• immunodeficiency;
  • memory B;
  • hypogammaglobulinaemia;
  • CD27;
  • BMT.

X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (XSCID) is a lethal disease resulting in death in infancy. In many instances, haploidentical bone marrow transplantation (BMT) offers reconstitution of T-cell immunity alone, with residual hypogammaglobulinaemia. The exact nature of B-cell dysfunction in these patients is unclear, although differentiation arrest of the B cells is a potential explanation. To ascertain the differentiation status of peripheral blood B lymphocytes from XSCID patients after BMT, the surface expression of CD19, CD10, CD34, CD5, serum immunoglogulin (sIg)M, sIgD, sIgG and CD27 on these B cells was investigated using three-colour flow cytometry. CD27 is a marker of memory B cells. Populations of CD19+IgMD B cells, CD19+IgM-only, CD19+IgG+CD27+ and CD19+IgM+ CD27+ B cells were found to be diminished in the XSCID patients after BMT with persistent hypogammaglobulinaemia, compared with both post-BMT patients with B-cell function and age-matched normal controls. This indicated the lack of CD19+IgMD B cells, which represent Ig isotype-switched B cells, as well as CD19+IgM-only and CD19+IgG+CD27+ or CD19+IgM+CD27+ memory B-cell populations. Interaction between CD27 and its ligand CD70 has been shown to induce IgG and IgM production by CD27+ B cells. Therefore, the lack of CD27/70 interaction is a probable explanation for the hypogammaglobulinaemia in these patients after BMT.