SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • 1
    Abrams, C.S., Ellison, N., Budzynski, A.Z. & Shattil, S.J. (1990) Direct detection of activated platelets and platelet-derived microparticles in humans. Blood, 75, 128138.
  • 2
    Addonizio, V.P. (1990) Platelet function in cardiopulmonary bypass and artificial organs. Hematology/Oncology Clinics of North America, 4, 145155.
  • 3
    Aguzzi, A. (1997) Neuro-immune connection in spread of prions in the body? Lancet, 349, 742743.
  • 4
    Alvarez, J.M. (1998) Emergency coronary bypass grafting for failed percutaneous coronary aretery stenting: increased costs and platelet transfusion requirements after the use of abciximab. Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, 115, 472473.
  • 5
    Alvarez, J.M., Goldstein, J., Mezzatesta, J., Flanagan, B. & Dodd, M. (1998) Fatal intraoperative pulmonary thrombosis after graft replacement of an aneurysm of the arch and descending aorta in association with deep hypothermic circulatory arrest and aprotinin therapy. Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, 115, 723724.
  • 6
    Ammar, T. & Fisher, C.F. (1997) The effects of heparinase I and protamine on platelet reactivity. Anesthesiology, 86, 13821386.
  • 7
    Asakura, S., Hurley, R.W., Skorstengaard, K., Ohkubo, I. & Mosher, D.F. (1992) Inhibition of cell adhesion by high molecular weight kininogen. Journal of Cell Biology, 116, 465476.
  • 8
    Badimon, L., Turitto, V., Rosemark, J.A., Badimon, J.J. & Fuster, V. (1987) Characterization of a tubular flow chamber for studying platelet interaction with biologic and prosthetic materials: deposition of indium 111-labeled platelets on collagen, subendothelium, and expanded polytetrafluoroethylene. Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine, 110, 706718.
  • 9
    Barstad, R.M., Øvrum, E., Ringdal, M.L., Øystese, R., Hamers, M.J.A.G., Veiby, O., Rolfsen, T., Stephens, R.W. & Sakariassen, K.S. (1996) Induction of monocyte tissue factor procoagulant activity during coronary artery bypass surgery is reduced with heparin-coated extracorporeal circuit. British Journal of Haematology, 94, 517525.
  • 10
    Bennett-Guerrero, E., Sorohan, J.G., Gurevich, M.L., Kazanjian, P.E., Levy, R.R., Barbera, A.V., White, W.D., Slaughter, T.F., Sladen, R.N., Smith, P.K. & Newman, M.F. (1997) Cost–benefit and efficacy of aprotinin compared with ɛ-aminocaproic acid in patients having repeat cardiac operations. Anesthesiology, 87, 13731380.
  • 11
    Berkowitz, S.D., Harrington, R.A., Rund, M.M. & Tcheng, J.E. (1997) Acute profound thrombocytopenia after c7E3 Fab (abciximab) therapy. Circulation, 95, 809813.
  • 12
    Bidstrup, B., Underwood, S.R. & Sapsford, R.N. (1993) Effect of aprotinin (Trasylol) on aorta-coronary bypass graft patency. Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, 105, 147153.
  • 13
    Bode, A.P., Knupp, C.L. & Miller, D.T. (1990) Effect of platelet activation inhibitors on the loss of glycoprotein Ib during storage of platelet concentrates. Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine, 115, 669679.
  • 14
    Boehrer, J.D., Kereiakes, D.J., Navetta, F.I., Califf, R.M. & Topol, E.J., EPIC investigators (1994) Effects of profound platelet inhibition with c7E3 before coronary angioplasty on complications of coronary bypass surgery. American Journal of Cardiology, 74, 11661170.
  • 15
    Boisclair, M.D., Lane, D.A., Philippou, H., Esnouf, M.P., Sheikh, S., Hunt, B. & Smith, K.J. (1993 a) Mechanisms of thrombin generation during surgery and cardiopulmonary bypass. Blood, 82, 33503357.
  • 16
    Boisclair, M.D., Lane, D.A., Philippou, H., Sheikh, S. & Hunt, B. (1993 b) Thrombin producton, inactivation and expression during open heart surgery measured by assays for activation fragments including a new ELISA for prothrombin fragment F1+2. Thrombosis and Haemostasis, 70, 253258.
  • 17
    Brash, J.L., Scott, C.F., Ten Hove, P., Wojciechowski, P. & Colman, R.W. (1988) Mechanism of transient adsorption of fibrinogen from plasma to solid surfaces: role of the contact and fibrinolytic systems. Blood, 71, 932939.
  • 18
    Bryan, A.J. & Angelini, G.D. (1997) Minimal access coronary artery surgery. Heart, 77, 307308.
