• 1
    Kavoussi LR, Torrence RJ, Gillen DP, Hudson M, Haaff EO, Dresner SM, Ratliff TL, Catallona WJ. Results of 6 weekly intravesical Bacillus Calmette–Guérin instillations on the treatment of superficial bladder tumors. J Urol 1988; 139:93540.
  • 2
    Van der Meijden APM. Nonspecific immunotherapy with Bacille Calmette–Guerin (BCG). Clin Exp Immunol 2001; 123:17980.
  • 3
    Bohle A, Nowc CH, Ulmer AJ et al. Elevations of cytokines of interleukin-1, interleukin-2 and tumor necrosis factor in the urine of patients after intravesical Bacillus Calmette–Guérin immunotherapy. J Urol 1990; 144:5963.
  • 4
    Bohle A, Gerdes J, Ulmer AJ, Hofstetter AG, Flad HD. Effect of local Bacillus Calmette–Guérin therapy in patients with bladder carcinoma on immunocompetent cells of the bladder wall. J Urol 1990; 144:538.
  • 5
    Zlotta AR, Drowart A, Huygen K et al. Humoral response against heat shock proteins and other mycobacterial antigens after intravesical treatment with Bacille Calmette–Guérin (BCG) in patients with superficial bladder cancer. Clin Exp Immunol 1997; 109:15765.
  • 6
    Esuvaranathan K, Alexandroff AB, McIntyre M et al. Interleukin-6 production by bladder tumors is upregulated by BCG immunotherapy. J Urol 1995; 154:5725.
  • 7
    Snijdewint FG, Kalinski P, Wierenga EA, Bos JD, Kapsenberg ML. Prostaglandin E2 differentially modulates cytokine secretion profiles of human T helper lymphocytes. J Immunol 1993; 150:53219.
  • 8
    Chouaib S, Welte K, Mertelsmann R, Dupont B. Prostaglandin E2 acts at two distinct pathway of T lymphocyte activation: inhibition of interleukin 2 production and down-regulation of transferrin receptor expression. J Immunol 1985; 135:11729.
  • 9
    Kuroda E, Sugiura T, Zeki K, Yoshida Y, Yamashita U. Sensitivity difference to the suppressive effect of prostaglandin E2 among mouse strains: a possible mechanism to polarize Th2 type response in BALB/c mice. J Immunol 2000; 164:238695.
  • 10
    Smith WL, Garavito RM, DeWitt DL. Prostaglandin endoperoxide H synthases (cyclooxygenases) -1 and -2. J Biol Chem 1996; 271:33157 60.
  • 11
    Ristimaki A, Garfinkel S, Wessendorf J, Maciag T, Hla T. Induction of cyclooxygenase-2 by interleukin-1α1: evidence for post-transcriptional regulation. J Biol Chem 1996; 269:1176975.
  • 12
    Hempel SL, Monick MM, Hunninghake GW. LPS induces prostaglandin H synthase-2 protein and mRNA in human alveolar macrophages and blood monocytes. J Clin Invest 1994; 93:3916.
  • 13
    Mickey DD, Mickey GH, Murphy WM, Niell HB, Soloway MS. In vitro characterization of four N-[4-(5-nitro-2-furyl) -2-thiazolyl] formamide (FANFT) induced mouse bladder tumors. J Urol 1982; 127:12337.
  • 14
    Flick DA, Gifford GE. Comparison of in vitro cell cytotoxicity assays for tumor necrosis factor. J Immunol Meth 1984; 68:16775.
  • 15
    Zar JH. Biostatical analysis. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1974.
  • 16
    Vankataprasad N, Shiratsuchi H, Johnson JL, Ellner JJ. Induction of prostaglandin E2 by human monocytes infected with Mycobacterium avium complex: modulation of cytokine expression. J Infect Dis 1996; 174:80611.
  • 17
    Bahr GM, Rook GAW, Stanford JL. Prostaglandin-dependent regulation of the in vitro proliferative response to mycobacterial antigens of peripheral blood lymphocytes from normal donors and from patients with tuberculosis or leprosy. Clin Exp Immunol 1981; 45:64653.
  • 18
    Tomioka H, Saito H, Sato K. Characteristics of immunosuppressive macrophages induced in host spleen cells by Mycobacterium avium complex and Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections in mice. Microbiol Immunol 1990; 34:28397.
  • 19
    Denis M, Gregg EO. Modulation of Mycobacterium avium growth in murine macrophages: reversal of unresponsiveness to interferon-gamma by indomethacin or interleukin-4. J Leuko Biol 1991; 49:6572.
  • 20
    Yamada H, Matsumoto S, Matsumoto T, Yamada T, Yamashita U. Enhancing effect of an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthesis on BCG induced macrophage cytotoxicity against murine bladder cancer cell, MBT-2 in vitro. Jpn J Cancer Res 2000; 91:53442.
  • 21
    Sarrios-Rodiles M, Chadee K. Novel regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 expression and prostaglandin E2 production by IFN-γ in human macrophages. J Immunol 1988; 161:24418.
  • 22
    Van der Pouw Kraan TC, Boeije LC, Smeenk RJ, Wijdenes J, Aarden LA. Prostaglandin-E2 is a potent inhibitor of human interleukin 12 production. J Exp Med 1995; 181:7759.
  • 23
    Mohammed SI, Knapp DW, Bostwick DG et al. Expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in human invasive transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the urinary bladder. Cancer Res 1999; 59:564750.
  • 24
    Kitayama W, Denda A, Okajima E, Tsujiuchi T, Konishi Y. Increased expression of cyclooxygenase-2 protein in rat urinary bladder tumors induced by N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl) nitrosamine. Carcinogenesis 1999; 20:230510.DOI: 10.1093/carcin/20.12.2305