SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • 1
    Cancer Research Campaign. Cancer Statistics: Large Bowel – UK. London: CRC, 1999.
  • 2
    van Stolk RU , Beck GJ , Baron JA , Haile R , Summers R . Adenoma characteristics at first colonoscopy as predictors of adenoma recurrence and characteristics at follow-up. The Polyp Prevention Study Group. Gastroenterology 1998; 115: 1318.
  • 3
    Winawer SJ , Zauber AG , O'Brien MJ , Ho MN , Gottlieb L , Sternberg SS et al. Randomized comparison of surveillance intervals after colonoscopic removal of newly diagnosed adenomatous polyps. The National Polyp Study Workgroup. N Engl J Med 1993; 328: 9016.
  • 4
    Neugut AI , Johnsen CM , Forde KA , Treat MR . Recurrence rates for colorectal polyps. Cancer 1985; 55: 15869.
  • 5
    Bond JH . Polyp guideline: diagnosis, treatment, and surveillance for patients with colorectal polyps. Practice Parameters Committee of the American College of Gastroenterology. Am J Gastroenterol 2000; 95: 305363.
    Direct Link:
  • 6
    Lieberman DA , Smith FW . Screening for colon malignancy with colonoscopy. Am J Gastroenterol 1991; 86: 94651.
  • 7
    DiSario JA , Foutch G , Mai HD , Pardy K , Manne RK . Prevalence and malignant potential of colorectal polyps in asymptomatic, average-risk men. Am J Gastroenterol 1991; 86: 9415.
  • 8
    Rex DK , Lehman GA , Hawes RH , Ulbright TM , Smith JJ . Screening colonoscopy in asymptomatic average-risk persons with negative fecal occult blood tests. Gastroenterology 1991; 100: 647.
  • 9
    Muto T , Bussey HJR , Morson BC . The evolution of cancer of the colon and rectum. Cancer 1975; 36: 225170.
  • 10
    Clark JC , Collan Y , Eide TJ , Estève J , Ewen S , Gibbs NM et al. Prevalence of polyps in an autopsy series from areas with varying incidence of large-bowel cancer. Int J Cancer 1985; 36: 17986.
  • 11
    Knoernschild HE . Growth rate and malignant potential of colonic polyps: early results. Surg Forum 1963; 14: 1378.
  • 12
    Stryker SJ , Wolff BG , Culp CE , Libbe SD , Ilstrup DM , MacCarty RL . Natural history of untreated colonic polyps. Gastroenterology 1987; 93: 100913.
  • 13
    Hoff G , Foerster A , Vatn MH , Sauar J , Larsen S . Epidemiology of polyps in the rectum and colon. Recovery and evaluation of unresected polyps 2 years after detection. Scand J Gastroenterol 1986; 2: 85362.
  • 14
    Bersentes K , Fennerty MB , Sampliner RE , Garewal HS . Lack of spontaneous regression of tubular adenomas in two years of follow-up. Am J Gastroenterol 1997; 92: 111720.
  • 15
    Colacchio TA , Forde KA , Scantlebury VP . Endoscopic polypectomy: inadequate treatment for invasive colorectal carcinoma. Ann Surg 1981; 194: 7047.
  • 16
    Shinya H , Wolff WI . Morphology, anatomic distribution and cancer potential of colonic polyps. Ann Surg 1979; 190: 67983.
  • 17
    Cranley JP , Petras RE , Carey WD , Paradis K , Sivak MV . When is endoscopic polypectomy adequate therapy for colonic polyps containing invasive carcinoma? Gastroenterology 1986; 91: 41927.
  • 18
    Gillespie PE , Chambers TJ , Chan KW , Doronzo F , Morson BC , Williams CB . Colonic adenomas – a colonoscopy survey. Gut 1979; 20: 2405.
  • 19
    Eide TJ . Remnants of adenomas in colorectal carcinomas. Cancer 1983; 51: 186672.
  • 20
    Morson BC . Factors influencing the prognosis of early cancer of the rectum. Proc R Soc Med 1966; 59: 6078.
  • 21
    Arenas RB , Fichera A , Mhoon D , Michelassi F . Incidence and therapeutic implications of synchronous colonic pathology in colorectal adenocarcinoma. Surgery 1997; 122: 70610.
  • 22
    Chu DZJ , Giacco G , Martin RG , Guinee VF . The significance of synchronous carcinoma and polyps in the colon and rectum. Cancer 1986; 57: 44550.
  • 23
    Langevin JM , Nivatvongs S . The true incidence of synchronous cancer of the large bowel. A prospective study. Am J Surg 1984; 147: 3303.
  • 24
    O'Brien MJ , Winawer SJ , Zauber AG , Gottlieb LS , Sternberg SS , Diaz B et al. The National Polyp Study. Patient and polyp characteristics associated with high-grade dysplasia in colorectal adenomas. Gastroenterology 1990; 98: 3719.
  • 25
    Winawer SJ , Zauber AG , Ho MN , O'Brien MJ , Gottlieb LS , Sternberg SS et al. Prevention of colorectal cancer by colonoscopic polypectomy. The National Polyp Study Workgroup. N Engl J Med 1993; 329: 197781.
  • 26
    Atkin WS , Morson BC , Cuzick J . Long-term risk of colorectal cancer after excision of rectosigmoid adenomas. N Engl J Med 1992; 326: 65862.
  • 27
    Selby JV , Friedman GD , Quesenberry CP Jr , Weiss NS . A case–control study of screening sigmoidoscopy and mortality from colorectal cancer. N Engl J Med 1992; 326: 6537.
  • 28
    Muller AD , Sonnenberg A . Protection by endoscopy against death from colorectal cancer. A case–control study among veterans. Arch Intern Med 1995; 155: 17418.