  • 19
    Buffolo, E., Andrade, J.C.S., Branco, J.N.R., Aguiar, L.F., Ribiero, E.E. & Jatene, A.D. (1990) Myocardial revascularization without extracorporeal circulation: seven year experience in 593 cases. European Journal of Cardio-Vascular Surgery, 4, 504508.
  • 20
    Burman, J.F., Chung, H.I., Lane, D.A., Philippou, H., Adami, A. & Lincoln, J.C.R. (1994) Role of factor XII in thrombin generation and fibrinolysis during cardiopulmonary bypass. Lancet, 344, 11921193.
  • 21
    Cardigan, R.A., Hamilton-Davies, C., McDonald, S., Purdy, G., Mackie, I.J., Webb, A.R. & Machin, S.J. (1996) Haemostatic changes in the pulmonary blood during cardiopulmonary bypass. Blood Coagulation and Fibrinolysis, 7, 567577.
  • 22
    Celi, A., Pellegrini, G., Lorenzet, R., De Blasi, A., Ready, N., Furie, B.C. & Furie, B. (1994) P-selectin induces the expression of tissue factor on monocytes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 31, 87678771.
  • 23
    Chan, A.K.C., Leaker, M., Burrows, F.A., Wiliams, W.G., Gruenwald, C.E., Whyte, L., Adams, M., Broker, L.A., Adams, H., Mitchell, L. & Andrew, M. (1997) Coagulation and fibrinolytic profile of paediatric patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass. Thrombosis and Haemostasis, 77, 270277.
  • 24
    Chandler, W.L., Fitch, J.C.K., Wall, M.H., Verrier, E.D., Cochran, R.P., Soltow, L.O. & Speiss, B.D. (1995) Individual variation in the fibrinolytic response during and after cardiopulmonary bypass. Thrombosis and Haemostasis, 74, 12931297.
  • 25
    Chung, J.H., Gikakis, N., Rao, A.K., Drake, T.A., Colman, R.W. & Edmunds, L.H. (1996) Pericardial blood activates the extrinsic coagulation pathway during clinical cardiopulmonary bypass. Circulation, 93, 20142018.
  • 26
    Cosgrove, D.M., Heric, B., Lytle, B.W., Taylor, P.C., Novoa, R., Golding, L.A.R., Stewart, R.W., McCarthy, P.M. & Loop, F.D. (1992) Aprotinin therapy for reoperative myocardial revascularization: a placebo-controlled study. Annals of Thoracic Surgery, 54, 10311038.
  • 27
    D'Ambra, M. (1996) Restoration of the normal coagulation process: advances in therapies to antagonize heparin. Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology, 27, (Suppl. 1), s58s62.
  • 28
    De Haan, J., Schonberger, J., Haan, J., Van Oeveren, W. & Eijgelaar, A. (1993) Tissue-type plasminogen activator and fibrin monomers synergistically cause platelet function during retransfusion of shed blood after cardiopulmonary bypass. Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, 106, 10171023.
  • 29
    Despotis, G.J., Joist, J.H., Hogue, C.W., Jr, Alsoufiev, A., Joiner-Maier, D., Santoro, S.A., Spitznagel, E., Weitz, J.I. & Goodnough, L.T. (1996) More effective suppression of haemostatic system activation in patients undergoing cardiac surgery by heparin dosing based on heparin blood concentrations rather than ACT. Thrombosis and Haemostasis, 76, 902908.
  • 30
    Despotis, G.J., Levine, V., Joist, J.H., Joiner-Maier, D. & Spitznagel, E. (1997) Antithrombin III during cardiac surgery: effect on response of activated clotting time to heparin and relationship to markers of hemostatic activation. Anesthesia and Analgesia, 85, 498506.
  • 31
    Ehrlich, M., Grabenwoger, M., Cartes-Zumelzu, F., Luckner, D., Kovarik, J., Laufer, G., Kocher, A., Konetschny, R., Wolner, E. & Havel, M. (1998) Operations on the thoracic aorta and hypothermic circulatory arrest: is aprotinin safe? Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, 115, 220225.
  • 32
    Ereth, M.H., Nuttall, G.A., Santrach, P.J., Klindworth, J.T., Oliver, W.C., Jr & Schaff, H.V. (1998) The relation between the platelet-activated clotting test (HemoSTATUS) and blood loss after cardiopulmonary bypass. Anesthesiology, 88, 962969.
  • 33
    Ernofsson, M., Thelin, S. & Siegbahn, A. (1997) Monocyte tissue factor expression, cell activation, and thrombin formation during cardiopulmonary bypass: a clinical study. Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, 113, 576584.
  • 34
    Ferguson, J.J., Kereiakis, D.J., Adgey, A.A.J., Fox, K.A.A., Hillegass, W.B., Jr, Pfisterer, M. & Vassanelli, C. (1998) Safe use of platelet GP IIb/IIIa inhibitors. American Heart Journal, 135, S77S89.
