• 1
    Bertling, W., Beier, F., Reichenberger, E. (1993) Determination of 5′ ends of specific mRNAs by DNA ligase-dependent amplification. PCR Methods and Applications, 3, 95 99.
  • 2
    Betts, L., Xiang, S., Short, S.A., Wolfenden, R., Carter, C.W. (1994) Cytidine deaminase: the 2.3 Å crystal structure of an enzyme:transition-state analog complex. Journal of Molecular Biology, 235, 635 656.
  • 3
    Bhalla, K., Nayak, R., Grant, S. (1984) Isolation and characterization of a deoxycytidine kinase-deficient human promyelocytic leukemic cell line highly resistant to 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine. Cancer Research, 44, 5029 5037.
  • 4
    Büchner, T., Hiddemann, W., Wörmann, B., Heinecke, A., Sauerland, M.C., Fonatsch, C., Becher, R., Hossfeld, D., Goasguen, J., Löffler, H., Schaefer, U.W. (1993) Factors determing therapeutic outcome in patients with AML. Blood, 82, (Suppl. 1), 192a.
  • 5
    Campos, L., Guyotat, D., Archimbaud, E., Calmard-Oriol, P., Tsuruo, T., Troncy, J., Treille, D., Fiere, D. (1992) Clinical significance of multidrug resistance P-glycoprotein expression on acute non-lymphoblastic leukemia cells at diagnosis. Blood, 79, 473 476.
  • 6
    Capizzi, R.L., White, J.C., Powell, B.L., Perrino, F. (1991) Effect of dose on the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic effects of cytarabine. Seminars in Hematology, 28, (Suppl. 4), 54 69.
  • 7
    Cheson, B.D., Cassileth, P.A., Head, D.R., Schiffer, C.A., Bennett, J.M., Bloomfield, C.D., Brunning, R., Gale, R.P., Grever, M.R., Keating, M.J., Sawitsky, A., Stass, S., Weinstein, H., Woods, W.G. (1990) Report of the National Cancer Institute-sponsored workshop on definitions of diagnosis and response in acute myeloid leukemia. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 8, 813 819.
  • 8
    Chomczynski, P. & Sacchi, N. (1987) Single-step method of RNA isolation by acid guanidinium thiocyanate–phenol–chloroform extraction. Annals of Biochemistry, 162, 156 159.
  • 9
    Chottiner, E.G., Shewach, D.S., Datta, N.S., Ashcraft, E., Gribbin, D., Ginsburg, D., Fox, H., Mitchell, B.S. (1991) Cloning and expression of human deoxycytidine kinase cDNA. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 88, 1531 1535.
  • 10
    Colly, L.P., Peters, W.G., Richel, D., Arentsen-Honders, M.W., Starrenburg, C.W.J., Willemze, R. (1987) Deoxycytidine kinase and deoxycytidine deaminase values correspond closely to clinical response to cytosine arabinoside remission induction therapy in patients with acute myelogenous leukemia. Seminars in Oncology, 14, (Suppl. 1), 257 261.
  • 11
    Del Poeta, G., Stasi, R., Aronica, G., Venditti, A., Cox, M.C., Bruno, A., Buccisano, F., Masi, M., Tribalto, M., Amadori, S., Papa, G. (1996) Clinical relevance of P-glycoprotein expression in de novo acute myeloid leukemia. Blood, 87, 1997 2004.
  • 12
    Flasshove, M., Moritz, T., Schröder, J., Seeber, S., Schütte, J. (1997) Retroviral gene transfer of cytidine deaminase cDNA into hematopoietic cells. (Abstract). Journal of Molecular Medicine, 75, B216.
  • 13
    Flasshove, M., Strumberg, D., Ayscue, L., Mitchell, B.S., Tirier, C., Heit, W., Seeber, S., Schütte, J. (1994) Structural analysis of the deoxycytidine kinase gene in patients with acute myeloid leukaemia and resistance to cytosine arabinoside. Leukaemia, 8, 780 785.
  • 14
    Ho, D.H.W. (1973) Distribution of kinase and deaminase of 1-β-D-arabinofuranosyl-cytosine in tissues of man and mouse. Cancer Research, 33, 2816 1820.