  • 29
    Hoff G , Sauar J , Vatn MH , Larsen S , Langmark F , Moen IE et al. Polypectomy of adenomas in the prevention of colorectal cancer: 10 years' follow-up of the Telemark Polyp Study I. A prospective, controlled population study. Scand J Gastroenterol 1996; 31: 100610.
  • 30
    Mandel JS , Church TR , Bond JH , Ederer F , Geisser MS , Mongin SJ et al. The effect of fecal occult-blood screening on the incidence of colorectal cancer. N Engl J Med 2000; 343: 16037.
  • 31
    Nowell P , Hungerford DA . A minute chromosome in human chronic granulocytic leukaemia. Science 1960; 132: 1497 (Abstract).
  • 32
    Rowley JD . A new consistent chromosomal abnormality in chronic myelogenous leukaemia identified by quinacrine fluorescence and Giemsa staining. Nature 1973; 243: 2903 (Letter).
  • 33
    Vogelstein B , Lane D , Levine AJ . Surfing the p53 network. Nature 2000; 408: 30710.
  • 34
    Kinzler KW , Vogelstein B . Landscaping the cancer terrain. Science 1998; 280: 10367.
  • 35
    Woodford-Richens K , Williamson J , Bevan S , Young J , Leggett B , Frayling I et al. Allelic loss at SMAD4 in polyps from juvenile polyposis patients and use of fluorescence in situ hybridization to demonstrate clonal origin of the epithelium. Cancer Res 2000; 60: 247782.
  • 36
    Playford RJ . Landscaper seeks remunerative position. Gut 2001; 48: 5945.
  • 37
    Fearon ER , Vogelstein B . A genetic model for colorectal tumorigenesis. Cell 1990; 61: 75967.
  • 38
    Vogelstein B , Fearon ER , Hamilton SR , Kern SE , Preisinger AC , Leppert M et al. Genetic alterations during colorectal-tumor development. N Engl J Med 1988; 319: 52532.
  • 39
    Ionov Y , Peinado MA , Malkhosyan S , Shibata D , Perucho M . Ubiquitous somatic mutations in simple repeated sequences reveal a new mechanism for colonic carcinogenesis. Nature 1993; 363: 55861.
  • 40
    Bodmer WF , Bailey CJ , Bodmer J , Bussey HJR , Ellis A , Gorman P et al. Localization of the gene for familial adenomatous polyposis on chromosome 5. Nature 1987; 328: 61416.
  • 41
    Groden J , Thliveris A , Samowitz W , Carlson M , Gelbert L , Albertsen H et al. Identification and characterization of the familial adenomatous polyposis coli gene. Cell 1991; 66: 589600.
  • 42
    Bodmer W . The somatic evolution of cancer. The Harveian Oration of 1996. J R Coll Physicians Lond 1997; 31: 829.
  • 43
    Rubinfeld B , Albert I , Porfiri E , Fiol C , Munemitsu S , Polakis P . Binding of GSK3β to the APC–β-catenin complex and regulation of complex assembly. Science 1996; 272: 10236.
  • 44
    Kaplan KB , Burds AA , Swedlow JR , Bekir SS , Sorger PK , Näthke IS . A role for the adenomatous polyposis coli protein in chromosomal segregation. Nat Cell Biol 2001; 3: 42932.
  • 45
    Su L-K , Burrell M , Hill DE , Gyuris J , Brent R , Wiltshire R et al. APC binds to the novel protein EB1. Cancer Res 1995; 55: 29727.
  • 46
    Matsumine A , Ogai A , Senda T , Okumura N , Satoh K , Baeg GH et al. Binding of APC to the human homolog of the Drosophila discs large tumor suppressor protein. Science 1996; 272: 10203.
  • 47
    Munemitsu S , Albert I , Souza B , Rubinfeld B , Polakis P . Regulation of intracellular β-catenin levels by the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) tumor-suppressor protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1995; 92: 304650.
  • 48
    Aberle H , Bauer A , Stappert J , Kispert A , Kemler R . β-Catenin is a target for the ubiquitin–proteasome pathway. EMBO J 1997; 16: 3797804.
  • 49
    Molenaar M , van de Wetering M , Oosterwegel M , Peterson-Maduro J , Godsave S , Korinek V et al. XTcf-3 transcription factor mediates beta-catenin-induced axis formation in Xenopus embryos. Cell 1996; 86: 3919.
  • 50
    Korinek V , Barker N , Morin PJ , van Wichen D , de Weger R , Kinzler KW et al. Constitutive transcriptional activation by a β-catenin–Tcf complex in APC–/– colon carcinoma. Science 1997; 275: 17847.
  • 51
    Morin PJ , Sparks AB , Korinek V , Barker N , Clevers H , Vogelstein B et al. Activation of β-catenin–Tcf signalling in colon cancer by mutations in β-catenin or APC. Science 1997; 275: 178790.
  • 52
    Felsher DW , Bishop JM . Transient excess of MYC activity can elicit genomic instability and tumorigenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1999; 96: 39404.
  • 53
    Yin XY , Grove L , Datta NS , Long MW , Prochownik EV . C-myc overexpression and p53 loss cooperate to promote genomic instability. Oncogene 1999; 18: 117784.
  • 54
    He T , Sparks AB , Rago C , Hermeking H , Zawel L , da Costa LT et al. Identification of c-MYC as a target of the APC pathway. Science 1998; 281: 150912.
  • 55
    Munemitso S , Souza B , Müller O , Albert I , Rubinfeld B , Polakis P . The APC gene product associates with microtubules in vivo and promotes their assembly in vitro. Cancer Res 1994; 54: 367681.