  • 35
    Ferraris, V.A., Ferraris, S.P., Reich, H., Rodriguez, E., Huang, M., Gupta, A., Bennett, J.A., Andersen, T.T. & Fenton, J.W. (1996) Thrombin receptor-related hemosatic defect after cardiopulmonary bypass. Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis, 22, 351356.
  • 36
    Fritz, H. & Wunderer, G. (1983) Biochemistry and applications of aprotinin, the kallikrein inhibitor from bovine organs. Arzneimittel-Forschung Drug Research, 33, 479494.
  • 37
    Gammie, J.S., Zenati, M., Kormos, R.L., Hattler, B.G., Wei, L.M., Pellegrini, R.V., Griffith, B.P. & Dyke, C.M. (1998) Abciximab and excessive bleeding in patients undergoing emergency cardiac operations. Annals of Thoracic Surgery, 65, 465469.
  • 38
    Gelb, A.B., Roth, R.I., Levin, J., London, M.J., Noall, R.A., Hauck, W.W., Cloutier, M., Verrier, E. & Mangano, D.T. (1996) Changes in blood coagulation during and following cardiopulmonary bypass: lack of correlation with clinical bleeding. American Journal of Clinical Pathology, 106, 8799.
  • 39
    Gill, J.C., Endres-Brooks, J., Bauer, P.J., Marks, W.J. & Montgomery, R.R. (1987) The effect of ABO blood group on the diagnosis of von Willebrand disease. Blood, 69, 16911695.
  • 40
    Gill, J.C., Wilson, A.D., Endres-Brooks, J. & Montgomery, R.R. (1986) Loss of largest von Wilebrand factor multimers from the plasma of patients with congenital heart defects. Blood, 67, 758761.
  • 41
    Gillis, S., Merin, G., Zahger, D., Deeb, M., Drenger, B., Hyam, E. & Eldor, A. (1997) Danaparoid for cardiopulmonary bypass in patients with previous heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. British Journal of Haematology, 98, 657659.
  • 42
    Giordano, G.F., Sr, Giordano, G.F., Jr, Rivers, S.L., Chung, G.K.T., Mammana, R.B., Marco, J.D., Raczkowski, A.R., Sabbagh, A., Sanderson, R.G. & Strug, B.S. (1989) Determinants of homologous blood usage utilizing autologous platelet-rich plasma in cardiac operations. Annals of Thoracic Surgery, 47, 897902.
  • 43
    Golker, C.F., Whiteman, M.D., Gugel, K.H., Gilles, R., Stadler, P., Kovatch, R.M., Lister, D., Wisher, M.H., Calcagni, C. & Hubner, G.E. (1996) Reduction in the infectivity of scrapie agent as a model for BSE in the manufacturing process of Trasylol. Biologicals, 24, 103111.
  • 44
    Goodnough, L.T., Johnston, M.F.M., Ramsey, G., Sayers, M.H., Eisenstadt, R.S., Anderson, K.C., Rutman, R.C. & Silberstein, L.E. (1990) Guidelines for transfusion support in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. Annals of Thoracic Surgery, 50, 675683.
  • 45
    Goodnough, L.T., Johnston, M.F.M., Toy, P.T.C.Y., and the Transfuson Medicine Academic Award Group (1991) The variability of transfusion practice in coronary artery bypass surgery. Journal of the American Medical Association, 265, 8690.
  • 46
    Goto, S., Ikeda, Y., Saldivar, E. & Ruggeri, Z.M. (1998) Distinct mechanisms of platelet aggregation as a consequence of different shearing flow conditions. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 101, 479486.
  • 47
    Gram, J., Janetzko, T., Jesperson, J. & Bruhn, H.D. (1990) Enhanced effective fibrinolysis following the neutralization of heparin in open heart surgery increases the risk of post-surgical bleeding. Thrombosis and Haemostasis, 63, 241245.
  • 48
    Gries, A., Bode, C., Peter, K., Herr, A., Böhrer, H., Motsch, J. & Martin, E. (1998) Inhaled nitric oxide inhibits human platelet aggregation, P-selectin expression, and fibrinogen binding in vitro and in vivo. Circulation, 97, 14811487.
  • 49
    Grocott, H.P., Root, J., Berkowitz, S.D., De Bruijn, N. & Landolfo, K. (1997) Coagulation complicating cardiopulmonary bypass in a patient with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia receiving the heparinoid, danaparoid sodium. Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia, 11, 875877.
  • 50
    Hall, R.I. (1998) Protamine dosing: the quandary continues. Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, 45, 15.
  • 51
    Hall, R.I., Smith, M.S. & Rocker, G. (1997) The systemic inflammatory response to cardiopulmonary bypass: pathophysiological, therapeutic, and pharmacological considerations. Anesthesia and Analgesia, 85, 766782.
