Background and objectives A reduced capacity of antigen presenting cells (APC) to provide pro-T helper 1 (Th1) signals, such as IL-12, to T cells during early life may be implicated in the development of T helper 2 (Th2)-mediated allergic disease. In this study we examined the relationships between the capacity for IL-12 responses in the neonatal period and atopic risk (family allergy), in vitro T cell responses to allergens, and the subsequent development of allergic disease at 6 years
Methods The capacity of circulating neonatal (and maternal) APC to produce IL-12 p70 in response to LPS (and IFN-γ) stimulation was assessed in a group of 60 children with previously well-characterized immune responses to allergens and atopic outcomes. The IL-12 responses were compared with allergen-induced lymphoproliferation (to house dust mite (HDM) ovalbumin (OVA), cat and β-lactoglobulin (BLG)) and IL-13 and IFN-γ cytokine responses (to OVA, HDM and phytohaemaglutinin (PHA)) in the neonatal and postnatal periods. IL-12 responses were also compared according to atopic risk and atopic outcomes (doctor-diagnosed asthma, eczema, food allergies and sensitization as evidenced by skin prick testing) at 6 years clinical follow-up.
Results Maternal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) synthesized significantly greater amounts of IL-12 than neonatal PBMC, though within maternal-infant pairs IL-12 responses were significantly correlated (r = 0.4, P = 0.019). Moreover, neonatal IL-12 responses were positively correlated with neonatal allergen proliferation for HDM (r = 0.6, P < 0.0001), OVA (r = 0.55, P < 0.0001), cat (r = 0.5, P = 0.003) and BLG (r = 0.55, P = 0.001), but negatively correlated with neonatal IL-13 responses to both allergens tested (HDM: r = − 0.4, P = 0.03 and OVA: r = − 0.5, P = 0.001). Both neonatal and maternal IL-12 responses were positively correlated with postnatal IFN-γ responses to HDM at 12, 18 and 24 months of age (responses after age of 2 years were not assessed). There was no relationship between atopic risk and IL-12 capacity in the neonatal period, but there was a (non-significant) trend for neonatal IL-12 responses to be lower in the high-risk children who developed clinical allergy at 6 years (compared with the low risk group) although the number in this analysis was small.
Conclusions Reduced APC IL-12 production in the perinatal period was associated with reduced T cell activation (lymphoproliferation), stronger neonatal Th2 responses, and weaker Th1 responses to allergen in the postnatal period. This supports the notion that variations in APC function in early life may contribute to altered allergen-specific cytokine responses associated with later allergy.