• 1
    Hosoya M, Shigheta S, Ishii T et al. Comparative inhibitory effects of various nucleoside and nonnucleoside analogues on replication of influenza virus types A and B in vitro and in vivo. J Infect Dis 1993; 168:6416.
  • 2
    Shigeta S, Mori S, Baba M et al. Antiviral activities of ribavirin, 5-ethynyl-1-beta-Dribofuranosyl-imidazole-4carboxamide, and 6′-(R)-6′-C-methylneoplanocin A against several ortho- and para-myxoviruses. Antimicrobial Agents Chemotherapy 1992; 36:4359.
  • 3
    Di Bisceglie AM, Shindo M, Fong TL et al. A pilot study of ribavirin therapy for chronic hepatitis C. Hepatology 1992; 16:64954.
  • 4
    Dusheiko G, Main J, Thomas H et al. Ribavirin treatment for patients with chronic hepatitis C. results of a placebo-controlled study. J Hepatol 1996; 25:5918.
  • 5
    Di Bisceglie AM, Conjeevaram HS, Fried MW et al. Ribavirin as therapy for chronic hepatitis C. Ann Intern Med 1995; 123:897903.
  • 6
    Hoofnagle JH, Lau D, Conjeevaram H et al. Prolonged therapy of chronic hepatitis C with ribavirin. J Viral Hep 1996; 3:24752.
  • 7
    Lee JH, Von Wagner M, Roth WK et al. Effect of ribavirin on virus load and quasispecies distribution in patients infected with hepatitis C. J Hepatol 1998; 29:2935.
  • 8
    Poynard T, Marcelin P, Lee SS et al. Randomised trial of Interferon-α-2b plus ribavirin for 48 weeks or for 24 weeks versus Interferon-α-2b plus placebo for 48 weeks for treatment of chronic infection with hepatitis C virus. Lancet 1998; 352:142632.
  • 9
    Brouwer JT, Hansen BE, Niesters HGM et al. Early prediction of response in interferon monotherapy and in interferon-ribavirin combination therapy for chronic hepatitis C. HCV RNA at 4 weeks versus ALT. J Hepatol 1999; 30:1928.
  • 10
    Bell H, Hellum K, Harthug S et al. Treatment with interferon-alpha2a alone or interferon-alpha2a plus ribavirin in patients with chronic hepatitis C previously treated with interferon-alpha2a. Scand J Gastroenterol 1999; 2:1948.
  • 11
    Barbaro G, Di Lorenzo G, Soldini M et al. Interferon-α-2b and ribavirin in combination for chronic hepatitis C patients not responding to Interferon-α alone: an italian multicenter, randomized, controlled, clinical study. Am J Gastroenterol 1998; 93:244551.
  • 12
    Hultgren C, Milich DR, Weiland O et al. The antiviral compound ribavirin modulates the T helper (Th) 1/Th2 subset balance in hepatitis B and C virus-specific immune response. J Gen Virol 1998; 79:238191.
  • 13
    Tam RC, Pai B, Bard J et al. Ribavirin polarizes human T cell responses toward a type 1 cytokine profile. J Hepatol 1999; 30:37682.
  • 14
    Martin J, Navas S, Quiroga JA et al. Effects of the ribavirin-interferon α combination on cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells from chronic hepatitis C patients. Cytokine 1998; 10:63544.
  • 15
    Napoli J, Bishop A, McGuinnes PH et al. Progressive liver injury in chronic hepatitis C infection correlates with increased intrahepatic expression of Th1-associated cytokines. Hepatology 1996; 24:75965.
  • 16
    Bertoletti A, D'Elios MM, Boni C et al. Different cytokines profiles of intrahepatic T cells in chronic hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus infection. Gastroenterology 1997; 112:1939.
  • 17
    Jung T, Schauer U, HeusSeries C et al. Detection of intracellular cytokines by flow cytometry. J Immunol Methods 1993; 159:197207.
  • 18
    De Maeyer E & De Maeyers-Guinard J. Interferons. In: ThomsonA, ed. The cytokine handbook. London: Academic, 1991:21539.
  • 19
    Male D, Champion B, Cooke A, Owen M. Advanced Immunology. London: Gower Medical, 1991.
  • 20
    Mosmann TR & Sad S. The expanding universe of T cell subset: Th1, Th2 and more. Immunology Today 1996; 17:13846.
  • 21
    Nagler A, Lanier LL, Phillips JH. The effects of IL-4 on human natural killer cells. α potent regulator of IL-2 activation and proliferation. J Immunol 1988; 141:234951.
  • 22
    Martinez OM, Gibbons RS, Garovoy MR et al. IL-4 inhibits IL-2 receptor expression and IL-2-dependent proliferation of human T cells J Immunol 1990; 144:22115.
  • 23
    Zhang XZ, Milich DR, Peterson DL et al. Interferon-alpha treatment induces delayed CD4+ proliferative responses to the hepatitis C virus non-structural 3 protein regardless of the outcome of therapy. J Infect Dis 1997; 175:1294301.
  • 24
    Grewal IS & Flavell RA. CD40 and CD154 in cell-mediated immunity. Annu Rev Immunol 1998; 16:11135.
  • 25
    Del Prete G, Maggi E, Romagnani S. Human Th1 and Th2 cells: functional properties, mechanisms of regulation, and role in diseases. Laboratory Invest 1994; 70:299306.