Intravenous immunoglobulin for adults with autoimmune thrombocytopenic purpura: results of a randomized trial comparing 0.5 and 1 g/kg b.w.

Authors


Dr Philippe Bierling, Laboratoire d'Immunologie Leucoplaquettaire, Centre de Transfusion, Hôpital Henri Mondor, 51 Avenue du Maréchal de Lattre de Tassigny, 94000 Créteil, France.

Abstract

Since the first reports demonstrating the ability of a total dose of 2 g/kg body weight (b.w.) of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) to increase the platelet count in patients with autoimmune thrombocytopenic purpura (AITP), the optimal dose has remained controversial. We report the results of a randomized study which compared two low doses of IVIg (0.5 g/kg b.w., group A, n = 19, and 1 g/kg b.w., group B, n = 18) in 37 adults with AITP and platelet count <50 × 109/l, in preparation for surgery or in a situation with a risk of bleeding. On day 4 the proportion of responses, defined by a platelet count > 80 × 109/l and at least twice the initial platelet count, was significantly higher in the group receiving 1 g/kg b.w. (12/18 in group B versus 4/19 in group A, P = 0.005). All but one of the day 4 responders had already responded on day 3. The daily changes in the platelet count from the beginning of IVIg treatment were larger in group B, with a significant difference relative to group A on day 3 (92 × 109/l in group B versus 50 × 109/l in group A, P = 0.03) and on day 4 (106 × 109/l in group B versus 55 × 109/l in group A, P = 0.03). Patients who had not responded by day 4 subsequently received 1.5 g IVIg/kg b.w. (group A) or 1 g IVIg/kg b.w. (group B). A response was observed in 11/13 initial non-responders in group A, and in 2/6 initial non-responders in group B. Finally, on day 8, the proportion of responders was 78% (29/37) in the entire group and was similar in the two subgroups. In conclusion, (1) initial treatment with 1 g/kg b.w. of IVIg appeared to be more effective than 0.5 g/kg b.w. in adults with AITP; (2) infusion of a low dose of IVIg did not jeopardize the efficacy of IVIg reinfusion; (3) some adults who did not respond to 1 g IVIg/kg b.w. responded to a higher dose.

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