  • 56
    Smith KJ , Levy DB , Maupin P , Pollard TD . Vogelstein B , Kinzler KW . Wild-type but not mutant APC associates with the microtubule cytoskeleton. Cancer Res 1994; 54: 36725.
  • 57
    Berrueta L , Kraeft S-K , Tirnauer JS , Schuyler SC , Chen LB , Hill DE et al. The adenomatous polyposis coli-binding protein EB1 is associated with cytoplasmic and spindle microtubules. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1998; 95: 10 596601.
  • 58
    Fodde R , Kuipers J , Rosenberg C , Smits R , Kielman M , Gaspar C et al. Mutations in the APC tumour suppressor gene cause chromosomal instability. Nat Cell Biol 2001; 3: 4338.
  • 59
    Cahill DP , Lengauer C , Yu J , Riggins GJ , Willson JKV , Markowitz SD et al. Mutations of mitotic checkpoint genes in human cancers. Nature 1998; 392: 3003.
  • 60
    Powell SM , Zilz N , Beazer-Barclay Y , Bryan TM , Hamilton SR , Thibodeau SN et al. APC mutations occur early during colorectal tumorigenesis. Nature 1992; 359: 2357.
  • 61
    Miyoshi Y , Nagase H , Ando H , Horii A , Ichii S , Nakatsuru S et al. Somatic mutations of the APC gene in colorectal tumors: mutation cluster region in the APC gene. Hum Mol Genet 1992; 1: 22933.
  • 62
    Miyaki M , Konishi M , Kikuchi-Yanoshita R , Enomoto M , Igari T , Tanaka K et al. Characteristics of somatic mutation of the adenomatous polyposis coli gene in colorectal tumors. Cancer Res 1994; 54: 301120.
  • 63
    Jen J , Powell SM , Papadopoulos N , Smith KJ , Hamilton SR , Vogelstein B et al. Molecular determinants of dysplasia in colorectal lesions. Cancer Res 1994; 54: 55236.
  • 64
    Sparks AB , Morin PJ , Vogelstein B , Kinzler KW . Mutational analysis of the APC/β-catenin/Tcf pathway in colorectal cancer. Cancer Res 1998; 58: 11304.
  • 65
    Samowitz WS , Powers MD , Spirio LN , Nollet F , van Roy F , Slattery ML . β-Catenin mutations are more frequent in small colorectal adenomas than in larger adenomas and invasive carcinomas. Cancer Res 1999; 59: 14424.
  • 66
    Bos JL . ras oncogenes in human cancer: a review. Cancer Res 1989; 49: 46829.
  • 67
    Bourne HR , Sanders DA , McCormick F . The GTPase superfamily: a conserved switch for diverse cell functions. Nature 1990; 348: 12532.
  • 68
    King RJB . Cancer Biology. 2nd ed. Harlow: Prentice Hall, 2000.
  • 69
    McCormick F . ras GTPase activating protein: signal transmitter and signal terminator. Cell 1989; 56: 58.
  • 70
    Bos JL , Fearon ER , Hamilton SR , Verlaan-deVries M , van Boom JH , van der Eb AJ et al. Prevalence of ras gene mutations in human colorectal cancers. Nature 1987; 327: 2937.
  • 71
    Forrester K , Almoguera C , Han K , Grizzle WE , Perucho M . Detection of high incidence of K-ras oncogenes during human colon tumorigenesis. Nature 1987; 327: 298303.
  • 72
    Hardingham JE , Butler WJ , Roder D , Dobrovic A , Dymock RB , Sage RE et al. Somatic mutations, acetylator status, and prognosis in colorectal cancer. Gut 1998; 42: 66972.
  • 73
    Andreyev HJN , Norman AR , Cunningham D , Oates JR , Clarke PA . Kirsten ras mutations in patients with colorectal cancer: the multicenter ‘RASCAL’ study. J Natl Cancer Inst 1998; 90: 67584.
  • 74
    Scott N , Bell SM , Sagar P , Blair GE , Dixon MF , Quirke P . p53 expression and K-ras mutation in colorectal adenomas. Gut 1993; 34: 6214.
  • 75
    Rashid A , Zahurak M , Goodman SN , Hamilton SR . Genetic epidemiology of mutated K-ras proto-oncogene, altered suppressor genes, and microsatellite instability in colorectal adenomas. Gut 1999; 44: 82633.
  • 76
    Nusko G , Sasche R , Mansmann U , Wittekind CH , Hahn EG . K-RAS-2 gene mutations as predictors of metachronous colorectal adenomas. Scand J Gastroenterol 1997; 32: 103541.
  • 77
    Morris RG , Curtis LJ , Romanowski P , Hardcastle JD , Jenkins DA , Robinson M et al. Ki-ras mutations in adenomas: a characteristic of cancer-bearing colorectal mucosa. J Pathol 1996; 180: 35763.
  • 78
    Zhu D , Keohavong P , Finkelstein SD , Swalsky P , Bakker A , Weissfeld J et al. K-ras gene mutations in normal colorectal tissues from K-ras mutation-positive colorectal cancer patients. Cancer Res 1997; 57: 248592.
  • 79
    Minamoto T , Yamashita N , Ochiai A , Mai M , Sugimura T , Ronai Z et al. Mutant K-ras in apparently normal mucosa of colorectal cancer patients. Its potential as a biomarker of colorectal tumorigenesis. Cancer 1995; 75(Suppl): 15206.
  • 80
    Caron de Fromentel C , Soussi T . TP53 tumour suppressor gene: a model for investigating human mutagenesis. Genes Chromosomes Cancer 1992; 4: 115.
  • 81
    Baker SJ , Fearon ER , Nigro JM , Hamilton SR , Preisinger AC , Jessup JM et al. Chromosome 17 deletions and p53 gene mutations in colorectal carcinomas. Science 1989; 244: 21721.
