• 1
    Bode C, Kugler V, Bode JC. Endotoxemia in patients with alcoholic and non-alcoholic cirrhosis and in subjects with no evidence of chronic liver disease following acute alcohol excess. J Hepatol 1987; 4:814.
  • 2
    Deviere J, Content J, Denys C et al. High interleukin-6 serum levels and increased production by leucocytes in alcoholic liver cirrhosis. Correlation with IgA serum levels and lymphokines production. Clin Exp Immunol 1989; 77:2215.
  • 3
    Hill DB, Marsano LS, McClain CJ. Increased plasma interleukin-8 concentrations in alcoholic hepatitis. Hepatology 1993; 18:57680.
  • 4
    Khoruts A, Stahnke L, McClain CJ, Logan G, Allen JI. Circulating tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-1 and interleukin-6 concentrations in chronic alcoholic patients. Hepatology 1991; 13:26776.
  • 5
    Ledesma Castano F, Echevarria Vierna S, Lozano Polo JL, Oloriz Rivas R, Alvarez Moreno C, Pons Romero F. Interleukin-1 in alcoholic cirrhosis of the liver: the influence of nutrition. Eur J Clin Nutr 1992; 46:52733.
  • 6
    McClain CJ & Cohen DA. Increased tumor necrosis factor production by monocytes in alcoholic hepatitis. Hepatology 1989; 9:34951.
  • 7
    Perperas A, Tsantoulas D, Portmann B, Eddleston AL, Williams R. Autoimmunity to a liver membrane lipoprotein and liver damage in alcoholic liver disease. Gut 1981; 22:14952.
  • 8
    Anthony RS, Farquharson M, MacSween RN. Liver membrane antibodies in alcoholic liver disease. II. Antibodies to ethanol-altered hepatocytes. J Clin Pathol 1983; 36:13028.
  • 9
    Hoerner M, Behrens UJ, Worner TM et al. The role of alcoholism and liver disease in the appearance of serum antibodies against acetaldehyde adducts. Hepatology 1988; 8:56974.
  • 10
    Adams DH. Leucocyte adhesion molecules and alcoholic liver disease. Alcohol Alcohol 1994; 29:24960.
  • 11
    Chedid A, Mendenhall CL, Moritz TE et al. Cell-mediated hepatic injury in alcoholic liver disease. Veterans Affairs Cooperative Study Group 275. Gastroenterology 1993; 105:25466.
  • 12
    Day CP & Yeaman SJ. The biochemistry of alcohol-induced fatty liver. Biochim Biophys Acta 1994; 1215:3348.
  • 13
    Misra UK, Bradford BU, Handler JA, Thurman RG. Chronic ethanol treatment induces H2O2 production selectively in pericentral regions of the liver lobule. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 1992; 16:83942.
  • 14
    Rashid A, Wu TC, Huang CC et al. Mitochondrial proteins that regulate apoptosis and necrosis are induced in mouse fatty liver. Hepatology 1999; 29:11318.
  • 15
    Tsukamoto H, French SW, Benson N et al. Severe and progressive steatosis and focal necrosis in rat liver induced by continuous intragastric infusion of ethanol and low fat diet. Hepatology 1985; 5:22432.
  • 16
    Tilg H & Diehl AM. Mechanisms of disease: cytokines in alcoholic and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. N Engl J Med 2000; 343:146776.
  • 17
    Lieber CS & DeCarli LM. An experimental model of alcohol feeding and liver injury in the baboon. J Med Primatol 1974; 3:15363.
  • 18
    Lieber CS, Jones DP, DeCarli LM. Effects of prolonged ethanol intake: production of fatty liver despite adequate diets. J Clin Investigation 1965; 44:100921.
  • 19
    Holsapple MP, Eads M, Stevens WD et al. Immunosuppression in adult female B6C3F1 mice by chronic exposure to ethanol in a liquid diet. Immunopharmacology 1993; 26:3151.
