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Keywords:

  • Lepidoglyphus destructor;
  • Tyrophagus putrescentiae;
  • recombinant allergens;
  • rLep d 2;
  • rTyr p 2;
  • SPT;
  • RAST;
  • IgG

Background

The dust mites Lepidoglyphus destructor and Tyrophagus putrescentiae are important sources of allergen in farming environments. The major allergens of the dust mites L. destructor and T. putrescentiae have been cloned and expressed as recombinant proteins.

Objective

To evaluate the use of recombinant group 2 allergens of L. destructor (rLep d 2) and T. putrescentiae (rTyr p 2) in skin prick test (SPT), and serological analysis in sensitized and non-sensitized farmers chronically exposed to dust mites.

Methods

Skin prick test with rLep d 2, rTyr p 2 and the corresponding commercial extracts was performed in 44 farmers sensitized to L. destructor and/or T. putrescentiae, and 38 control farmers. IgE and IgG subclass antibodies to the recombinant allergens were analysed by RAST and ELISA, respectively.

Results

Out of the 44 subjects positive in SPT to L. destructor and/or T. putrescentiae extract, 26 (59%) displayed a positive SPT to one or the other of the recombinant allergens, whereas 21 (48%) were positive to both. Significant correlations were registered between the sizes of the weals induced by rLep d 2 and rTyr p 2 and the corresponding RAST values (P < 0.001). A majority of subjects positive in SPT to the recombinant allergens had detectable IgG4 antibodies, and the levels were significantly higher in the dust mite sensitized group than in the controls (P < 0.05). No such differences were found in the IgG1values (P > 0.05). The results obtained with rLep d 2 and rTyr p 2 correlated relatively well with each other with respect to SPT, RAST and IgG4, suggesting that the allergens have similar or shared IgE epitopes. All the control subjects had a negative SPT and RAST to rLep d 2 and rTyr p 2.

Conclusion

Recombinant group 2 allergens from the dust mite L. destructor and T. putrescentiae represent useful tools for diagnosis of dust mite allergy.