  • 82
    Fearon ER , Hamilton SR , Vogelstein B . Clonal analysis of human colorectal tumors. Science 1987; 238: 1937.
  • 83
    Meling GI , Lothe RA , Børresen A-L , Graue C , Hauge S , Clausen OPF et al. The TP53 tumour suppressor gene in colorectal carcinomas. I. Genetic alterations on chromosome 17. Br J Cancer 1993; 67: 8892.
  • 84
    Muleris M , Salmon RJ , Zafrani B , Girodet J , Dutrillaux B . Consistent deficiencies of chromosome 18 and of the short arm of chromosome 17 in eleven cases of human large bowel cancer: a possible recessive determinism. Ann Genet 1985; 28: 20613.
  • 85
    Oren M , Rotter V . Introduction: p53 – the first twenty years. Cell Mol Life Sci 1999; 55: 911.
  • 86
    May P , May E . Twenty years of p53 research: structural and functional aspects of the p53 protein. Oncogene 1999; 18: 762136.
  • 87
    Lane DP . p53, guardian of the genome. Nature 1992; 358: 1516.
  • 88
    Carder PJ , Cripps KJ , Morris R , Collins S , White S , Bird CC et al. Mutation of the p53 gene precedes aneuploid clonal divergence in colorectal carcinoma. Br J Cancer 1995; 71: 21518.
  • 89
    Reid T , Knutzen R , Steinbeck R , Blegen H , Schröck E , Heselmeyer K et al. Comparative genomic hybridization reveals a specific pattern of chromosomal gains and losses during the genesis of colorectal tumors. Genes Chromosomes Cancer 1996; 15: 23445.
  • 90
    De Angelis PM , Clausen OPF , Schjølberg A , Stokke T . Chromosomal gains and losses in primary colorectal carcinomas detected by CGH and their associations with tumour DNA ploidy, genotypes and phenotypes. Br J Cancer 1999; 80: 52635.
  • 91
    Curtis LJ , Georgiades IB , White S , Bird CC , Harrison DJ , Wyllie AH . Specific patterns of chromosomal abnormalities are associated with RER status in sporadic colorectal cancer. J Pathol 2000; 192: 4405.
  • 92
    Eshelman JR , Casey G , Kochera ME , Sedwick WD , Swinler SE , Veigl ML et al. Chromosome number and structure both are markedly stable in RER colorectal cancers and are not destabilized by mutation of p53. Oncogene 1998; 17: 71925.
  • 93
    Momand J , Zambetti GP , Olson DC , George D , Levine AJ . The mdm-2 oncogene product forms a complex with the p53 protein and inhibits p53-mediated transactivation. Cell 1992; 69: 123745.
  • 94
    Mietz JA , Unger T , Huibregtse JM , Howley PM . The transcriptional transactivation function of wild-type p53 is inhibited by SV40 large T-antigen and by HPV-16 E6 oncoprotein. EMBO J 1992; 11: 501320.
  • 95
    Midgley CA , Lane DP . p53 protein stability in tumour cells is not determined by mutation but is dependent on Mdm2 binding. Oncogene 1997; 15: 117989.
  • 96
    Rodrigues NR , Rowan A , Smith MEF , Kerr IB , Bodmer WF , Gannon JV et al. p53 mutations in colorectal cancer. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1990; 87: 75559.
  • 97
    De Benedetti L , Varesco L , Pellegata NS , Losi L , Gismondi V , Casarino L et al. Genetic events in sporadic colorectal adenomas: K-ras and p53 heterozygous mutations are not sufficient for malignant progression. Anticancer Res 1993; 13: 66770.
  • 98
    Darmon E , Cleary KR , Wargovich MJ . Immunohistochemical analysis of p53 overexpression in human colonic tumors. Cancer Detect Prev 1994; 18: 18795.
  • 99
    Ohue M , Tomita N , Monden T , Fujita M , Fukunaga M , Takami K et al. A frequent alteration of p53 gene in carcinoma in adenoma of colon. Cancer Res 1994; 54: 4798804.
  • 100
    Yamaguchi A , Makimoto K , Goi T , Takeuchi K , Maehara M , Isobe Y et al. Overexpression of p53 protein and proliferative activity in colorectal adenoma. Oncology 1994; 51: 2247.
  • 101
    Kaklamanis L , Gatter KC , Mortensen N , Baigrie RJ , Heryet A , Lane DP et al. p53 expression in colorectal adenomas. Am J Pathol 1993; 142: 8793.
  • 102
    Kaserer K , Schmaus J , Bethge U , Migschitz B , Fasching S , Walch A et al. Staining patterns of p53 immunohistochemistry and their biological significance in colorectal cancer. J Pathol 2000; 190: 4506.
  • 103
    Boland CR , Sato J , Appelman HD , Bresalier RS , Feinberg AP . Microallelotyping defines the sequence and tempo of allelic losses at tumour suppressor gene loci during colorectal cancer progression. Nat Med 1995; 1: 9029.
  • 104
    Fearon ER , Cho KR , Nigro JM , Kern SE , Simons JW , Ruppert JM et al. Identification of a chromosome 18q gene that is altered in colorectal cancers. Science 1990; 247: 4956.
  • 105
    Keino-Masu K , Masu M , Hinck L , Leonardo ED , Chan SS-Y , Culotti JG et al. Deleted in colorectal cancer (DCC) encodes a netrin receptor. Cell 1996; 87: 17585.
  • 106
    Fazeli A , Dickinson SL , Hermiston ML , Tighe RV , Steen RG , Small CG et al. Phenotype of mice lacking functional deleted in colorectal cancer (Dcc) gene. Nature 1997; 386: 796804.
