Several platelet glycoprotein polymorphisms have been associated with an increased risk of myocardial infarction (MI) in studies that included predominantly men. In a population-based sample of 68 Caucasian women < 45 years old with non-fatal MI and 346 demographically similar control subjects, we found an increased risk of MI among women who possessed at least one copy of the glycoprotein IIb Ser843 allele compared with those lacking the Ser843 allele (odds ratio 1·85; 95% confidence interval = 1·03–3·33). The increased risk was present only in subgroups of women who smoked cigarettes, had hypercholesterolaemia or who had a family history of early onset MI. The Ser843 variant of glycoprotein IIb may be associated with an increased risk of MI in young women with other cardiovascular risk factors. Additional studies involving larger numbers of subjects are needed to confirm this preliminary finding.