• 1
    Albano, E.A. & Pizzo, P.A. (1988) Infectious complications in childhood acute leukemias. Pediatric Clinics of North America, 35, 873901.
  • 2
    Aquino, V.M., Buchanan, G.R., Tkaczewski, I. & Mustafa, M.M. (1997a) Safety of early hospital discharge of selected febrile children and adolescents with cancer with prolonged neutropenia. Medical and Pediatric Oncology, 28, 191195.DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1096-911X(199703)28:3<191::AID-MPO7>3.3.CO;2-Y
  • 3
    Aquino, V.M., Tkaczewski, I. & Buchanan, G.R. (1997b) Early discharge of low-risk febrile neutropenic children and adolescents with cancer. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 25, 7478.
  • 4
    Bash, R.O., Katz, J.A., Cash, J.V. & Buchanan, G.R. (1994) Safety and cost effectiveness of early hospital discharge of lower risk children with cancer admitted for fever and neutropenia. Cancer, 74, 189196.
  • 5
    Blay, J.Y., Chauvin, F., Le, C.A., Anglaret, B., Bouhour, D., Lasset, C., Freyer, G., Philip, T. & Biron, P. (1996) Early lymphopenia after cytotoxic chemotherapy as a risk factor for febrile neutropenia. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 14, 636643.
  • 6
    Bone, R.C., Balk, R., Cerra, F.B., Dellinger, R.P., Fein, A.M., Knaus, W.A., Schein, R.M. & Sibbald, W.J. (1992) Definitions for sepsis and organ failure and guidelines for the use of innovative therapies in sepsis. The ACCP/SCCM Consensus Conference Committee. Critical Care Medicine, 20, 864874.
  • 7
    Bruserud, O., Akselen, P.E., Berghein, J. & Nesthus, I. (1995) Serum concentrations of E-selectin, P-selectin, ICAM-1 and interleukin 6 in acute leukaemia patients with chemotherapy-induced leucopenia and bacterial infections. British Journal of Haematology, 91, 394402.
  • 8
    Buchanan, G.R. (1993) Approach to treatment of the febrile cancer patient with low-risk neutropenia. Hematological and Oncological Clinics of North America, 7, 919935.
  • 9
    Chesney, J., Metz, C., Stavitsky, A.B., Bacher, M. & Bucala, R. (1998) Regulated production of type I collagen and inflammatory cytokines by peripheral blood fibrocytes. Journal of Immunology, 160, 419425.
  • 10
    De Bont, E.S.J.M., De Leij, L.H., Okken, A., Baarsma, R. & Kimpen, J.L. (1995) Increased plasma concentrations of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist in neonatal sepsis. Pediatric Research, 37, 626629.
  • 11
    De Bont, E.S.J.M., Kimpen, J.L.L., Limburg, P.C., Bijzet, J., Okken, A. & De Leij, L.H.M.F. (1996) Increased interleukin 10 plasma concentrations during neonatal sepsis. Immunology and Infectious Diseases, 6, 4952.
  • 12
    De Bont, E.S.J.M., Martens, A., Van Raan, J., Samson, G., Fetter, W.P.F., Okken, A. & De Leij, L.H.M.F. (1993) Tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 1β and interleukin 6 plasma levels in neonatal sepsis. Pediatric Research, 33, 380384.
  • 13
    Engel, A., Kern, W.V., Mürdter, G. & Kern, P. (1994) Kinetics and correlation with body temperature of circulating interleukin-6, interleukin-8, tumour necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-1 beta in patients with fever and neutropenia. Infection, 2, 160163.
  • 14
    Engervall, P., Andersson, B. & Björkholm, M. (1995a) Clinical significance of serum cytokine patterns during start of fever in patients with neutropenia. British Journal of Haematology, 91, 838845.
  • 15
    Engervall, P., Granstrom, M., Andersson, B. & Bjorkholm, M. (1995b) Monitoring of endotoxin, interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein serum concentrations in neutropenic patients with fever. European Journal of Haematology, 54, 226234.
  • 16
    Fishman, D., Faulds, G., Jeffery, R., Mohamed-Ali, V., Yudkin, J.S., Humphries, S. & Woo, P. (1998) The effect of novel polymorphisms in the interleukin-6 (IL-6) gene on IL-6 transcription and plasma IL-6 levels, and an association with systemic-onset juvenile chronic arthritis. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 102, 13691376.
  • 17
    Flach, R., Majetschak, M., Heukamp, T., Jennissen, V., Flohe, S., Borgermann, J., Obertacke, U. & Schade, F.U. (1999) Relation of ex vivo stimulated blood cytokine synthesis to post-traumatic sepsis. Cytokine, 11, 173178.
  • 18
    Hack, C.E., De Groot, E.R., Felt-Bersma, R.J.F., Nuyens, J.F., Strack van Schijndel, R.J.M., Eerenberg-Belmer, A.J.M., Thijs, L.G. & Aarden, L.A. (1989) Increased plasma levels of interleukin-6 in sepsis. Blood, 74, 17041710.
  • 19
    Hack, C.E., Hart, M., Strack van Schijndel, R.J.M., Eerenberg-Belmer, A.J.M., Nuyens, J.F., Thijs, L.G. & Aarden, L.A. (1992) Interleukin-8 in sepsis: relation to shock and inflammatory mediators. Infection and Immunology, 60, 28352842.