  • 107
    Cho KR , Oliner JD , Simons JW , Hedrick L , Fearon ER , Preisinger AC et al. The DCC gene: structural analysis and mutations in colorectal carcinomas. Genomics 1994; 19: 52531.
  • 108
    Hahn SA , Schutte M , Hoque ATMS , Moskaluk CA , da Costa LT , Rozenblum E et al. DPC4, a candidate tumor suppressor gene at human chromosome 18q21.1. Science 1996; 271: 3503.
  • 109
    Heldin CH , Miyazono K , ten Dijke P . TGF-β signalling from cell membrane to nucleus through SMAD proteins. Nature 1997; 390: 46571.
  • 110
    Duff EK , Clarke AR . Smad4 (DPC4) – a potent tumour suppressor? Br J Cancer 1998; 78: 161519.
  • 111
    Zhou S , Buckhaults P , Zawel L , Bunz F , Riggins G , Le Dai J et al. Targeted deletion of Smad4 shows it is required for transforming growth factor β and activin signaling in colorectal cancer cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1998; 95: 241216.
  • 112
    Xu J , Attisano L . Mutations in the tumor suppressors Smad2 and Smad4 inactivate transforming growth factor β signaling by targeting Smads to the ubiquitin–proteasome pathway. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2000; 97: 48205.
  • 113
    Riggins GJ , Kinzler KW , Vogelstein B , Thiagalingam S . Frequency of Smad gene mutations in human cancers. Cancer Res 1997; 57: 257880.
  • 114
    Thiagalingam S , Lengauer C , Leach FS , Schutte M , Hahn SA , Overhauser J et al. Evaluation of candidate tumour suppressor genes on chromosome 18 in colorectal cancers. Nat Genet 1996; 13: 3436.
  • 115
    Riggins GJ , Thiagalingam S , Rozenblum E , Weinstein CL , Kern SE , Hamilton SR et al. Mad-related genes in the human. Nat Genet 1996; 13: 3479.
  • 116
    Eppert K , Scherer SW , Ozcelik H , Pirone R , Hoodless P , Kim H et al. MADR2 maps to 18q21 and encodes a TGFβ-regulated MAD-related protein that is functionally mutated in colorectal carcinoma. Cell 1996; 86: 54352.
  • 117
    Howe JR , Roth S , Ringold JC , Summers RW , Järvinen HJ , Sistonen P et al. Mutations in the SMAD4/DPC4 gene in juvenile polyposis. Science 1998; 280: 10868.
  • 118
    Parsons R , Myeroff LL , Liu B , Willson JKV , Markowitz SD , Kinzler KW et al. Microsatellite instability and mutations of the transforming growth factor β type II receptor gene in colorectal cancer. Cancer Res 1995; 55: 554850.
  • 119
    Razin A , Cedar H . DNA methylation and genomic imprinting. Cell 1994; 77: 4736.
  • 120
    Li E , Bestor TH , Jaenisch R . Targeted mutation of the DNA methyltransferase gene results in embryonic lethality. Cell 1992; 69: 91526.
  • 121
    Bird AP . CpG-rich islands and the function of DNA methylation. Nature 1986; 321: 20913.
  • 122
    Counts JL , Goodman JI . Alterations in DNA methylation may play a variety of roles in carcinogenesis. Cell 1995; 83: 1315.
  • 123
    Jones PA . DNA methylation errors and cancer. Cancer Res 1996; 56: 24637.
  • 124
    Goelz SE , Vogelstein B , Hamilton SR , Feinberg AP . Hypomethylation of DNA from benign and malignant human colon neoplasms. Science 1985; 228: 18790.
  • 125
    Feinberg AP , Gehrke CW , Kuo KC , Ehrlich M . Reduced genomic 5-methylcytosine content in human colonic neoplasia. Cancer Res 1988; 48: 115961.
  • 126
    Landolph JR , Jones PA . Mutagenicity of 5-azacytidine and related nucleosides in C3H/10T½ clone 8 and V79 cells. Cancer Res 1982; 42: 81723.
  • 127
    Wu J , Issa J-P , Herman J , Bassett DE Jr , Nelkin BD , Baylin SB . Expression of an exogenous eukaryotic DNA methyltransferase gene induces transformation of NIH 3T3 cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1993; 90: 88915.
  • 128
    Laird PW , Jackson-Grusby L , Fazeli A , Dickinson SL , Jung WE , Li E et al. Suppression of intestinal neoplasia by DNA hypomethylation. Cell 1995; 81: 197205.
  • 129
    el-Deiry WS , Nelkin BD , Celano P , Yen R-WC , Falco JP , Hamilton SR et al. High expression of the DNA methyltransferase gene characterizes human neoplastic cells and progression stages of colon cancer. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1991; 88: 34704.
  • 130
    Herman JG , Merlo A , Mao L , Lapidus RG , Issa J-PJ , Davidson NE et al. Inactivation of the CDKN2/p16/MTS1 gene is frequently associated with aberrant DNA methylation in all common human cancers. Cancer Res 1995; 55: 452530.
  • 131
    Herman JG , Umar A , Polyak K , Graff JR , Ahuja N , Issa J-PJ et al. Incidence and functional consequences of hMLH1 promoter hypermethylation in colorectal carcinoma. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1998; 95: 68705.
  • 132
    Veigl ML , Kasturi L , Olechnowicz J , Ma AH , Lutterbaugh JD , Periyasamy S et al. Biallelic inactivation of hMLH1 by epigenetic gene silencing, a novel mechanism causing human MSI cancers. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1998; 95: 8698702.
