• dyskeratosis congenita;
  • bone marrow transplantation;
  • endothelial cell damage syndrome;
  • pulmonary fibrosis;
  • Evans syndrome

Dyskeratosis congenita (DC) is a rare inherited disorder often associated with aplastic anaemia. We report the cases of five boys transplanted with an HLA-identical related donor for severe aplastic anaemia (SAA) associated to DC; in all cases successful engraftment was observed. Three patients died 2–8 years after bone marrow transplantation (BMT) with signs of endothelial cell damage syndrome (kidney microangiopathy and liver veno-occlusive disease). Another boy died 1 year after BMT from Evans syndrome and invasive aspergillosis. One boy currently presents anaemia, polyarthritis of unknown origin, pulmonary fibrosis and gut malabsorption 7.5 years after BMT. SAA associated with DC can be successfully treated by allogeneic BMT. However, these early and late complications observed are very unusual after BMT and probably reflect the association of transplanted-related factors, evolution of the underlying disease, and increased sensitivity of endothelial cells. Modified conditioning approaches, advances in supportive care and surveillance of these unusual complications offer the possibility of improved outcome for these patients.