  • 15
    Honma, Y., Onozuka, Y., Okabe-Kado, J., Kasukabe, T., Hozumi, M. (1991) Hemin enhances the sensitivity of erythroleukaemia cells to 1-β-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine by both activation of deoxycytidine kinase and reduction of cytidine deaminase activity. Cancer Research, 51, 4535 4538.
  • 16
    Hunter, A.E., Rogers, S.Y., Roberts, I.A.G., Barrett, A.J., Russell, N. (1993) Autonomous growth of blast cells is associated with reduced survival in acute myeloblastic leukemia. Blood, 82, 899 903.
  • 17
    Jahns-Streubel, G., Reuter, C., Auf der Landwehr, U., Unterhalt, M., Schleyer, E., Wörmann, B., Büchner, T., Hiddemann, W. (1997) Activity of thymidine kinase and of polymerase alpha as well as activity and gene expression of deoxycytidine deaminase in leukemic blasts are correlated with clinical response in the setting of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor-based priming before and during TAD-9 induction therapy in acute myeloid leukemia. Blood, 90, 1968 1976.
  • 18
    Kasimir-Bauer, S., Ottinger, H., Meusers, P., Beelen, D.W., Brittinger, G., Seeber, S., Scheulen, M.E. (1998) In acute myeloid leukemia, coexpression of at least two proteins, including P-glycoprotein, the multidrug resistance-related protein, bd-2, mutant p53, and heat-shock protein 27, is predictive of the response to induction chemotherapy. Experimental Hematology, in press.
  • 19
    Kees, U.R., Ford, J., Dawson, V.M., Piall, E., Aherne, G.W. (1989) Development of resistance to 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine after high-dose treatment in childhood lymphoblastic leukemia: analysis of resistance mechanism in established cell lines. Cancer Research, 49, 3015 3019.
  • 20
    Kirch, H.C., Schröder, J., Hoppe, H., Esche, H., Seeber, S., Schütte, J. (1998) Recombinant gene products of two natural variants of the human cytidine deaminase gene confer different deamination rates ‘of cytarabine in vitro. Experimental Hematology, 26, 421 425.
  • 21
    Kreis, W., Hession, C., Soricelli, A., Scully, K. (1977) Combinations of tetrahydrouridine and cytosine arabinoside in mouse tumors. Cancer Treatment Reports, 61, 1355 1364.
  • 22
    Kühn, K., Bertling, W.M., Emmrich, F. (1993) Cloning of a functional cDNA for human cytidine deaminase (CDD) and its use as marker of monocyte/macrophage differentiation. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 190, 1 7.
  • 23
    Laliberte, J. & Momparler, R.L. (1994) Human cytidine deaminase: purification of enzyme, cloning, and expression of its complementary DNA. Cancer Research, 5, 5401 5407.
  • 24
    Manome, Y., Wen, P.Y., Dong, Y., Tanaka, T., Mitchell, B.S., Kufe, D.W., Fine, H.A. (1996) Viral vector transduction of the human deoxycytidine kinase cDNA sensitizes glioma cells to the cytotoxic effects of cytosine arabinoside in vitro and in vivo. Nature Medicine, 2, 567 573.
  • 25
    Mayer, R.J., Davis, R.B., Schiffer, C.A., Berg, D.T., Powell, B.L., Schulman, P., Omura, G.A., Moore, J.O., McIntyre, O.R., Frei, E. (1994) Intensive postremission chemotherapy in adults with acute myeloid leukemia. Cancer and Leukemia Group B. New England Journal of Medicine, 331, 896 903.
  • 26
    Mejer, J. & Nygaard, P. (1978) Cytosine arabinoside phosphorylation and deamination in acute myeloblastic leukemia cells. Leukemia Research, 2, 127 131.
  • 27
    Meyers, M.B. & Kreis, W. (1978) Comparison of enzymatic activities of two deoxycytidine kinases purified from cells sensitive (P815) or resistant (P815/ara-C) to 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine. Cancer Research, 38, 1105 1112.
  • 28
    Momparler, R.L., Eliopoulos, N., Bovenzi, V., Letourneau, S., Greenbaum, M., Cournoyer, D. (1996) Resistance to cytosine arabinoside by retrovirally mediated gene transfer of human cytidine deaminase into murine fibroblast and hematopoietic cells. Cancer Gene Therapy, 3, 331 338.
