• 1
    Albert, S.E., McKerlie, C., Pester, A., Edgell, B.J., Carlyle, J., Petric, M., Chamberlain, J.W. (1997) Time-dependent induction of protective anti-influenza immune responses in human peripheral blood lymphocyte/SCID mice. Journal of Immunology, 159, 1393 1403.
  • 2
    Bhatia, M., Wang, J.Y., Kapp, U., Bonnet, D., Dick, J.E. (1997) Purification of primitive human hemopoietic cells capable of repopulating immune-deficient mice. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 94, 5320 5325.
  • 3
    Bonnet, D. & Dick, J.E. (1997) Human acute myeloid leukaemia is organized as a hierarchy that originates from a primitive haematopoietic cell. Nature Medicine, 3, 730 737.
  • 4
    Bosma, G.C., Fried, M., Custer, R.P., Carroll, A., Gibson, D.M., Bosma, M.J. (1988) Evidence of functional lymphocytes in some (leaky) scid mice. Journal of Experimental Medicine, 167, 1016 1033.
  • 5
    Bosma, M.J. & Carroll, A.M. (1991) The SCID mouse mutant: definition, characterization, and potential uses. Annual Review of Immunology, 9, 323 350.
  • 6
    Cao, X., Shores, E.W., Hu, L.J., Anver, M.R., Kelsall, B.L., Russell, S.M., Drago, J., Noguchi, M., Grinberg, A., Bloom, E.T, Paul, W.E., Katz, S.I., Love, P.E., Leonard, W.J. (1995) Defective lymphoid development in mice lacking expression of the common cytokine receptor gamma chain. Immunity, 2, 223 238.
  • 7
    Carroll, A.M., Hardy, R.R., Petrini, J., Bosma, M.J. (1989) T cell leakiness in scid mice. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology, 152, 117 123.
  • 8
    Cashman, J.D., Lapidot, T., Wang, J.C., Doedens, M., Shultz, L.D., Lansdorp, P., Dick, J.E., Eaves, C.J. (1997) Kinetic evidence of the regeneration of multilineage hematopoiesis from primitive cells in normal human bone marrow transplanted into immunodeficient mice. Blood, 89, 4307 4316.
  • 9
    Christianson, S.W., Greiner, D.L., Hesselton, R.A., Leif, J.H., Wagar, E.J., Schweitzer, I.B., Rajan, T.V., Gott, B., Roopenian, D.C., Shultz, L.D. (1997) Enhanced human CD4+ T cell engraftment in β2-microglobulin-deficient NOD-scid mice . Journal of Immunology, 158, 3578 3586.
  • 10
    Dick, J.E., Lapidot, T., Pflumio, F. (1991) Transplantation of normal and leukemic human bone marrow into immune-deficient mice: development of animal models for human hematopoiesis. Immunological Reviews, 124, 25 43.
  • 11
    DiSanto, J.P. (1997) Cytokines: shared receptors, distinct functions. Current Biology, 7, R424 R426.
  • 12
    DiSanto, J.P., Guy, G.D., Fisher, A., Tarakhovsky, A. (1996) Critical role for the common cytokine receptor gamma chain in intrathymic and peripheral T cell selection. Journal of Experimental Medicine, 183, 1111 1118.
  • 13
    DiSanto, J.P., Muller, W., Guy, G.D., Fischer, A., Rajewsky, K. (1995) Lymphoid development in mice with a targeted deletion of the interleukin 2 receptor gamma chain. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 92, 377 381.
  • 14
    Garcia, S., Dadaglio, G., Gougeon, M.L. (1997) Limits of the human-PBL-SCID mice model: severe restriction of the V beta T-cell repertoire of engrafted human T cells. Blood, 89, 329 336.
  • 15
    Hesselton, R.M., Greiner, D.L., Mordes, J.P., Rajan, T.V., Sullivan, J.L., Shultz, L.D. (1995) High levels of human peripheral blood mononuclear cell engraftment and enhanced susceptibility to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection in NOD/LtSz-scid/scid mice. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 172, 974 982.
  • 16
    Horton, R.M., Karachunski, P.I., Conti-Fine, B.M. (1995) PCR screening of trangenic RAG-2 ‘knockout’ immunodeficient mice. BioTechniques, 19, 690 691.