  • 52
    Hardy, J-F., Perrault, J., Tremblay, N., Robitaille, D., Blain, R. & Carrier, M. (1991) The stratification of cardiac surgical procedures according to use of blood products: a retrospective analysis of 1480 cases. Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, 38, 511517.
  • 53
    Harker, L.A., Malpass, T.W., Branson, H.E., Hessel, E.A., II & Slichter, S.J. (1980) Mechanism of abnormal bleeding in patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass: acquired transient platelet dysfunction associated with selective α-granule release. Blood, 56, 824834.
  • 54
    Hashimoto, K., Yamagishi, M., Sasaki, T., Nakano, M. & Kurosawa, H. (1994) Heparin and antithrombin III levels during cardiopulmonary bypass: correlation with subclinical plasma coagulation. Annals of Thoracic Surgery, 58, 799805.
  • 55
    Horrow, J.C. (1994) Intraoperative coronary thrombosis: can protamine be incriminated? Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia, 8, 142143.
  • 56
    Hsu,, L.-C. (1997) Biocompatibility in cardiopulmonary bypass. Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia, 11, 376382.
  • 57
    Hunt, B.J., Parratt, R.N., Segal, H.C., Sheikh, S., Kallis, P. & Yacoub, M. (1998) Activation of coagulation and fibrinolysis during cardiothoracic operations. Annals of Thoracic Surgery, 65, 712718.
  • 58
    Hynynen, M., Kuitunen, A. & Salmenpera, M. (1996) Surgical bleeding and calcium antagonists. (Letter). British Medical Journal, 312, 313.
  • 59
    Jen, C.J., Li, H-M., Wang, J-S., Chen, H.-I. & Usami, S. (1996) Flow-induced detachment of adherent platelets from fibrinogen-coated surface. American Journal of Physiology, 270 (Heart Circulation Physiology, 39), H160H166.
  • 60
    Jern, C., Seeman-Lodding, H., Biber, B., Winso, O. & Jern, S. (1997) An experimental multiple-organ model for the study of regional net release/uptake rates of tissue-type plasminogen activator in the intact pig. Thrombosis and Haemostasis, 78, 11501156.
  • 61
    Johnson, R.G., Thurer, R.L., Kruskall, M.S., Sirois, C., Gervino, E.V., Critchlow, J. & Weintraub, R.M. (1992) Comparison of two transfusion strategies after elective operations for myocardial revascularization. Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, 104, 307314.
  • 62
    Kallis, P., Tooze, J.A., Talbot, S., Cowans, D., Bevan, D.H. & Treasure, T. (1994 a) Aprotinin inhibits fibrinolysis, improves platelet adhesion and reduces blood loss. European Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery, 8, 315323.
  • 63
    Kallis, P., Tooze, J.A., Talbot, S., Cowans, D., Bevan, D.H. & Treasure, T. (1994 b) Pre-operative aspirin decreases platelet aggregation and increases post-operative blood loss; a prospective, randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial in 100 patients with chronic stable angina. European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery, 8, 404409.
  • 64
    Kanagasabay, R., Unsworth-White, M.J., Robinson, G., Bevan, D.H., Farnsworth, G., Haxby, E. & Smith, E.E.J. (1998) Cardiopulmonary bypass with danaparoid sodium and ancrod in heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Annals of Thoracic Surgery, 66, 567569.
  • 65
    Kappelmeyer, J., Bernabei, A., Edmunds, L.H., Jr, Edgington, T.S. & Colman, R.W. (1993) Tissue factor is expressed on monocytes during simulated exracorporeal circulation. Circulation Research, 72, 10751081.
  • 66
    Kestin, A.S., Valeri, C.R., Khuri, S.F., Loscalzo, J., Ellis, P.A., MacGregor, H., Birjniuk, V., Ouimet, H., Pasche, B., Nelson, M.J., Benoit, S.E., Rodino, L.J., Barnard, M.R. & Michelson, A.D. (1993) The platelet function defect of cardiopulmonary bypass. Blood, 82, 107117.
  • 67
    Kimmel, S.E., Sekeres, M.A., Berlin, J.A., Goldberg, L.R. & Strom, B.L. (1998) Adverse events after protamine administration in patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass: risks and predictors of under-reporting. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 51, 110.
  • 68
    Kinlough-Rathbone, R.L., Packham, M.A., Perry, D.W., Mustard, J.F. & Cattaneo, M. (1992) Lack of stability of aggregates after thrombin-induced reaggregation of thrombin-degranulated platelets. Thrombosis and Haemostasis, 67, 453457.
  • 69
    Kirklin, J.W. & Barratt-Boyes, B.G. (1986) Cardiac Surgery. pp. 158159. Churchill Livingstone, New York.
  • 70
    Kunitz, M. & Northrop, J.H. (1936) Isolation from beef pancreas of crystalline trypsinogen, trypsin, trypsin inhibitor, and an inhibitor trypsin compound. Journal of General Physiology, 19, 9911007.
