• 1
    Banker, D.E., Groudine, M., Norwood, T. & Appelbaum, F.R. (1997) Measurement of spontaneous and therapeutic agent-induced apoptosis with BCL-2 protein expression in acute myeloid leukemia. Blood, 89, 243255.
  • 2
    Bárcena, A., Park, S.W., Banapour, B., Muench, M.O. & Mechetner, E. (1996) Expression of Fas/CD95 and bcl-2 by primitive hematopoietic progenitors freshly isolated from human fetal liver. Blood, 88, 20132025.
  • 3
    Broudy, V.C. (1997) Stem cell factor and hematopoiesis. Blood, 90, 13451364.
  • 4
    Campana, D., Coustan-Smith, E., Manabe, A., Buschle, M., Raimondi, S.C., Behm, F.G., Ashmun, R., Aricò, M., Biondi, A. & Pui, C.-H. (1993) Prolonged survival of B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells is accompanied by overexpression of bcl-2 protein. Blood, 81, 10251031.
  • 5
    Campos, L., Rouault, J-P., Sabido, O., Oriol, P., Roubi, N., Vasselon, C., Archimbaud, E., Magaud, J-P. & Guyotat, D. (1993) High expression of bcl-2 protein in acute myeloid leukemia cells is associated with poor response to chemotherapy. Blood, 81, 30913096.
  • 6
    Campos, L., Sabido, O., Rouault, J-P. & Guyotat, D. (1994) Effects of BCL-2 antisense oligodeoxynucleotides on in vitro proliferation and survival of normal progenitors and leukemic cells. Blood, 84, 595600.
  • 7
    Cory, S. (1995) Regulation of lymphocyte survival by the BCL-2 gene family. Annual Review of Immunology, 13, 513543.
  • 8
    Coustan-Smith, E., Kitanaka, A., Pui, C.-H., McNinch, L., Evans, W.E., Raimond, S.C., Behm, F.G., Aricò, M. & Campana, D. (1996) Clinical relevance of BCL-2 overexpression in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Blood, 87, 11401146.
  • 9
    Digel, W., Schmid, M., Heil, G., Conrad, P., Gillis, S. & Porzsolt, F. (1991) Human interleukin-7 induces proliferation of neoplastic cells from chronic lymphocytic leukemia and acute leukemias. Blood, 78, 753759.
  • 10
    Fairbairn, L.J., Cowling, G.J., Reipert, B.M. & Dexter, T.M. (1993) Suppression of apoptosis allows differentiation and development of a multipotent hemopoietic cell line in the absence of added growth factors. Cell, 74, 823832.
  • 11
    Foon, K.A. & Todd, R.F. (1986) Immunologic classification of leukemia and lymphoma. Blood, 68, 131.
  • 12
    Galli, S.J., Zsebo, K.M. & Geissler, E.N. (1994) The kit ligand, stem cell factor. Advances in Immunology, 55, 196.
  • 13
    Greaves, M.F. (1996) Regulation of proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis in normal lymphopoiesis and acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Hematopoietic Lineages in Health and Disease (eds Test, Lord & Dexter), pp. 259298. Marcel Dekker, New York.
  • 14
    Hockenbery, D., Nuñez, G., Milliman, C., Schreiber, R.D. & Korsmeyer, S.J. (1990) Bcl-2 is an inner mitochondrial membrane protein that blocks programmed cell death. Nature, 348, 334336.DOI: 10.1038/348334a0
  • 15
    Itoh, K., Tezuka, H., Sakoda, H., Konno, M., Nagata, K., Uchiyama, T., Uchino, H. & Mori, K.J. (1989) Reproducible establishment of hemopoietic supportive stromal cell lines from murine bone marrow. Experimental Hematology, 17, 145153.
  • 16
    Jacobsen, K. & Osmond, D.G. (1990) Microenvironmental organization and stromal cell associations of B lymphocyte precursor cells in mouse bone marrow. European Journal of Immunology, 20, 23952404.
  • 17
    Jiang, H., Sugumoto, K., Sawada, H., Takashita, E., Tohma, M., Gonda, H. & Mori, K.J. (1998) Mutual education between hematopoietic cells and bone marrow stromal cells through direct cell-to-cell contact: factors that determine the growth of bone marrow stroma-dependent leukemic (HB-1) cells. Blood, 92, 834841.
  • 18
    Korsmeyer, S.J. (1992) Bcl-2 initiates a new category of oncogenes: regulators of cell death. Blood, 80, 879886.
  • 19
    Kumagai, M-a., Manabe, A., Pui, C.-H., Behm, F.G., Raimondi, S.C., Hancock, M.L., Mahmoud, H., Crist, W.M. & Campana, D. (1996) Stroma-supported culture of childhood B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells predicts treatment outcome. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 97, 755760.
