In this paper we describe the clinical and molecular features of a new case (GOR) of homozygous human TAP2 deficiency, analysing the phenotype and function of NK cells. The patient presented from infancy with recurrent sinopulmonary infections; a selective IgG2 deficiency, negative antibody response to polysaccharide vaccination and low level of cell surface expression of HLA class I antigens were found. The sequence of TAP2 gene identified a single mutation, a C to T substitution changing the CGA arg codon at amino acid 220 into TGA stop codon in exon 3. By using MoAbs for KIRs, CD94, CD94/NKG2A and ILT2 we observed, in agreement with others, that the latter two receptors were overexpressed on TAP2-deficient NK cells. The inhibitory CD94/NKG2A and triggering CD94/NKG2C NK receptors, specific for HLA-E, appeared to be functional in a limited number of NK clones that could be expanded in vitro. Expression of HLA-E was virtually undetectable in GOR B-LCL and very faint in PBMC, further supporting that interactions of class I leader sequence nonamers with HLA-E in the ER depend on a functional TAP complex.