• 1
    Ablin, A.R. (1984) Managing the problem of hyperleucocytosis in acute leukemia. American Journal of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, 6, 287290.
  • 2
    Appelbaum, F.R. (1997) Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for acute leukemia. Seminars in Oncology, 24, 114123.
  • 3
    Ball, E.D., Davis, R.B., Griffin, J.D., Mayer, R.J., Davey, F.R., Arthur, D.C., Wurster-Hill, D., Noll, W., Elghetany, M.T., Allen, S.L., Rai, K., Lee, E.J., Schiffer, C.A. & Bloomfield, C.D. (1991) Prognostic value of lymphocyte surface markers in acute myeloid leukemia. Blood, 77, 22422250.
  • 4
    Bennett, J.M., Catovsky, D., Daniel, M.T., Flandrin, G., Galton, D.A.G., Gralnick, H.R. & Sultan, C. (1985 a) Criteria for the diagnosis of acute leukemia of megakaryocyte lineage (M7). A report of the French–American–British Cooperative Group. Annals of Internal Medicine, 103, 460462.
  • 5
    Bennett, J.M., Catovsky, D., Daniel, M.T., Flandrin, G., Galton, D.A.G., Gralnick, H.R. & Sultan, C. (1985 b) Proposed revised criteria for the classification of acute myeloid leukemia. Annals of Internal Medicine, 103, 626629.
  • 6
    Bennett, J.M., Catovsky, D., Daniel, M.T., Flandrin, G., Galton, D.A., Gralnick, H.R. & Sultan, C. (1991) Proposal for the recognition of minimally differentiated acute myeloid leukaemia (AML-M0). British Journal of Haematology, 78, 325329.
  • 7
    Büchner, T. & Heinecke, A. (1996) The role of prognostic factors in acute myeloid leukemia. Leukemia, 10, (Suppl. 1), S28S29.
  • 8
    Cadwell, F.J., Burns, C.P., Dick, F.R., Jones, M.P., Heckman, K.D., Weiner, G.J. & Goeken, J.A. (1993) Minimally differentiated acute leukemia. Leukemia Research, 17, 199208.
  • 9
    Cheson, B.D., Cassileth, P.A., Head, D.R., Schiffer, C.A., Bennett, J.M., Bloomfield, C.D., Brunning, R., Gale, R.P., Grever, M.R., Keating, M.J., Sawitsky, A., Stass, S., Weinstein, H. & Woods, W.G. (1990) Report of the National Cancer Institute-sponsored workshop on definitions and response in acute myeloid leukemia. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 8, 813819.
  • 10
    Cox, D.R. (1972) Regressions models and life-tables (with discussion). Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, 34, 87220.
  • 11
    Creutzig, U., Ritter, J., Budde, M., Sutor, A. & Schellong, G. (1987 a) Early deaths due to hemorrhage and leukostasis in childhood acute myelogenous leukemia: associations with hyperleucocytosis and acute monocytic leukemia. Cancer, 60, 30713079.
  • 12
    Creutzig, U., Ritter, J. & Schellong, G. (1990) Identification of two risk groups in childhood acute myelogenous leukemia after therapy intensification in the study AML-BFM-83 as compared with study AML-BFM-78. Blood, 75, 19321940.
  • 13
    Creutzig, U., Ritter, J., Zimmermann, M., Schellong, G. & for the AML-BFM Study Group (1993) Does cranial irradiation reduce the risk for bone marrow relapse in acute myelogenous leukemia (AML): unexpected results of the childhood AML Study BFM-87. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 11, 279286.
  • 14
    Creutzig, U., Sperling, C., Harbott, J., Ritter, J., Zimmermann, M., Löffler, H., Riehm, H., Schellong, G. & Ludwig, W.-D. (1995) Clinical significance of surface antigen expression in children with acute myeloid leukemia: Results of Study AML-BFM-87. Blood, 86, 30973108.
  • 15
    Creutzig, U., Stahnke, K., Pollmann, H., Sutor, A., Ritter, J., Budde, M. & Schellong, G. (1987 b) The problem of early death in childhood AML. Haematology and Blood Transfusion, 30, 524529.
  • 16
    Dastugue, N., Payen, C., Lafage Pochitaloff, M., Bernard, P., Leroux, D., Huguet Rigal, F., Stoppa, A.M., Marit, G., Molina, L., Michallet, M., Maraninchi, D., Attal, M. & Reiffers, J. (1995) Prognostic significance of karyotype in de novo adult acute myeloid leukemia. The BGMT group. Leukemia, 9, 14911498.
  • 17
    Degos, L., Dombret, H., Chomienne, C., Daniel, M.T., Miclea, J.M., Chastang, C., Castaigne, S. & Fenaux, P. (1995) All-trans-retinoic acid as a differentiating agent in the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia. Blood, 85, 26432653.