  • 133
    Wheeler JMD , Beck NE , Kim HC , Tomlinson IPM , Mortensen NJMcC , Bodmer WF . Mechanisms of inactivation of mismatch repair genes in human colorectal cancer cell lines: the predominant role of hMLH1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1999; 96: 10 296301.
  • 134
    Herman JG , Latif F , Weng Y , Lerman MI , Zbar B , Liu S et al. Silencing of the VHL tumor-suppressor gene by DNA methylation in renal carcinoma. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1994; 91: 97004.
  • 135
    Wheeler JMD , Kim HC , Efstathiou JA , Ilyas M , Mortensen NJMcC , Bodmer WF . Hypermethylation of the promoter region of the E-cadherin gene (CDH1) in sporadic and ulcerative colitis associated colorectal cancer. Gut 2001; 48: 36771.
  • 136
    Esteller M , Sparks A , Toyota M , Sanchez-Cespedes M , Capella G , Peinado MA et al. Analysis of adenomatous polyposis coli promoter hypermethylation in human cancer. Cancer Res 2000; 60: 436671.
  • 137
    Ahuja N , Mohan AL , Li Q , Stolker JM , Herman JG , Hamilton SR et al. Association between CpG island methylation and microsatellite instability in colorectal cancer. Cancer Res 1997; 57: 33704.
  • 138
    Wheeler JMD , Bodmer WF , Mortensen NJMcC . DNA mismatch repair genes and colorectal cancer. Gut 2000; 47: 14853.
  • 139
    Dietmaier W , Wallinger S , Bocker T , Kullmann F , Fishel R , Rüschoff J . Diagnostic microsatellite instability: definition and correlation with mismatch repair protein expression. Cancer Res 1997; 57: 474956.
  • 140
    Parsons R , Li G-M , Longley MJ , Fang W-H , Papadopoulos N , Jen J et al. Hypermutability and mismatch repair deficiency in RER+ tumor cells. Cell 1993; 75: 122736.
  • 141
    Loeb LA . Mutator phenotype may be required for multistage carcinogenesis. Cancer Res 1991; 51: 30759.
  • 142
    Aaltonen LA , Peltomaki P , Leach FS , Sistonen P , Pylkkänen L , Mecklin J-P et al. Clues to the pathogenesis of familial colorectal cancer. Science 1993; 260: 81216.
  • 143
    Aaltonen LA , Peltomaki P , Mecklin J-P , Järvinen H , Jass JR , Green JS et al. Replication errors in benign and malignant tumors from hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer patients. Cancer Res 1994; 54: 16458.
  • 144
    Konishi M , Kikuchi-Yanoshita R , Tanaka K , Muraoka M , Onda A , Okumura Y et al. Molecular nature of colon tumors in hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer, familial polyposis, and sporadic colon cancer. Gastroenterology 1996; 111: 30717.
  • 145
    Thibodeau SN , Bren G , Schiad D . Microsatellite instability in cancer of the proximal colon. Science 1993; 260: 81619.
  • 146
    Jass JR , Do K-A , Simms LA , Iino H , Wynter C , Pillay SP et al. Morphology of sporadic colorectal cancer with DNA replication errors. Gut 1998; 42: 6739.
  • 147
    Liu B , Nicolaides NC , Markowitz S , Willson JKV , Parsons RE , Jen J et al. Mismatch repair gene defects in sporadic colorectal cancers with microsatellite instability. Nat Genet 1995; 9: 4855.
  • 148
    Lothe RA , Peltomaki P , Meling GI , Aaltonen LA , Nyström-Lahti M , Pylkkänen L et al. Genomic instability in colorectal cancer: relationship to clinicopathological variables and family history. Cancer Res 1993; 53: 584952.
  • 149
    Markowitz AJ , Winawer SJ . Management of colorectal polyps. CA Cancer J Clin 1997; 47: 93112.
  • 150
    Peltomaki P , Lothe RA , Aaltonen LA , Pylkkänen L , Nyström-Lahti M , Seruca R et al. Microsatellite instability is associated with tumors that characterize the hereditary non-polyposis colorectal carcinoma syndrome. Cancer Res 1993; 53: 58535.
  • 151
    Honchel R , Halling KC , Thibodeau SN . Genomic instability in neoplasia. Semin Cell Biol 1995; 6: 4252.
  • 152
    Thibodeau SN , French AJ , Cunningham JM , Tester D , Burgart LJ , Roche PC et al. Microsatellite instability in colorectal cancer: different mutator phenotypes and the principle involvement of hMLH1. Cancer Res 1998; 58: 171318.
  • 153
    Samowitz WS , Slattery ML , Potter JD , Leppert MF . BAT-26 and BAT-40 instability in colorectal adenomas and carcinomas and germline polymorphisms. Am J Pathol 1999; 154: 163741.
  • 154
    Muta H , Noguchi M , Perucho M , Ushio K , Sugihara K , Ochiai A et al. Clinical implications of microsatellite instability in colorectal cancers. Cancer 1996; 77: 26570.
  • 155
    Bocker T , Schlegel J , Kullmann F , Stumm G , Zirngibl H , Epplen JT et al. Genomic instability in colorectal carcinomas. comparison of different evaluation methods and their biological significance. J Pathol 1996; 179: 1519.
  • 156
    Olschwang S , Hamelin R , Laurent-Puig P , Thuille B , De Rycke Y , Li Y-J et al. Alternative genetic pathways in colorectal carcinogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1997; 94: 12 1227.
  • 157
    Risio M , Reato G , di Celle PF , Fizzotti M , Rossini FP , Foà R . Microsatellite instability is associated with the histological features of the tumor in nonfamilial colorectal cancer. Cancer Res 1996; 56: 54704.
  • 158
    Samowitz WS , Slattery ML . Microsatellite instability in colorectal adenomas. Gastroenterology 1997; 112: 151519.