  • 71
    Langford, E.J., Parfitt, A., De Belder, A.J., Marrinan, M.T. & Martin, J.F. (1997) A study of platelet activation during human cardiopulmonary bypass and the effect of S-nitrosoglutathione. Thrombosis and Haemostasis, 78, 15161519.
  • 72
    Larsen, E., Celi, A., Gilbert, G.E., Furie, B.C., Erban, J.K., Bonfanti, R., Wagner, D.D. & Furie, B. (1989) PADGEM protein: a receptor that mediates the interaction of activated platelets with neutrophils and monocytes. Cell, 59, 305312.
  • 73
    Laupacis, A. & Fergusson, D., for The International Study of Peri-Operative Transfusion (ISPOT) Investigators (1997) Drugs to minimize perioperative blood loss in cardiac surgery: meta-analysis using perioperative blood transfusion as the outcome. Anesthesia and Analgesia, 85, 12581267.
  • 74
    Levy, M. & Hartman, A.R. (1996) Heparin-coated bypass circuits in cardiopulmonary bypass: improved biocompatibility or not. International Journal of Cardiology, 53, (Suppl.), S81S87.
  • 75
    Lu, H., Soria, C., Commin, P-L., Soria, J., Piwnica, A., Schumann, F., Regnier, O., Legrand, Y. & Caen, J.P. (1991) Hemostasis in patients undergoing extracorporeal circulation: the effect of aprotinin (Trasylol). Thrombosis and Haemostasis, 66, 633637.
  • 76
    Magnani, H.N. (1993) Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT): an overview of 230 patients treated with orgaran (Org 10172). Thrombosis and Haemostasis, 70, 554561.
  • 77
    Mannucci, L., Gerometta, P.S., Mussoni, L., Antona, C., Parolari, A., Salvi, L., Biglioli, P. & Tremoli, E. (1995) One month follow-up of haemostatic variables in patients undergoing aortocoronary bypass surgery. Thrombosis and Haemostasis, 73, 356361.
  • 78
    Maquelin, K.N., Berckmans, R.J., Nieuwland, R., Schaap, M.C.L., Ten Have, K., Eijsman, L. & Sturk, A. (1998) Disappearance of glycoprotein Ib from the platelet surface in pericardial blood during cardiopulmonary bypass. Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, 115, 11601165.
  • 79
    Mazer, C.D., Hornstein, A. & Freedman, J. (1995) Platelet activation in warm and cold heart surgery. Annals of Thoracic Surgery, 59, 14811486.
  • 80
    Meloni, F.J. & Schmaier, A.H. (1991) Low molecular weight kininogen binds to platelets to modulate thrombin-induced platelet activation. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 266, 67866794.
  • 81
    Mohr, R., Martinowitz, U., Lavee, J., Amroch, D., Ramot, B. & Goor, D.A. (1988) The hemostatic effect of transfusing fresh whole blood versus platelet concentrates after cardiac operations. Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, 96, 530534.
  • 82
    Moor, E., Hamsten, A., Blomback, M., Herzfeld, I., Wiman, B. & Ryden, L. (1994) Haemostatic factors and inhibitors and coronary artery bypass grafting: preoperative alterations and relations to graft occlusion. Thrombosis and Haemostasis, 72, 335342.
  • 83
    Motwani, J.G. & Topol, E.J. (1998) Aortocoronary saphenous vein graft disease: pathogenesis, predisposition, and prevention. Circulation, 97, 916931.
  • 84
    Munver, R., Schulman, I.C., Wolf, D.J. & Rosengart, T.K. (1994) Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and thrombosis: presentation after cardiopulmnary bypass. Annals of Thoracic Surgery, 58, 17641766.
  • 85
    Nieuwland, R., Berckmans, R.J., Rotteveel-Eijkman, R.C., Maquelin, K.N., Rozendaal, K.J., Jansen, P.G.M., Ten Have, K., Eijsman, L., Hack, C.E. & Sturk, A. (1997) Cell-derived microparticles generated in patients during cardiopulmonary bypass are highly procoagulant. Circulation, 96, 35343541.
  • 86
    Nurden, P. (1997) Bidirectional trafficking of membrane glycoproteins following platelet activation in suspension. Thrombosis and Haemostasis, 78, 13051315.
  • 87
    Orchard, M.A., Goodchild, C.S., Prentice, C.R.M., Davies, J.A., Benoit, S.E., Creighton-Kemsford, I.J., Gaffney, P.J. & Michelson, A.D. (1993) Aprotinin reduces cardiopulmonary bypass-induced blood loss and inhibits fibrinolysis without influencing platelets. British Journal of Haematology, 85, 533541.