  • 17
    Kamel-Reid, S. & Dick, J.E. (1988) Engraftment of immune-deficient mice with human hematopoietic stem cells. Science, 242, 1706 1709.
  • 18
    Koyanagi, Y., Tanaka, Y., Kira, J., Ito, M., Hioki, K., Misawa, N., Kawano, Y., Yamasaki, K., Tanaka, R., Suzuki, Y., Ueyama, Y., Terada, E., Tanaka, T., Miyasaka, M., Kobayashi, T., Kumazawa, Y., Yamamoto, N. (1997) Primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 viremia and central nervous system invasion in a novel hu-PBL-immunodeficient mouse strain. Journal of Virology, 71, 2417 2424.
  • 19
    Kumar, V., George, T., Yu, Y.L., Liu, J., Bennett, M. (1997) Role of murine NK cells and their receptors in hybrid resistance. Current Opinion in Immunology, 9, 52 56.
  • 20
    Lacerda, J.F., Ladanyi, M., Louie, D.C., Fernandez, J.M., Papadopoulos, E.B., O'Reilly, R.J. (1996) Human Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes home preferentially to and induce selective regressions of autologous EBV-induced B cell lymphoproliferations in xenografted C.B-17 scid/scid mice. Journal of Experimental Medicine, 183, 1215 1228.
  • 21
    Lantz, O., Sharara, L.I., Tilloy, F., Andersson, A., DiSanto, J.P. (1997) Lineage relationships and differentiation of natural killer (NK) T cells: intrathymic selection and interleukin (IL)-4 production in the absence of NKR-P1 and Ly49 molecules. Journal of Experimental Medicine, 185, 1395 1401.
  • 22
    Larochelle, A., Vormoor, J., Lapidot, T., Sher, G., Furukawa, T., Li, Q., Shultz, L.D., Olivieri, N.F., Stamatoyannopoulos, G., Dick, J.E. (1995) Engraftment of immune-deficient mice with primitive hemopoietic cells from beta-thalassemia and sickle cell anemia patients: implications for evaluating human gene therapy protocols. Human Molecular Genetics, 4, 163 172.
  • 23
    Leonard, W.J., Noguchi, M., Russell, S.M., McBride, O.W. (1994) The molecular basis of X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency: the role of the interleukin-2 receptor gamma chain as a common gamma chain, γc. Immunological Reviews, 138, 61 86.
  • 24
    Lotzova, E., Savary, C.A., Pollack, S.B. (1983) Prevention of rejection of allogeneic bone marrow transplants by NK 1.1 antiserum. Transplantation, 35, 490 494.
  • 25
    McBlane, J.F., Van, G.D., Ramsden, D.A., Romeo, C., Cuomo, C.A., Gellert, M., Oettinger, M.A. (1995) Cleavage at a V(D)J recombination signal requires only RAG1 and RAG2 proteins and occurs in two steps. Cell, 83, 387 395.
  • 26
    Mombaerts, P., Iacomini, J., Johnson, R.S., Herrup, K., Tonegawa, S., Papaioannou, V.E. (1992) RAG-1-deficient mice have no mature B and T lymphocytes. Cell, 68, 869 877.
  • 27
    Mosier, D.E., Gulizia, R.J., Baird, S.M., Wilson, D.B. (1988) Transfer of a functional human immune system to mice with severe combined immunodeficiency. Nature, 335, 256 259.
  • 28
    Murphy, W.J., Bennett, M., Anver, M.R., Baseler, M., Longo, D.L. (1992) Human–mouse lymphoid chimeras: host-vs.-graft and graft-vs.-host reactions. European Journal of Immunology, 22, 1421 1427.
  • 29
    Murphy, W.J., Kumar, V., Bennett, M. (1987) Acute rejection of murine bone marrow allografts by natural killer cells and T cells: differences in kinetics and target antigens recognized. Journal of Experimental Medicine, 166, 1499 1509.
  • 30
    Nakajima, H., Shores, E.W., Noguchi, M., Leonard, W.J. (1997) The common cytokine receptor gamma chain plays an essential role in regulating lymphoid homeostasis. Journal of Experimental Medicine, 185, 189 195.
  • 31
    Noguchi, M., Yi, H., Rosenblatt, H.M., Filipovich, A.H., Adelstein, S., Modi, W.S., McBride, O.W., Leonard, W.J. (1993) Interleukin-2 receptor gamma chain mutation results in X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency in humans. Cell, 73, 147 157.