  • 159
    Young J , Leggett B , Gustafson C , Ward M , Searle J , Thomas L et al. Genomic instability occurs in colorectal carcinomas but not in adenomas. Hum Mutat 1993; 2: 3514.
  • 160
    Lothe RA , Andersen SN , Hofstad B , Meling GI , Peltomäki P , Heim S et al. Deletion of 1p loci and microsatellite instability in colorectal polyps. Genes Chromosomes Cancer 1995; 14: 1828.
  • 161
    Grady WM , Rajput A , Myeroff L , Liu DF , Kwon K , Willis J et al. Mutation of the type II transforming growth factor-β receptor is coincident with the transformation of human colon adenomas to malignant carcinomas. Cancer Res 1998; 58: 31014.
  • 162
    Iino H , Simms L , Young J , Arnold J , Winship IM , Webb SI et al. DNA microsatellite instability and mismatch repair protein loss in adenomas presenting in hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer. Gut 2000; 47: 3742.
  • 163
    Kinzler KW , Vogelstein B . Lessons from hereditary colorectal cancer. Cell 1996; 87: 15970.
  • 164
    Papadopoulos N , Nicolaides NC , Wei Y-F , Ruben SM , Carter KC , Rosen CA et al. Mutation of a mutL homolog in hereditary colon cancer. Science 1994; 263: 16259.
  • 165
    Leach FS , Nicolaides NC , Papadopoulos N , Liu B , Jen J , Parsons R et al. Mutation of a mutS homolog in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer. Cell 1993; 75: 121525.
  • 166
    Borresen A-L , Lothe RA , Meling GI , Lystad S , Morrison P , Lipford J et al. Somatic mutations in the hMSH2 gene in microsatellite unstable colorectal carcinomas. Hum Mol Genet 1995; 4: 206572.
  • 167
    Myeroff LL , Parsons R , Kim S-J , Hedrick L , Cho KR , Orth K et al. A transforming growth factor β receptor type II gene mutation common in colon and gastric but rare in endometrial cancers with microsatellite instability. Cancer Res 1995; 55: 55457.
  • 168
    Cheah PY , Eu KW , Seow FC . Update of genetics in colorectal carcinomas: genomic instability and somatic evolution. Ann Acad Med Singapore 2000; 29: 3316.
  • 169
    Lengauer C , Kinzler KW , Vogelstein B . Genetic instabilities in human cancers. Nature 1998; 396: 6439.
  • 170
    Lengauer C , Kinzler KW , Vogelstein B . Genetic instability in colorectal cancers. Nature 1997; 386: 6237.
  • 171
    Mitelman F . Catalog of Chromosome Aberrations in Cancer. 4th ed. New York: Wiley-Liss, 1991.
  • 172
    Muleris M , Salmon R-J , Dutrillaux B . Cytogenetics of colorectal adenocarcinomas. Cancer Genet Cytogenet 1990; 46: 14356.
  • 173
    Bardi G , Sukhikh T , Pandis N , Fenger C , Kronborg O , Heim S . Karyotypic characterization of colorectal adenocarcinomas. Genes Chromosomes Cancer 1995; 12: 97109.
  • 174
    Bardi G , Pandis N , Mitelman F , Heim S . Karyotypic characteristics of colorectal tumors. In: WolmanSR, SellS, eds. Human Cytogenetic Cancer Markers. Totowa, New Jersey: Humana Press, 1997: 15168.
  • 175
    Bomme L , Bardi G , Pandis N , Fenger C , Kronberg O , Heim S . Clonal karyotypic abnormalities in colorectal adenomas: clues to the early genetic events in the adenoma–carcinoma sequence. Genes Chromosomes Cancer 1994; 10: 1906.
  • 176
    Griffin CA , Lazar S , Hamilton SR , Giardiello FM , Long P , Krush AJ et al. Cytogenetic analysis of intestinal polyps in polyposis syndromes: comparison with sporadic colorectal adenomas. Cancer Genet Cytogenet 1993; 67: 1420.
  • 177
    Longy M , Saura R , Dumas F , Leseve J-F , Taine L , Goussot J-F et al. Chromosome analysis of adenomatous polyps of the colon: possible existence of two differently evolving cytogenetic groups. Cancer Genet Cytogenet 1993; 67: 713.
  • 178
    Johansson B , Heim S , Mandahl N , Mertens F , Mitelman F . Trisomy 7 in nonneoplastic cells. Genes Chromosomes Cancer 1993; 6: 199205.
  • 179
    Taguchi T , Testa JR , Papas TS , Schweinfest C . Localization of a candidate colon tumour-suppressor gene (DRA) to 7q22-q31.1 by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Genomics 1994; 20: 1467.
  • 180
    Schweinfest CW , Henderson KW , Suster S , Kondoh N , Papas TS . Identification of a colon mucosa gene that is down-regulated in colon adenomas and adenocarcinomas. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1993; 90: 416670.
  • 181
    Antalis TM , Reeder JA , Gotley DC , Byeon MK , Walsh MD , Henderson KW et al. Down-regulation of the down-regulated in adenoma (DRA) gene correlates with colon tumor progression. Clin Cancer Res 1998; 4: 185763.
  • 182
    Bardi G , Pandis N , Fenger C , Kronborg O , Bomme L , Heim S . Deletion of 1p36 as a primary chromosomal aberration in intestinal tumorigenesis. Cancer Res 1993; 53: 18958.
  • 183
    Kallioniemi A , Kallioniemi O-P , Sudar D , Rutovitz D , Gray JW , Waldman F et al. Comparative genomic hybridization for molecular cytogenetic analysis of solid tumors. Science 1992; 258: 81821.