  • 88
    O-Yurvati, A.H., Laub, G.W., Southgate, T.J. & McGrath, L.B. (1994) Heparinless cardiopulmonary bypass with ancrod. Annals of Thoracic Surgery, 57, 16561658.
  • 89
    Parratt, R.N. & Hunt, B.J. (1996) Monocyte procoagulant activity during cardiac surgery using cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Blood Coagulation and Fibrinolysis, 7, 393394.
  • 90
    Parratt, R.N. & Hunt, B.J. (1998) Direct activation of factor X by monocytes occurs during cardiopulmonary bypass. British Journal of Haematology, 101, 4046.
  • 91
    Perrin, E.J., Ray, M.J. & Hawson, G.A.T. (1995) The role of von Willebrand factor in haemostasis and blood loss during and after cardiopulmonary bypass surgery. Blood Coagulation and Fibrinolysis, 6, 650658.
  • 92
    Philippou, H., Adami, A., Boisclair, M.D. & Lane, D.A. (1995) An ELISA for factor X activaton peptide: application to the investigation of thrombogenesis in cardiopulmonary bypass. British Journal of Haematology, 90, 432437.
  • 93
    Plescia, J. & Altieri, D.C. (1996) Activation of Mac-1 (CD11b/Cd18)-bound factor X by released cathepsin G defines an alternative pathway of leucocyte initiation of coagulation. Journal of Biochemistry, 319, 873879.
  • 94
    Radomski, M.W., Palmer, R.M. & Moncada, S. (1987) Endogenous nitric oxide inhibits platelet adhesion to vascular endothelium. Lancet, ii, 10571058.
  • 95
    Rao, L.V.M., Nordfang, O., Hoang, A.D. & Pendurthi, U.R. (1995) Mechanism of antithrombin III inhibiton of factor VIIa/tissue factor activity on cell surfaces: comparison with tissue factor pathway inhibitor/factor Xa-induced inhibition of factor VIIa/tissue factor activity. Blood, 85, 121129.
  • 96
    Rapaport, S.I. & Rao, L.V.M. (1995) The tissue factor pathway: how it has become a ‘prima ballerina’. Thrombosis and Haemostasis, 74, 717.
  • 97
    Ray, M.J. & Marsh, N.A. (1997) Aprotinin reduces blood loss after cardiopulmonary bypass by direct inhibition of plasmin. Thrombosis and Haemostasis, 78, 10211026.
  • 98
    Ray, M.J., Marsh, N.A., Just, S.J.E., Perrin, E.J., O'Brien, M.F. & Hawson, G.A.T. (1997) Preoperative platelet dysfunction increases the benefit of aprotinin in cardiopulmonary bypass. Annals of Thoracic Surgery, 63, 5763.
  • 99
    Rinder, C.S., Bonan, J.L., Rinder, H.M., Mathew, J., Hines, R. & Smith, B.R. (1992) Cardiopulmonary bypass induces leukocyte–platelet adhesion. Blood, 79, 12011205.
  • 100
    Royston, D. (1992) High-dose aprotinin therapy: a review of the first five years' experience. Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia, 6, 76100.
  • 101
    Royston, D. (1994) Intraoperative coronary thrombosis: can aprotinin be incriminated? Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia, 8, 137141.
  • 102
    Royston, D., Bidstrup, B.P., Taylor, K.M. & Sapsford, R.N. (1987) Effect of aprotinin on need for blood transfusion after repeat open-heart surgery. Lancet, ii, 12891291.
  • 103
    Royston, B.D., Royston, D. & Pearson, J.D. (1992) Aprotinin inhibits platelet adhesion to endothelial cells. Blood Coagulation and Fibrinolysis, 3, 737742.
  • 104
    Salzman, E.W. (1963) Blood platelets and extracorporeal circulation. Transfusion, 3, 274277.
  • 105
    Sans, S., Kesteloot, H. & Kromhout, D., on behalf of the Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology on Cardiovascular Mortality and Morbidity Statistics in Europe (1997) The burden of cardiovascular diseases mortality in Europe. European Heart Journal, 18, 12311248.
  • 106
    Schmaier, A.H., Silver, L., Adams, A.L., Fisher, G.C., Munoz, P.C., Vroman, L. & Colman, R.W. (1984) The effect of high molecular weight kininogen on surface-adsorbed fibrinogen. Thrombosis Research, 33, 5167.
  • 107
    Sharland, M., Patton, M.A., Talbot, S., Chitolie, A. & Bevan, D.H. (1992) Coagulation-factor deficiencies and abnormal bleeding in Noonan syndrome. Lancet, 339, 1921.
  • 108
    Shastri, K.A., Logue, G.L., Stern, M.P., Rehman, S. & Raza, S. (1997) Complement activation by heparin–protamine complexes during cardiopulmonary bypass: effect of C4A null allele. Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, 114, 482488.