  • 18
    Fenaux, P. (1994) Results of APL 91 European trial combining ATRA and chemotherapy: presentation of APL 1993 trial. Leukemia, 8, (Suppl. 3), S70S72.
  • 19
    Goldman, A.I. (1991) The cure model and time confounded risk in the analysis of survival and other timed events. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 44, 13271340.
  • 20
    Gorin, N.C., Labopin, M., Fouillard, L., Meloni, G., Frassoni, F., Iriondo, A., Brunet Mauri, S., Goldstone, A.H., Harousseau, J.L., Reiffers, J., Esperou Bourdeau, H. & Gluckman, E. (1996) Retrospective evaluation of autologous bone marrow transplantation vs allogeneic bone marrow transplantation from an HLA identical related donor in acute myelocytic leukemia. A study of the European Cooperative Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT). Bone Marrow Transplantation, 18, 111117.
  • 21
    Haferlach, T. (1996) More individual markers are necessary for patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Does cytomorphology or cytogenetics define the biological entity? Leukemia, 10, (Suppl. 3).
  • 22
    Haferlach, T., Gassmann, W., Löffler, H., Jürgensen, C., Noak, J., Ludwig, W.D., Thiel, E., Haase, D., Fonatsch, C., Becher, R., Schlegelberger, B., Nowrousian, M.R., Lengfelder, E., Eimermacher, H., Weh, H.J., Braumann, D., Maschmeyer, G., Koch, P., Heinecke, A., Sauerland, M.C. & Buchner, T. (1993) Clinical aspects of acute myeloid leukemias of the FAB types M3 and M4Eo. The AML Cooperative Group. Annals of Hematology, 66, 165170.
  • 23
    Hann, I.M., Stevens, R.F., Goldstone, A.H., Rees, J.K., Wheatley, K., Gray, R.G. & Burnett, A.K. (1997) Randomized comparison of DAT versus ADE as induction chemotherapy in children and younger adults with acute myeloid leukemia. Results of the Medical Research Council's 10th AML trial (MRC AML10). Adult and Childhood Leukaemia Working Parties of the Medical Research Council. Blood, 89, 23112318.
  • 24
    Kalbfleisch, J.D. & Prentice, R.L. (1982) The Statistical Analysis of Failure Time Data. John Wiley & Sons, New York.
  • 25
    Kaplan, E.L. & Meier, P. (1958) Non-parametric estimation from incomplete observations. Journal of the American Statistics Association, 53, 457481.
  • 26
    Kuerbitz, S.J., Civin, C.I., Krischer, J.P., Ravindranath, Y., Steuber, C.P., Weinstein, H.J., Winick, N., Ragab, A.H., Gresik, M.V. & Crist, W.M. (1992) Expression of myeloid-associated and lymphoid-associated cell surface antigens in acute myeloid leukemia of childhood: a Pediatric Oncology Group Study. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 10, 14191429.
  • 27
    Kuss, J.B., Deeley, R.G., Cole, S.P.C., Willman, C.L., Kopecky, K.J., Wolman, S.R., Eyre, H.J., Lane, S.A., Nancarrow, J.K., Whitmore, S.A. & Callen, D.F. (1994) Deletion of gene for multidrug resistance in acute myeloid leukaemia with inversion in chromosome 16: prognostic implications. Lancet, 343, 15311537.
  • 28
    Lee, E.J., Pollak, A. & Leavitt, R.D. (1987) Minimally differentiated acute nonlymphocytic leukemia: a distinct entity. Blood, 70, 14001406.
  • 29
    Lie, S.O. (1995) Treatment of acute myeloid leukaemia in children. Bailliere's Clinical Paediatrics, 3, 757778.
  • 30
    Machnicki, J.L. & Bloomfield, C.D. (1990) Clinical significance of the cytogenetics of acute leukemias. Oncology, 4, 2330.
  • 31
    Martinez Climent, J.A. (1997) Molecular cytogenetics of childhood hematological malignancies. Leukemia, 11, 19992021.
  • 32
    Martinez Climent, J.A., Lane, N.J., Rubin, C.M., Morgan, E., Johnstone, H.S., Mick, R., Murphy, S.B., Vardiman, J.W., Larson, R.A., Le Beau, M.M. & Rowley, J.D. (1995) Clinical and prognostic significance of chromosomal abnormalities in childhood acute myeloid leukemia de novo. Leukemia, 9, 95101.
  • 33
    Mertelsmann, R., Tzvi Thaler, H., To, L., Gee, T.S., McKenzie, S., Schauer, P., Friedman, A., Arlin, Z., Cirrincione, C. & Clarkson, B. (1980) Morphological classification, response to therapy, and survival in 263 adult patients with acute nonlymphoblastic leukemia. Blood, 56, 773781.