  • 20
    Smith SM & Hoy WE. Ad libitum alcohol ingestion does not induce renal IgA deposition in mice. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 1990; 14:1846.
  • 21
    Yin M, Wheeler MD, Kono H et al. Essential role of tumor necrosis factor alpha in alcohol-induced liver injury in mice. Gastroenterology 1999; 117:94252.
  • 22
    Berson A, De Beco V, Letteron P et al. Steatohepatitis-inducing drugs cause mitochondrial dysfunction and lipid peroxidation in rat hepatocytes. Gastroenterology 1998; 114:76474.
  • 23
    Jerrells TR, Smith W, Eckardt MJ. Murine model of ethanol-induced immunosuppression. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 1990; 14:54650.
  • 24
    Khimenko PL, Bagby GJ, Fuseler J, Taylor AE. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha in ischemia and reperfusion injury in rat lungs. J Appl Physiol 1998; 85:200511.
  • 25
    Skerrett SJ, Bagby GJ, Schmidt RA, Nelson S. Antibody-mediated depletion of tumor necrosis factor-alpha impairs pulmonary host defenses to Legionella pneumophila. J Infect Dis 1997; 176:101928.
  • 26
    Knight JA, Anderson S, Rawle JM. Chemical basis of the sulfo-phospho-vanillin reaction for estimating total serum lipids. Clin Chem 1972; 18:199202.
  • 27
    Weidman SW & Schonfels G. Lipids and lipoproteins. In: Sonnenwirth AC, Jarett L, eds. Gradwohl's clinical laboratory methods and diagnosis, 8th edn. C. V. Mosby, St Louis, 1980.
  • 28
    Saad AJ, Domiati-Saad R, Jerrells TR. Ethanol ingestion increases susceptibility of mice to Listeria monocytogenes. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 1993; 17:7585.
  • 29
    Coates RA, Halliday ML, Rankin JG, Feinman SV, Fisher MM. Risk of fatty infiltration or cirrhosis of the liver in relation to ethanol consumption: a case–control study. Clin Invest Med 1986; 9:2632.
  • 30
    Kawase T, Kato S, Lieber CS. Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defense systems in rat liver after chronic ethanol feeding. Hepatology 1989; 10:81521.
  • 31
    Goldin R. The pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease. Int J Exp Pathol 1994; 75:718.
  • 32
    Israel Y, Hurwitz E, Niemela O, Arnon R. Monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies against acetaldehyde-containing epitopes in acetaldehyde-protein adducts. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1986; 83:79237.
  • 33
    Ando K, Moriyama T, Guidotti LG et al. Mechanisms of class I restricted immunopathology. A transgenic mouse model of fulminant hepatitis. J Exp Med 1993; 178:154154.
  • 34
    Nakano M, Maruyama K, Okuyama K et al. The characteristics of alcoholics with HCV infection: histopathologic comparison with alcoholics without HCV infection and chronic type C hepatitis. Alcohol Alcohol 1993; 1B(Suppl):3540.
  • 35
    Botarelli P, Brunetto M, Minutello M et al. T-lymphocyte response to hepatitis C virus in different clinical courses of infection. Gastroenterology 1993; 104:5807.
  • 36
    Erickson AL, Houghton M, Choo QL et al. Hepatitis C virus-specific CTL responses in the liver of chimpanzees with acute and chronic hepatitis C. J Immunol 1993; 151:418999.
  • 37
    Fiore G, Angarano I, Caccetta L et al. In-situ immunophenotyping study of hepatic-infiltrating cytotoxic cells in chronic active hepatitis C. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 1997; 9:4916.
  • 38
    Koziel MJ, Dudley D, Wong JT et al. Intrahepatic cytotoxic T lymphocytes specific for hepatitis C virus in persons with chronic hepatitis. J Immunol 1992; 149:333944.
