCID mice as a predictor of relapse in high-risk B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Blood, 85, 873 878.
  • 57
    Uckun, F.M., Steinherz, P.G., Sather, H., Trigg, M., Arthur, D., Tubergen, D., Gaynon, P., Reaman, G. (1996) CD2 antigen expression on leukemic cells as a predictor of event-free survival after chemotherapy for T-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a Children's Cancer Group study. Blood, 88, 4288 4295.
  • 58
    Wiersma, S.R., Ortega, J., Sobell, E., Weinberg, K.I. (1991) Clinical importance of myeloid-antigen expression in acute lymphoblastic leukemia in childhood. New England Journal of Medicine, 324, 800 808.