  • 29
    Momparler, R.L. & Laliberte, J. (1990) Induction of cytidine deaminase in HL-60 myeloid leukemic cells by 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine. Leukemia Research, 14, 751 754.
  • 30
    Mrózek, K., Heinonen, K., De Le Chapelle, A., Bloomfield, C.D. (1997) Clinical significance of cytogenetics in acute myeloid leukemia. Seminars in Oncology, 24, 17 31.
  • 31
    Neff, T. & Blau, C.A. (1996) Forced expression of cytidine deaminase confers resistance to cytarabine and gemcitabine. Experimental Hematology, 24, 1340 1346.
  • 32
    Nuessler, V., Gullis, E., Pelka-Fleischer, R., De Valle, F., Diem, H., Beyerlein, S., Zwierzina, H., Wilmanns, W. (1997) Expression and functional activity of P-glycoprotein in adult acute myelogenous leukemia patients. Annals of Hematology, 75, 17 26.
  • 33
    Owens, J.K., Shewach, D.S., Ullman, B., Mitchell, B.S. (1992) Resistance to 1-β-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine in human T-lymphoblasts mediated by mutations within the deoxycytidine kinase gene. Cancer Research, 52, 2389 2393.
  • 34
    Richel, D.J., Colly, L.P., Arkesteijn, G.J., Arentsen-Honders, M.W., Kerster, M.G., Ter Riet, P.M., Willemze, R. (1990) Substrate-specific deoxycytidine kinase deficiency in 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine-resistant leukemic cells. Cancer Research, 50, 6515 6519.
  • 35
    Riva, C., Barra, Y., Carcassonne, Y., Cano, J.P., Rustum, Y. (1992) Effect of tetrahydrouridine on metabolism and transport of 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine in human cells. Chemotherapy, 38, 358 366.
  • 36
    Rustum, Y.M. & Preisler, H.D. (1979) Correlation between leukemic cell retention of 1-D-arabionofuranosylcytosine 5′-triphosphate and response to therapy. Cancer Research, 39, 42 49.
  • 37
    Schröder, J., Esteban, M., Müller, M.R., Kasimir-Bauer, S., Bamberger, U., Heckel, A., Seeber, S., Scheulen, M.E. (1996a) Modulation of multidrug resistance by BIBW22BS in blasts of de novo or relapsed or persistent acute myeloid leukemia ex vivo. Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology, 122, 307 312.
  • 38
    Schröder, J.K., Kirch, C., Flasshove, M., Kalweit, H., Seidelmann, M., Hilger, R., Seeber, S., Schütte, J. (1996b) Constitutive overexpression of the cytidine deaminase gene confers resistance to cytosine arabinoside in vitro. Leukemia, 10, 1919 1924.
  • 39
    Smyth, J.F., Robins, A.B., Leese, C.L. (1976) The metabolism of cytosine arabinoside as a predictive test for clinical response to the drug in acute myeloid leukemia. European Journal of Cancer, 12, 567 573.
  • 40
    Stegmann, A.P.A., Honders, M.W., Willemze, R., Landegent, J.E. (1995) De novo induced mutations in the deoxycytidine kinase (DCK) gene in rat leukemic clonal cell lines confer resistance to cytarabine (AraC) and 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine (DAC). Leukemia, 9, 1032 1038.
  • 41
    Steuart, C.D. & Burke, P.J. (1971) Cytidine deaminase and the development of resistance to arabinoside cytosine. Nature New Biology, 233, 109 110.
  • 42
    Tattersall, M.H.N., Ganeshaguru, K., Hoffbrand, A.V. (1974) Mechanisms of resistance of human acute leukaemia cells to cytosine arabinoside. British Journal of Haematology, 27, 39 46.
  • 43
    Van Den Heuvel-Eibrink, M.M., Van Der Holt, B., Te Boekhorst, P.A.W., Pieters, R., Schoester, M., Löwenberg, B., Sonneveld, P. (1997) MDR1 expression is an independent prognostic factor for response and survival in de novo acute myeloid leukaemia. British Journal of Haematology, 99, 76 83.
  • 44
    Yusa, K., Ohuhara, T., Tsukabara, S., Tsuoro, T. (1992) Human immunodeficiency virus type I induces 1-β-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine resistance in human H9 cell line. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 267, 16848 16850.