  • 39
    Koziel MJ, Dudley D, Afdhal N et al. Hepatitis C virus (HCV)-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes recognize epitopes in the core and envelope proteins of HCV. J Virol 1993; 67:752232.
  • 40
    Kaufmann SH. Immunity to intracellular bacteria. Annu Rev Immunol 1993; 11:12963.
  • 41
    Harty JT & Bevan MJ. CD8+ T cells specific for a single nonamer epitope of Listeria monocytogenes are protective in vivo. J Exp Med 1992; 175:15318.
  • 42
    Harty JT, Schreiber RD, Bevan MJ. CD8 T cells can protect against an intracellular bacterium in an interferon gamma-independent fashion. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1992; 89:116126.
  • 43
    Jiang X, Gregory SH, Wing EJ. Immune CD8+ T lymphocytes lyse Listeria monocytogenes-infected hepatocytes by a classical MHC class I-restricted mechanism. J Immunol 1997; 158:28793.
  • 44
    Czuprynski CJ & Brown JF. Effects of purified anti-Lyt-2 mAb treatment on murine listeriosis: comparative roles of Lyt-2+ and L3T4+ cells in resistance to primary and secondary infection, delayed-type hypersensitivity and adoptive transfer of resistance. Immunology 1990; 71:10712.
  • 45
    Sasaki T, Mieno M, Udono H et al. Roles of CD4+ and CD8+ cells, and the effect of administration of recombinant murine interferon gamma in listerial infection. J Exp Med 1990; 171:114154.
  • 46
    Ehlers S, Mielke ME, Blankenstein T, Hahn H. Kinetic analysis of cytokine gene expression in the livers of naive and immune mice infected with Listeria monocytogenes. The immediate early phase in innate resistance and acquired immunity. J Immunol 1992; 149:301622.
  • 47
    Feingold KR, Serio MK, Adi S, Moser AH, Grunfeld C. Tumor necrosis factor stimulates hepatic lipid synthesis and secretion. Endocrinology 1989; 124:233642.
  • 48
    Feingold KR, Soued M, Adi S et al. Effect of interleukin-1 on lipid metabolism in the rat. Similarities to and differences from tumor necrosis factor. Arterioscler Thromb 1991; 11:495500.
  • 49
    Nonogaki K, Fuller GM, Fuentes NL et al. Interleukin-6 stimulates hepatic triglyceride secretion in rats. Endocrinology 1995; 136:21439.
  • 50
    Venkatesan S, Ward RJ, Peters TJ. Effect of chronic ethanol feeding on the hepatic secretion of very-low-density lipoprotein. Biochim Biophys Acta 1988; 960:616.
  • 51
    Takeuchi N, Ito M, Yamamura Y. Esterification of cholesterol and hydrolysis of cholesteryl ester in alcohol induced fatty liver of rats. Lipids 1974; 9:3537.
  • 52
    Day CP & James OF. Steatohepatitis: a tale of two ‘hits’? (Editorial). Gastroenterology 1998; 114:8425.
  • 53
    Albano E, Clot P, Morimoto M, Tomasi A, Ingelman-Sundberg M, French SW. Role of cytochrome P4502E1-dependent formation of hydroxyethyl free radical in the development of liver damage in rats intragastrically fed with ethanol. Hepatology 1996; 23:15563.
  • 54
    Guebre-Xabier M, Yang S, Lin HZ, Schwenk R, Krzych U, Diehl AM. Altered hepatic lymphocyte subpopulations in obesity-related murine fatty livers: potential mechanism for sensitization to liver damage. Hepatology 2000; 31:63340.
  • 55
    Tanaka Y, Takahashi A, Kobayashi K et al. Establishment of a T cell-dependent nude mouse liver injury model induced by Propionibacterium acnes and LPS. J Immunol Methods 1995; 182:218.DOI: 10.1016/0022-1759(95)00014-2
  • 56
    Tanaka Y, Takahashi A, Watanabe K et al. A pivotal role of IL-12 in Th1-dependent mouse liver injury. Int Immunol 1996; 8:56976.
