• De Ronde, H. & Bertina, R.M. (1994) Laboratory diagnosis of APC-resistance: a critical evaluation of the test and the development of diagnostic criteria. Thrombosis and Haemostasis, 72, 880886.
  • Folsom, A.R., Cushman, M., Tsai, M.Y., Aleksic, N., Heckbert, S.R., Boland, L.L., Tsai, A.W., Yanez, N.D. & Rosamond, W.D. (2002) A prospective study of venous thromboembolism in relation to factor V Leiden and related factors. Blood, 99, 27202725.
  • Fried, L.P., Borhani, N.O., Enright, P., Furberg, C.D., Gardin, J.M., Kronmal, R.A., Kuller, L.H., Manolio, T.A., Mittelmark, M.B. & Newman, A. (1991) The Cardiovascular Health Study: design and rationale. Annals of Epidemiology, 1, 263276.
  • George, J., Gilburd, B. & Shoenfeld, Y. (1997) The emerging concept of pathogenic natural autoantibodies. Human Antibodies, 8, 7075.
  • Ginsburg, K.S., Liang, M.H., Newcomer, L., Goldhaber, S.Z., Schur, P.H., Hennekens, C.H. & Stampfer, M.J. (1992) Anticardiolipin antibodies and the risk for ischemic stroke and venous thrombosis. Annals of Internal Medicine, 117, 9971002.
  • Greaves, M. (1999) Antiphospholipid antibodies and thrombosis. Lancet, 353, 13481353.
  • Khamashta, M.A., Harris, E.N., Gharavi, A.E., Derue, G., Gil, A., Vazquez, J.J. & Hughes, G.R. (1988) Immune mediated mechanism for thrombosis: antiphospholipid antibody binding to platelet membranes. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, 47, 849854.
  • Love, P.E. & Santoro, S.A. (1990) Antiphospholipid antibodies: anticardiolipin and the lupus anticoagulant in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and in non-SLE disorders. Prevalence and clinical significance. Annals of Internal Medicine, 112, 682698.
  • McCrae, K.R., Feinstein, D.I. & Cines, D.B. (2001) Antiphospholipid antibodies and the antiphospholipid syndrome. In: Hemostasis and Thrombosis: Basic Principles and Clinical Practice 4th edn. (ed. by R.W.Colman), pp. 13391356. Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia.
  • Malia, R.G., Kitchen, S., Greaves, M. & Preston, F.E. (1990) Inhibition of activated protein C and its cofactor protein S by antiphospholipid antibodies. British Journal of Haematology, 76, 101107.
  • Pierangeli, S.S., Colden-Stanfield, M., Liu, X., Barker, J.H., Anderson, G.L. & Harris, E.N. (1999) Antiphospholipid antibodies from antiphospholipid syndrome patients activate endothelial cells in vitro and in vivo. Circulation, 99, 19972002.
  • Rosendaal, F.R. (1999) Risk factors for venous thrombotic disease. Thrombosis and Haemostasis, 82, 610619.
  • Roubey, R.A. (1996) Immunology of the antiphospholipid antibody syndrome. Arthritis and Rheumatism, 39, 14441454.
  • Schulman, S., Svenungsson, E. & Granqvist, S. (1998) Anticardiolipin antibodies predict early recurrence of thromboembolism and death among patients with venous thromboembolism following anticoagulant therapy. Duration of Anticoagulation Study Group. American Journal of Medicine, 104, 332338.
  • The ARIC Investigators (1989) The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study: design and objectives. American Journal of Epidemiology, 129, 687702.
  • The PIOPED Investigators (1990) Value of the ventilation/perfusion scan in acute pulmonary embolism. Results of the prospective investigation of pulmonary embolism diagnosis (PIOPED). Journal of the American Medical Association, 263, 27532759.
  • Thiagarajan, P. & Shapiro, S.S. (1998) Lupus anticoagulants and antiphospholipid antibodies. Hematology–Oncology Clinics of North America, 12, 11671192.
  • Tsai, A.W., Cushman, M., Rosamond, W.D., Heckbert, S.R., Polak, J.F. & Folsom, A.R. (2002) Cardiovascular risk factors and venous thromboembolism incidence. The Longitudinal Investigation of Thromboembolism Etiology (LITE) study. Archives of Internal Medicine, 162, 11821189.
  • Vila, P., Hernandez, M.C., Lopez-Fernandez, M.F. & Batlle, J. (1994) Prevalence, follow-up and clinical significance of the anticardiolipin antibodies in normal subjects. Thrombosis and Haemostasis, 72, 209213.
  • Wahl, D.G., Guillemin, F., De Maistre, E., Perret, C., Lecompte, T. & Thibaut, G. (1997) Risk for venous thrombosis related to antiphospholipid antibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus: a meta-analysis. Lupus, 6, 467473.
  • Wahl, D.G., Guillemin, F., De Maistre, E., Perret-Guillaume, C., Lecompte, T. & Thibaut, G. (1998) Meta-analysis of the risk of venous thrombosis in individuals with antiphospholipid antibodies without underlying autoimmune disease or previous thrombosis. Lupus, 7, 1522.