  • 32
    Pflumio, F., Izac, B., Katz, A., Shultz, L.D., Vainchenker, W., Coulombel, L. (1996) Phenotype and function of human haemopoietic cells engrafting immune-deficient CB17-severe combined immunodeficiency mice and nonobese diabetic-severe combined immunodeficiency mice after transplantation of human cord blood mononuclear cells. Blood, 88, 3731 3740.
  • 33
    Sandhu, J., Shpitz, B., Gallinger, S., Hozumi, N. (1994) Human primary immune response in SCID mice engrafted with human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Journal of Immunology, 152, 3806 3813.
  • 34
    Sandhu, J.S., Gorczynski, R., Shpitz, B., Gallinger, S., Nguyen, H.P., Hozumi, N. (1995) A human model of xenogeneic graft-versus-host disease in SCID mice engrafted with human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Transplantation, 60, 179 184.
  • 35
    Schwarz, K., Gauss, G.H., Ludwig, L., Pannicke, U., Li, Z., Lindner, D., Friedrich, W., Seger, R.A., Hansen, H.T., Desiderio, S., Lieber, M.R., Bartram, C.R. (1996) RAG mutations in human B cell-negative SCID. Science, 274, 97 99.
  • 36
    Serreze, D.V., Leiter, E.H., Hanson, M.S., Christianson, S.W., Shultz, L.D., Hesselton, R.M., Greiner, D.L. (1995) Emv30null NOD-scid mice: an improved host for adoptive transfer of autoimmune diabetes and growth of human lymphohaemopoietic cells. Diabetes, 44, 1392 1398.
  • 37
    Shinkai, Y., Rathbun, G., Lam, K.P., Oltz, E.M., Stewart, V., Mendelsohn, M., Charron, J., Datta, M., Young, F., Stall, A.M., Alt, F.W. (1992) RAG-2-deficient mice lack mature lymphocytes owing to inability to initiate V(D)J rearrangement. Cell, 68, 855 867.
  • 38
    Shpitz, B., Chambers, C.A., Singhal, A.B., Hozumi, N., Fernandes, B.J., Roifman, C.M., Weiner, L.M., Roder, J.C., Gallinger, S. (1994) High level functional engraftment of severe combined immunodeficient mice with human peripheral blood lymphocytes following pretreatment with radiation and anti-asialo GM1. Journal of Immunological Methods, 169, 1 15.
  • 39
    Shultz, L.D., Schweitzer, P.A., Christianson, S.W., Gott, B., Schweitzer, I.B., Tennent, B., McKenna, S., Mobraaten, L., Rajan, T.V., Greiner, D.L., Leiter, E.H. (1995) Multiple defects in innate and adaptive immunologic function in NOD/LtSz-scid mice. Journal of Immunology, 154, 180 191.
  • 40
    Su, H.C., Orange, J.S., Fast, L.D., Chan, A.T., Simpson, S.J., Terhorst, C., Biron, C.A. (1994) IL-2-dependent NK cell responses discovered in virus-infected beta2-microglobulin-deficient mice . Journal of Immunology, 153, 5674 5681.
  • 41
    Sugamura, K., Asao, H., Kondo, M., Tanaka, N., Ishii, N., Ohbo, K., Nakamura, M., Takeshita, T. (1996) The interleukin-2 receptor gamma chain: its role in the multiple cytokine receptor complexes and T cell development in XSCID. Annual Review of Immunology, 14, 179 205.
  • 42
    Tary-Lehmann, M. & Saxon, A. (1992) Human mature T cells that are anergic in vivo prevail in SCID mice reconstituted with human peripheral blood. Journal of Experimental Medicine, 175, 503 516.
  • 43
    Tary-Lehmann, M., Saxon, A., Lehmann, P.V. (1995) The human immune system in hu-PBL-SCID mice. Immunology Today, 16, 529 533.
  • 44
    Tiberghien, P., Longo, D.L., Wine, J.W., Alvord, W.G., Reynolds, C.W. (1990) Anti-asialo GM1 antiserum treatment of lethally irradiated recipients before bone marrow transplantation: evidence that recipient natural killer depletion enhances survival, engraftment, and hemopoietic recovery. Blood, 76, 1419 1430.