  • 57
    Tsutsui H, Matsui K, Kawada N et al. IL-18 accounts for both TNF-alpha- and Fas ligand-mediated hepatotoxic pathways in endotoxin-induced liver injury in mice. J Immunol 1997; 159:39617.
  • 58
    Dao T, Mehal WZ, Crispe IN. IL-18 augments perforin-dependent cytotoxicity of liver NK-T cells. J Immunol 1998; 161:221722.
  • 59
    Ohtsuki T, Micallef MJ, Kohno K, Tanimoto T, Ikeda M, Kurimoto M. Interleukin 18 enhances Fas ligand expression and induces apoptosis in Fas-expressing human myelomonocytic KG-1 cells. Anticancer Res 1997; 17:32538.
  • 60
    Russell JQ, Morrissette GJ, Weidner M, Vyas C, Aleman-Hoey D, Budd RC. Liver damage preferentially results from CD8 (+) T cells triggered by high affinity peptide antigens. J Exp Med 1998; 188:114757.
  • 61
    Huang L, Soldevila G, Leeker M, Flavell R, Crispe IN. The liver eliminates T cells undergoing antigen-triggered apoptosis in vivo. Immunity 1994; 1:7419.
  • 62
    Luettig B, Pape L, Bode U et al. Naive and memory T lymphocytes migrate in comparable numbers through normal rat liver: activated T cells accumulate in the periportal field. J Immunol 1999; 163:43007.
  • 63
    French LE & Tschopp J. Thyroiditis and hepatitis: Fas on the road to disease (news, comment). Nat Med 1997; 3:3878.
  • 64
    Jones RA, Johnson VL, Buck NR et al. Fas-mediated apoptosis in mouse hepatocytes involves the processing and activation of caspases. Hepatology 1998; 27:163242.
  • 65
    Kondo T, Suda T, Fukuyama H, Adachi M, Nagata S. Essential roles of the Fas ligand in the development of hepatitis. Nat Med 1997; 3:40913.
  • 66
    Li J, Rosen D, Ronen D et al. The regulation of CD95 ligand expression and function in CTL. J Immunol 1998; 161:39439.
  • 67
    Ni R, Tomita Y, Matsuda K et al. Fas-mediated apoptosis in primary cultured mouse hepatocytes. Exp Cell Res 1994; 215:3327.DOI: 10.1006/excr.1994.1349
  • 68
    Busch DH & Pamer EG. MHC class I/peptide stability: implications for immunodominance, in vitro proliferation, and diversity of responding CTL. J Immunol 1998; 160:44418.
  • 69
    Busch DH, Pilip I, Pamer EG. Evolution of a complex T cell receptor repertoire during primary and recall bacterial infection. J Exp Med 1998; 188:6170.
  • 70
    Busch DH, Pilip IM, Vijh S, Pamer EG. Coordinate regulation of complex T cell populations responding to bacterial infection. Immunity 1998; 8:35362.
  • 71
    Nishimura T & Ohta A. A critical role for antigen-specific Th1 cells in acute liver injury in mice. J Immunol 1999; 162:65039.
  • 72
    Cortez-Pinto H, Yang SQ, Lin HZ, Costa S, Hwang CS, Lane MD, Bagby G, Diehl AM. Bacterial lipopolysaccharide induces uncoupling protein-2 expression in hepatocytes by a tumor necrosis factor-alpha-dependent mechanism. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1998; 251:3139.DOI: 10.1006/bbrc.1998.9473
  • 73
    Pastorino JG & Hoek JB. Ethanol potentiates tumor necrosis factor-alpha cytotoxicity in hepatoma cells and primary rat hepatocytes by promoting induction of the mitochondrial permeability transition. Hepatology 2000; 31:114152.