  • 20
    Lagasse, E. & Weisman, I.L. (1994) bcl-2 inhibits apoptosis of neutrophils but not their engulfment by macrophages. Journal of Experimental Medicine, 179, 10471052.DOI: 10.1084/jem.179.3.1047
  • 21
    Lanza, F., Castagnari, B., Rigolin, G., Moretti, S., Latorraca, A., Ferrari, L., Bardi, A. & Castoldi, G. (1997) Flow cytometry measurement of GM-CSF receptors in acute leukemic blasts, and normal hemopoietic cells. Leukemia, 11, 17001710.DOI: 10.1038/sj.leu.2400794
  • 22
    Lisovsky, M., Estrov, Z., Zang, X., Consoli, U., Sanchez-Williams, G., Snell, V., Munker, R., Goodacre, A., Savchenko, V. & Andreeff, M. (1996) Flt3 ligand stimulates proliferation and inhibits apoptosis of acute myeloid leukemia cells: regulation of Bcl-2 and Bax. Blood, 88, 39873997.41.
  • 23
    Manabe, A., Coustan-Smith, E., Behm, F.G., Raimondi, S.C. & Campana, D. (1992) Bone marrow-derived stromal cells prevent apoptotic cell death in B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Blood, 79, 23702377.
  • 24
    Masuda, M., Hoshino, S., Motoji, T., Oshimi, K. & Mizoguchi, H. (1990) Effects of various cytokines on proliferation of acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells. Leukemia Research, 14, 533543.DOI: 10.1016/0145-2126(90)90005-T
  • 25
    McNiece, I.K., Langley, K.E. & Zsebo, K.M. (1991) The role of recombinant stem cell factor in early B cell development: synergistic interaction with IL-7. Journal of Immunology, 146, 37853790.
  • 26
    Merino, R., Ding, L., Veis, D.J., Korsmeyer, S.J. & Nunez, G. (1994) Developmental regulation of the Bcl-2 protein and susceptibility to cell death in B lymphocytes. EMBO Journal, 13, 683691.
  • 27
    Nadler, L.M., Korsmeyer, S.J., Anderson, K.C., Boyd, A.W., Slaughenhoupt, B., Park, E., Jensen, J., Coral, F., Mayer, R.J., Sallan, S.E., Ritz, J. & Schlossman, S.F. (1984) B-cell origin of non-T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a model for discrete stages of neoplastic and normal pre-B cell differentiation. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 74, 332340.
  • 28
    Nagasawa, T., Kikutani, H. & Kishimoto, T. (1994) Molecular cloning and structure of a pre-B-cell growth-stimulating factor. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 91, 23052309.
  • 29
    Nishigaki, H., Ito, C., Manabe, A., Kumagai, M-a., Coustan-Smith, E., Yanishevski, Y., Behm, F.G., Raimondi, S.C., Pui, C.-H. & Campana, D. (1997) Prevalence and growth characteristics of malignant stem cells in B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Blood, 89, 37353744.
  • 30
    Nishihara, M., Wada, Y., Ogami, K., Ebihara, Y., Ishii, T., Tsuji, K., Ueno, H., Asano, S., Nakahata, T. & Maekawa, T. (1998) A combination of stem cell factor and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor enhances the growth of human progenitor B cells supported by murine stromal cell line MS-5. European Journal of Immunology, 28, 855864.DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1521-4141(199803)28:03<855::AID-IMMU855>3.0.CO;2-X
  • 31
    Nishii, K., Gibbons, D.L., Titley, I., Papworth, D., Goodhead, D.T. & Greaves, M. (1998) Regulation of the apoptotic response to radiation damage in B cell development. Cell Death and Differentiation, 5, 7786.DOI: 10.1038/sj.cdd.4400317
  • 32
    Nishii, K., Kabarowski, J.H.S., Gibbons, D.L., Griffiths, S.D., Titley, I., Wiedemann, L.M. & Greaves, M.F. (1996) ts BCR-ABL kinase activation confers increased resistance to genotoxic damage via cell cycle block. Oncogene, 13, 22252234.
  • 33
    Nuñez, G., London, L., Hockenbery, D., Alexander, M., McKearn, J.P. & Korsmeyer, S.J. (1990) Deregulated bcl-2 gene expression selectively prolongs survival of growth factor-deprived hemopoietic cell lines. Journal of Immunology, 144, 36023610.
  • 34
    Pezzella, F., Tse, A.G.D., Cordell, J.L., Pulford, K.A.F., Gatter, K.C. & Mason, D.Y. (1990) Expression of the bcl-2 oncogene protein is not specific for the 14;18 chromosomal translocation. American Journal of Pathology, 137, 225232.