  • 20
    Hedeker, D. & Gibbons, R.D. (1996) MIXREG: a computer program for mixed-effects regression analysis with autocorrelated errors. Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine, 49, 229252.DOI: 10.1016/0169-2607(96)01723-3
  • 21
    Heney, D., Lewis, I.J., Evans, S.W., Banks, R., Bailey, C.C. & Whicher, J.T. (1992) Interleukin-6 and its relationship to C-reactive protein and fever in children with febrile neutropenia. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 165, 886890.
  • 22
    Huber, A.R., Kunkel, S.L., Todd, R.F. & Weiss, S.J. (1991) Regulation of transendothelial neutrophil migration by endogenous interleukin-8 [published errata appear in Science, 1991, Nov. 1, 254 (5032): 631; and 1991, Dec. 6, 254 (5037): 1435]. Science, 254, 99102.
  • 23
    Hughes, W.T., Armstrong, D., Bodey, G.P., Feld, R., Mandell, G.L., Meyers, J.D., Pizzo, P.A., Schimpff, S.C., Shenep, J.L., Wade, J.C., Young, L.S. & Yow, M.D. (1990) Guidelines for the use of antimicrobial agents in neutropenic patients with unexplained fever. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 161, 381396.
  • 24
    Katz, J.A., Mustafa, M.M., Bash, R.O., Cash, J.V. & Buchanan, G.R. (1992) Value of C-reactive protein determination in the diagnostic evaluation of the febrile, neutropenic child with cancer. Pediatric Infectious Diseases, 11, 708712.
  • 25
    Lee, J.W. & Pizzo, P.A. (1993) Mangement of the cancer patient with fever and prolonged neutropenia. Hematological and Oncological Clinics of North America, 7, 937960.
  • 26
    Manian, F.A. (1995) A prospective study of daily measurement of C-reactive protein in serum of adults with neutropenia. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 21, 114121.
  • 27
    Matsushima, K., Morishita, K., Yoshimura, T., Lavu, S., Kobayashi, Y., Lew, W., Appella, E., Kung, H.F., Leonard, E.J. & Oppenheim, J.J. (1988) Molecular cloning of a human monocyte-derived neutrophil chemotactic factor (MDNCF) and the induction of MDNCF mRNA by interleukin 1 and tumor necrosis factor. Journal of Experimental Medicine, 167, 18831893.DOI: 10.1084/jem.167.6.1883
  • 28
    Mustafa, M.M., Aquino, V.M., Pappo, A., Tkaczewski, I. & Buchanan, G.R. (1996) A pilot study of outpatient management of febrile neutropenic children with cancer at low risk of bacteremia. Journal of Pediatrics, 128, 847849.
  • 29
    Nadel, S., Newport, M.J., Booy, R. & Levin, M. (1996) Variation in the tumor necrosis factor-alpha gene promoter region may be associated with death from meningococcal disease. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 174, 878880.
  • 30
    Nijsten, M.W., De Groot, E.R., Ten Duis, H.J., Klasen, H.J., Hack, C.E. & Aarden, L.A. (1987) Serum levels of interleukin-6 and acute phase responses. (Letter). Lancet, ii, 921921.DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(87)91413-9
  • 31
    Oppenheim, J.J., Zachariae, C.O., Mukaida, N. & Matsushima, K. (1991) Properties of the novel proinflammatory supergene ‘intercrine’ cytokine family. Annual Review of Immunology, 9, 617648.
  • 32
    Ostermann, H., Rothenburger, M., Mesters, R.M., Van De Loo, J. & Kienast, J. (1994) Cytokine response to infection in patients with acute myelogenous leukaemia following intensive chemotherapy. British Journal of Haematology, 88, 332337.
  • 33
    Rennick, D., Hudak, S., Yang, G. & Jackson, J. (1989) Regulation of hemopoietic cell development by interleukins 4, 5 and 6. Immunology Research, 8, 215225.
  • 34
    Riikonen, P., Saarinen, U.M., Teppo, A.M., Metsärinne, K., Fyhrquist, F. & Jalanko, H. (1992) Cytokine and acute phase reactant levels in serum of children with cancer admitted for fever and neutropenia. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 166, 432436.
  • 35
    Santolaya, M.E., Cofre, J. & Beresi, V. (1994) C-reactive protein: a valuable aid for the management of febrile children with cancer and neutropenia. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 18, 589595.
  • 36
    Schimpff, S.C., Young, V.M., Greene, W.H., Vermeulen, G.D., Moody, M.R. & Wiernik, P.H. (1972) Origin of infection in acute non-lymphatic leukemia: significance of hospital acquisition of potential pathogens. Annals of Internal Medicine, 77, 707714.
  • 37
    Talcott, J.A., Siegel, R.D., Finberg, R. & Goldman, L. (1992) Risk assessment in cancer patients with fever and neutropenia: a prospective, two-center validation of a prediction rule. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 10, 316322.
  • 38
    Vellenga, E., Uyl-de Groot, C.A., De Wit, R., Keizer, H.J., Ten Haaft, M.A., De Witte, T.J.M., Verhagen, C.A., Stoter, G.J., Rutten, F.F., Mulder, N.H., Smid, W.M. & De Vries, E.G. (1996) Randomized placebo-controlled trial of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor in patients with chemotherapy-related febrile neutropenia. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 14, 619627.
  • 39
    Von Asmuth, E.J., Dentener, M.A., Bazil, V., Bouma, M.G., Leeuwenberg, J.F. & Buurman, W.A. (1993) Anti-CD14 antibodies reduce responses of cultured human endothelial cells to endotoxin. Immunology, 80, 7883.