  • 109
    Shigeta, O., Kojima, H., Jikuya, T., Terada, Y., Atsumi, N., Sakakibara, Y., Nagasawa, T. & Mitsui, T. (1997) Aprotinin inhibits plasmin-induced platelet activation during cardiopulmonary bypass. Circulation, 96, 569574.
  • 110
    Shore-Lesserson, L., Reich, D.L. & DePerio, M. (1998) Heparin and protamine titration do not improve haemostasis in cardiac surgical patients. Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, 45, 1018.
  • 111
    Slaughter, T.F. & Greenberg, C.S. (1997) Heparin-associated thrombocytopenia and thrombosis: implications for perioperative management. Anesthesiology, 87, 667675.
  • 112
    Sly, M.K., Prager, M.D., Eberhart, R.C., Jessen, M.E. & Kulkarni, P.V. (1995) Inhibition of surface-induced platelet activation by nitric oxide. ASAIO Journal 41, M394M398.
  • 113
    Sly, M.K., Prager, M.D., Li, J., Harris, F.B., Shastri, P., Bhujle, R., Chao, R., Kulkarni, P.V., Constantinescu, A., Jessen, M.E. & Eberhart, R.C. (1996) Platelet and neutrophil distributions in pump oxygenator circuits. III. Influence of nitric oxide gas infusion. ASAIO Journal, 42, M494499.
  • 114
    Stammers, A.H. (1997) Historical aspects of cardiopulmonary bypass: from antiquity to acceptance. Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia, 11, 266274.
  • 115
    Stehling, L. (1998) Gender-related variation in transfusion practices. Transfusion, 38, 392399.
  • 116
    Stowell, C.P., Giordano, J.E., Kiss, S.W., Renner, R.L., Thurer, R.L. & Weiskopf, R.B. (1998) An annotated bibliography on autologous transfusion: second edition. Transfusion, 38, 400419.
  • 117
    Stover, E.P., Siegel, L.C., Parks, R., Levin, J., Body, S.C., Madi, R., D'Ambra, M.N., Mangano, D.T. & Speiss, B.D., for Institutions of the Multicenter Study of Perioperative Ischemia Resarch Group (1998) Variability in transfusion practice for coronary artery bypass surgery persists despite national consensus guidelines. Anesthesiology  , 88, 327323.
  • 118
    Tabuchi, N., De Haan, J., Boonstra, P.W. & Van Oeveren, W. (1993) Activation of fibrinolysis in the pericardal cavity during cardiopulmonary bypass. Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, 106, 828833.
  • 119
    Tang, L. & Eaton, J.W. (1993) Fibrin(ogen) mediates acute inflammatory responses to biomaterials. Journal of Experimental Medicine, 178, 21472156.
  • 120
    Teufelsbauer, H., Proidl, S., Havel, M. & Vukovich, T. (1992) Early activation of hemostasis during cardiopulmonary bypass: evidence for thrombin mediated hyperfibrinolysis. Thrombosis and Haemostasis, 68, 250252.
  • 121
    Te Velthuis, H., Baufreton, C., Jansen, P.G.M., Thijs, C.M., Hack, C.E., Sturk, A., Wildevuur, C.R.H. & Loisance, D.Y. (1997) Heparin coating of extracorporeal circuits inhibits contact activation during cardiac operations. Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, 114, 117122.
  • 122
    Turner-Gomes, S.O., Andrew, M., Coles, J., Trusler, G.A., Williams, W.G. & Rabinovitch, M. (1992) Abnormalities in von Willebrand factor and antithrombin III after cardiopulmonary bypass operations for congenital heart disease. Journal of Thoracic and Cadiovascular Surgery, 103, 8797.
  • 123
    Umbrain, V., Christiaens, F. & Camu, F. (1994) Intraoperative coronary thrombosis: can aprotinin and protamine be incriminated? Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia, 8, 198201.
  • 124
    Unsworth-White, M.J., Herriot, A., Valencia, O., Poloniecki, J., Smitth, E.E., Murday, A.J., Parker, D.J. & Treasure, T. (1995) Re-sternotomy for bleeding after cardiac operation: a marker for increased morbidity and mortality. Annals of Thoracic Surgery, 59, 664667.
  • 125
    Unsworth-White, M.J., Kallis, P., Cowan, D., Tooze, J.A., Bevan, D.H. & Treasure, T. (1996) A prospective randomised controlled trial of postoperative autotransfusion with and without a heparin-bonded circuit. European Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery, 10, 3847.
  • 126
    Uthoff, K., Zehr, K.J., Geerling, R., Herskowitz, A., Cameron, D.E. & Reitz, B.A. (1994) Inhibition of platelet adhesion during cardiopulmonary bypass reduces postoperative bleeding. Circulation, 90, II-269II-274.
  • 127
    Valen, G., Eriksson, E., Risberg, B. & Vaage, J. (1994) Fibrinolysis during cardiac surgery: release of tissue plasminogen activator in arterial and coronary sinus blood. European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery, 8, 324330.