  • 35
    Porwit-MacDonald, A., Ivory, K., Wilkinson, S., Wheatley, K., Wong, L. & Janossy, G. (1995) Bcl-2 protein expression in normal human bone marrow precursors and in acute myelogenous leukemia. Leukemia, 9, 11911198.
  • 36
    Rawlings, D.J., Quan, S.G., Kato, R.M. & Witte, O.N. (1995) Long-term culture system for selective growth of human B-cell progenitors. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 92, 15701574.
  • 37
    Robertson, L.E., Plunkett, W., McConnell, K., Keating, M.J. & McDonnell, T.J. (1996) Bcl-2 expression in chronic lymphocytic leukemia and its correlation with the induction of apoptosis and clinical outcome. Leukemia, 10, 456459.
  • 38
    Ryan, D.H., Nuccie, B.L., Ritterman, I., Liesveld, J.L., Abboud, C.N. & Insel, R.A. (1997) Expression of interleukin-7 receptor by lineage-negative human bone marrow progenitors with enhanced lymphoid proliferative potential and B-lineage differentiation capacity. Blood, 89, 929940.
  • 39
    Saeland, S., Duvert, V., Pandrau, D., Caux, C., Durand, I., Wrighton, N., Wideman, J., Lee, F. & Banchereau, J. (1991) Interleukin-7 induces the proliferation of normal human B-cell precursors. Blood, 78, 22292238.
  • 40
    Schena, M., Larson, L.-G., Gottardi, D., Gaidano, G., Carlsson, M., Nillson, K. & Caligaris-Cappio, F. (1992) Growth- and differentiation-associated expression of bcl-2 in B-chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells. Blood, 79, 29812989.
  • 41
    Skjønsberg, C., Erikstein, B.K., Smeland, E.B., Lie, S.O., Funderud, S., Beiske, K. & Blomhoff, H.K. (1991) Interleukin-7 differentiates a subgroup of acute lymphoblastic leukemias. Blood, 77, 24452450.
  • 42
    Smiers, F.J., Van Paassen, M., Pouwels, K., Beishuizen, A., Hählen, K., Löwenberg, B. & Touw, I.P. (1995) Heterogeneity of proliferative responses of human B cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL) cells to interleukin 7 (IL-7): no correlation with immunoglobulin gene status and expression of IL-7 receptor or IL-2/IL-4/IL-7 receptor common γ chain genes. Leukemia, 9, 10391045.
  • 43
    Tashiro, K., Tada, H., Heilker, R., Shirozu, M., Nakano, T. & Honjo, T. (1993) Signal sequence trap: a cloning strategy for secreted proteins and type I membrane proteins. Science, 261, 600603.
  • 44
    Touw, I., Delwel, R., Bolhuis, R., Van Zanen, G. & Löwenberg, B. (1985) Common and pre-B acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells express interleukin 2 receptors, and interleukin 2 stimulates in vitro colony formation. Blood, 66, 556561.
  • 45
    Tsujimoto, Y., Gorham, J., Cossman, J., Jaffe, E. & Croce, C.M. (1985) The t(14;18) chromosome translocations involved in B-cell neoplasms result from mistakes in VDJ joining. Science, 229, 13901393.
  • 46
    Uckun, F.M., Gesner, T.G., Song, C.W., Myers, D.E. & Mufson, A. (1989 a) Leukemic B-cell precursors express functional receptors for interleukin-3. Blood, 73, 533542.
  • 47
    Uckun, F.M., Myers, D.E., Fauci, A.S., Chandan-Langlie, M. & Ambrus, J.L. (1989 b) Leukemic B cell precursors constitutively express functional receptors for human interleukin-1. Blood, 74, 761776.
  • 48
    Uckun, F.M., Yang, Z., Sather, H., Steinherz, P., Nachman, J., Bostrom, B., Crotty, L., Sarquis, M., Ek, O., Zeren, T., Tubergen, D., Reaman, G. & Gaynon, P. (1997) Cellular expression of antiapoptotic BCL-2 oncoprotein in newly diagnosed childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a children's cancer group study. Blood, 89, 37693777.
  • 49
    Vaux, D.L., Cory, S. & Adams, J.M. (1988) bcl-2 gene promotes haemopoietic cell survival and cooperates with c-myc to immortalize pre-B cells. Nature, 335, 440442.
  • 50
    Weber-Nordt, R.M., Henschler, R., Schott, E., Wehigner, J., Behringer, D., Mertelsmann, R. & Finke, J. (1996) Interleukin-10 increases Bcl-2 expression and survival in primary human CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells. Blood, 88, 25492558.
  • 51
    Wörmann, B., Gesner, T.G., Mufson, R.A. & LeBien, T.W. (1989) Proliferation effect of interleukin-3 on normal and leukemic human B cell precursors. Leukemia, 3, 399404.