  • 184
    Rooney PH , Murray GI , Stevenson DAJ , Haites NE , Cassidy J , McLeod HL . Comparative genomic hybridization and chromosomal instability in solid tumours. Br J Cancer 1999; 80: 86273.
  • 185
    Meijer GA , Hermsen MAJA , Baak JPA , van Diest PJ , Meuwissen SGM , Beliën JAM et al. Progression from colorectal adenoma to carcinoma is associated with non-random chromosomal gains as detected by comparative genomic hybridisation. J Clin Pathol 1998; 51: 9019.
  • 186
    Korn WM , Yasutake T , Kuo W-L , Warren RS , Collins C , Tomita M et al. Chromosome arm 20q gains and other genomic alterations in colorectal cancer metastatic to liver, as analyzed by comparative genomic hybridization and fluorescence in situ hybridization. Genes Chromosomes Cancer 1999; 25: 8290.
  • 187
    Al-Mulla F , Keith WN , Pickford IR , Going JJ , Birnie GD . Comparative genomic hybridization analysis of primary colorectal carcinomas and their synchronous metastases. Genes Chromosomes Cancer 1999; 24: 30614.
  • 188
    Paredes-Zalgul A , Kang JJ , Essig Y-P , Mao W , Irby R , Wloch M et al. Analysis of colorectal cancer by comparative genomic hybridization: evidence for induction of the metastatic phenotype by loss of tumor suppressor genes. Clin Cancer Res 1998; 4: 87986.
  • 189
    Schlegel J , Stumm G , Scherthan H , Bocker T , Zirngibl H , Rüschoff J et al. Comparative genomic in situ hybridization of colon carcinomas with replication error. Cancer Res 1995; 55: 60025.
  • 190
    Aziz DC , Peter JB . DNA ploidy and cell-cycle analysis: tools for assessment of cancer prognosis. J Clin Lab Anal 1991; 5: 42238.
  • 191
    Kokal WA , Gardine RL , Sheibani K , Morris PL , Prager E , Zak IW et al. Tumor DNA content in resectable, primary colorectal carcinoma. Ann Surg 1989; 209: 18893.
  • 192
    Quirke P , Dixon MF , Clayden AD , Durdey P , Dyson JED , Williams NS et al. Prognostic significance of DNA aneuploidy and cell proliferation in rectal adenocarcinomas. J Pathol 1987; 151: 28591.
  • 193
    Cohn KH , Ornstein DL , Wang F , LaPaix FD , Phipps K , Edelsberg C et al. The significance of allelic deletions and aneuploidy in colorectal carcinoma. Results of a 5-year follow-up study. Cancer 1997; 79: 23344.
  • 194
    Offerhaus GJA , De Feyter EP , Cornelisse CJ , Tersmette KWF , Floyd J , Kern SE et al. The relationship of DNA aneuploidy to molecular genetic alterations in colorectal carcinoma. Gastroenterology 1992; 102: 161219.
  • 195
    Banner BF , Chacho MS , Roseman DL , Coon JS . Multiparameter flow cytometric analysis of colon polyps. Am J Clin Pathol 1987; 87: 31318.
  • 196
    Quirke P , Fozard JBJ , Dixon MF , Dyson JED , Giles GR , Bird CC . DNA aneuploidy in colorectal adenomas. Br J Cancer 1986; 53: 47781.
  • 197
    Aitman TJ . DNA microarrays in medical practice. BMJ 2001; 323: 61115.
  • 198
    Yanagawa R , Furukawa Y , Tsunoda T , Kitahara O , Kameyama M , Murata K et al. Genome-wide screening of genes showing altered expression in liver metastases of human colorectal cancers by cDNA microarray. Neoplasia 2001; 3: 395401.
  • 199
    Kitahara O , Furukawa Y , Tanaka T , Kihara C , Ono K , Yanagawa R et al. Alterations of gene expression during colorectal carcinogenesis revealed by cDNA microarrays after laser-capture microdissection of tumor tissues and normal epithelia. Cancer Res 2001; 61: 35449.
  • 200
    Takemasa I , Higuchi H , Yamamoto H , Sekimoto M , Tomita N , Nakamori S et al. Construction of preferential cDNA microarray specialized for human colorectal carcinoma: molecular sketch of colorectal cancer. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2001; 285: 12449.
  • 201
    Notterman DA , Alon U , Sierk AJ , Levine AJ . Transcriptional gene expression profiles of colorectal adenoma, adenocarcinoma, and normal tissue examined by oligonucleotide arrays. Cancer Res 2001; 61: 312430.
  • 202
    Backert S , Gelos M , Kobalz U , Hanski ML , Bohm C , Mann B et al. Differential gene expression in colon carcinoma cells and tissues detected with a cDNA array. Int J Cancer 1999; 82: 86874.
  • 203
    Hernandez A , Smith F , Wang Q , Wang X , Evers BM . Assessment of differential gene expression patterns in human colon cancers. Ann Surg 2000; 232: 57685.
  • 204
    Yamada T , Takaoka AS , Naishiro Y , Hayashi R , Maruyama K , Maesawa C et al. Transactivation of the multidrug resistance 1 gene by T-cell factor 4/beta-catenin complex in early colorectal carcinogenesis. Cancer Res 2000; 60: 47616.
  • 205
    Hegde P , Qi R , Gaspard R , Abernathy K , Dharap S , Earle-Hughes J et al. Identification of tumor markers in models of human colorectal cancer using a 19 200-element complementary DNA microarray. Cancer Res 2001; 61: 77927.
  • 206
    Golub TR , Slonim DK , Tamayo P , Huard C , Gaasenbeek M , Mesirov JP et al. Molecular classification of cancer: class discovery and class prediction by gene expression monitoring. Science 1999; 286: 5317.