  • 34
    Nakamura, H., Kuriyama, K., Sadamori, N., Mine, M., Itoyama, T., Sasagawa, I., Matsumoto, K., Tsuji, Y., Asou, N., Kageyama, S.I., Sakamaki, H., Emi, N., Ohno, R. & Tomonaga, M. (1997) Morphological subtyping of acute myeloid leukemia with maturation (AML-M2): homogeneous pink-colored cytoplasm of mature neutrophils is most characteristic of AML-M2 with t(8;21). Leukemia, 11, 651655.
  • 35
    Ribeiro, R.C., Oliveira, M.S.P., Fairclough, D., Hurwitz, C., Mirro, J., Behm, F.G., Head, D., Silva, M.L.M., Raimondi, C., Crist, W.M. & Krance, R. (1993) Acute megakaryoblastic leukemia in children and adolescents: a retrospective analysis of 24 cases. Leukemia and Lymphoma, 10, 299306.
  • 36
    Ritter, J., Vormoor, J., Creutzig, U. & Schellong, G. (1989) Prognostic significance of Auer rods in childhood acute myelogenous leukemia: Results of the studies AML-BFM-78 and -83. Medical Pediatric Oncology, 17, 202209.
  • 37
    Russell, N.H. (1997) Biology of acute leukaemia. Lancet, 349, 118122.
  • 38
    Sackmann Muriel, F., Zubizarreta, P., Felice, M.S., Chantada, G., Cygler, A.M., Gallego, M. & Rossi, J. (1996) Results of treatment with an intensive induction regimen using idarubicin in combination with cytarabine and etoposide in children with acute myeloblastic leukemia. Leukemia Research, 20, 973981.
  • 39
    Schiffer, C.A., Lee, E.J., Tomiyasu, T., Wiernik, P.H. & Testa, J.R. (1989) Prognostic impact of cytogenetic abnormalities in patients with de novo acute nonlymphocytic leukemia. Blood, 73, 263270.
  • 40
    Smith, F.O., Lampkin, B.C., Versteeg, C., Flowers, D.A., Dinndorf, P.A., Buckley, J.D., Woods, W.G., Hammond, G.D. & Bernstein, I.D. (1992) Expression of lymphoid-associated cell surface antigens by childhood acute myeloid leukemia cells lacks prognostic significance. Blood, 79, 24152422.
  • 41
    Stevens, R.F., Hann, I.M., Wheatley, K. & Gray, R.G., on behalf of the MRC Childhood Leukaemia Working Party (1998) Marked improvements in outcome with chemotherapy alone in paediatric acute myeloid leukaemia: results of the United Kingdom Medical Research Council's 10th AML trial. British Journal of Haematology, 101, 130140.
  • 42
    Vormoor, J., Ritter, J., Creutzig, U., Boos, J., Heyen, P., Ludwig, W.-D., Harbott, J., Löffler, H., Schellong, G. & for the AML-BFM Study Group (1992) Acute myelogenous leukaemia in children under 2 years -experiences of the West German AML Studies BFM-78, -83 and -87. British Journal of Cancer, 66, (Suppl. XVIII), 6367.
  • 43
    Wells, R.J., Woods, W.G., Buckley, J.D., Odom, L.F., Benjamin, D., Bernstein, I., Betcher, D., Feig, S., Kim, T., Ruymann, F., Smithson, W., Srivastava, A., Tannous, R., Buckley, C.M., Whitt, J.K., Wolff, L. & Lampkin, B.C. (1994) Treatment of newly diagnosed children and adolescents with acute myeloid leukemia: a Childrens Cancer Group Study. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 12, 23672377.
  • 44
    Woods, W.G., Kobrinsky, N., Buckley, J.D., Lee, J.W., Sanders, J., Neudorf, S., Gold, S., Barnard, D.R., DeSwarte, J., Dusenbery, K., Kalousek, D., Arthur, D.C. & Lange, B.J. (1996) Timed-sequential induction therapy improves postremission outcome in acute myeloid leukemia: A report from the Children's Cancer Group. Blood, 87, 49794989.
  • 45
    Zittoun, R.A., Mandelli, F., Willemze, R., De Witte, T., Labar, B., Resegotti, L., Leoni, F., Damasio, E., Visani, G., Papa, G., Caronia, F., Hayat, M., Stryckmans, P., Rotoli, B., Leoni, P., Peetermans, M.E., Dardenne, M., Vegna, M.L., Petti, M.C., Solbu, G. & Suciu, S. (1995) Autologous or allogeneic bone marrow transplantation compared with intensive chemotherapy in acute myelogenous leukemia. European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) and the Gruppo Italiano Malattie Ematologiche Maligne dell'Adulto (GIMEMA) Leukemia Cooperative Groups. New England Journal of Medicine, 332, 217223.