  • 128
    Van Oeveren, W., Harder, M.P., Roozendaal, K.J., Eijsman, L. & Wildevuur, C.R.H. (1990) Aprotinin protects platelets against the initial effect of cardiopulmonary bypass. Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, 99, 788797.
  • 129
    Van Zanten, G.H., Heijnen, H.F.G., Wu, Y., Schut-Hese, K.M., Slootweg, P.J., De Groot, P.G., Sixma, J.J. & Nieuwland, R. (1998) A fifty percent reduction of platelet surface glycoprotein Ib does not affect platelet adhesion under flow conditions. Blood, 91, 23532359.
  • 130
    Visentin, G.P., Malik, M., Cyganiak, K.A. & Aster, R.H. (1996) Patients treated with unfractionated heparin during open heart surgery are at high risk to form antibodies reactive with heparin:platelet factor 4 complexes. Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine, 128, 376383.
  • 131
    Vroman, L. & Adams, A. (1967) Possible involvement of fibrinogen and proteolysis in surface activation: a study with the recording ellipsometer. Thrombosis et Diathesis Haemorrhagica, 18, 510524.
  • 132
    Wachtfogel, Y.T., Hack, C.E., Nuijens, J.H., Kettner, C., Reilly, T.M., Knabb, R.M., Bischoff, R., Tschesche, H., Wenzel, H., Kucich, U., Edmunds, L.H., Jr & Colman, R.W. (1995) Selective kallikrein inhibitors alter human neutrophil elastase release during extracorporeal circulation. American Journal of Physiology, 268 (Heart and Circulatory Physiology, 37), H1352H1357.
  • 133
    Wachtfogel, Y.T., Harpel, P.C., Edmunds, L.H., Jr & Colman, R.W. (1989) Formation of C1s-C1-inhibitor, β kallikrein-C1-inhibitor, and plasmin-alpha 2-plasmin-inhibitor complexes during cardiopulmonary bypass. Blood, 73, 468472.
  • 134
    Wagenknecht, L.E., Furberg, C.D., Hammon, J.W., Legault, C. & Troots, B.T. (1995) Surgical bleeding: unexpected effect of a calcium antagonist. British Medical Journal, 310, 776777.
  • 135
    Wahba, A., Black, G., Koksch, M., Rothe, G., Preuner, J., Schmitz, G. & Birnbaum, D.E. (1996) Cardiopulmonary bypass leads to a preferential loss of activated platelets. European Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery, 10, 768773.
  • 136
    Wall, U., Jern, S., Tengborn, L. & Jern, C. (1998) Evidence of a local mechanism for desmopressin-induced tissue-type plasminogen activator release in human forearm. Blood, 91, 529537.
  • 137
    Warkentin, T.E., Levine, M.N., Hirsh, J., Horsewood, P., Roberts, R.S., Gent, M. & Kelton, J.G. (1995) Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia in patients treated with low-molecular-weight or unfractionated heparin. New England Journal of Medicine, 332, 13301335.
  • 138
    Watabe, A., Ohta, M., Matsuyama, N., Mizuno, K., El Borai, N., Tanimoto, T., Kawanishi, T. & Hayakawa, T. (1997) Characterization of plasmin-induced platelet aggregation. Research Communications in Molecular Pathology and Pharmacology, 96, 341352.
  • 139
    Wenger, R.K., Lukasiewicz, H., Mikuta, B.S., Niewiarowski, S. & Edmunds, L.H. (1989) Loss of platelet fibrinogen receptors during clinical cardiopulmonary bypass. Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, 97, 235239.
  • 140
    Westaby, S. (1993) Aprotinin in perspective. Annals of Thoracic Surgery, 55, 10331041.
  • 141
    White, J.G., Krumwiede, M.D., Johnson, D.K. & Escolar, G. (1995) Redistribution of GPIb/IX and GPIIb/IIIa during spreading of discoid platelets. British Journal of Haematology, 90, 633644.
  • 142
    Wiman, B. (1995) Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) in plasma: its role in thrombotic disease. Thrombosis and Haemostasis, 74, 7176.
  • 143
    Woodman, R.C. & Harker, L.A. (1990) Bleeding complications associated with cardiopulmonary bypass. Blood, 76, 16801697.
  • 144
    Wu, Y-P., De Groot, P. & Sixma, J.J. (1997) Shear stress-induced detachment of blood platelets from various surfaces. Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology, 17, 32023207.
  • 145
    Zulys, V.J., Teasdale, S.J., Michel, E.R., Skala, R.A., Keating, S.E., Viger, J.R. & Glynn, M.F.X. (1989) Ancrod (arvin) as an alternative to heparin anticoagulation for cardiopulmonary bypass. Anesthesiology  , 71, 870877.