• 1
    Walsh GM. Advances in the immunobiology of eosinophils and their role in disease. Crit Rev Clin Lab Sci 1999; 36:45396.
  • 2
    Rankin SM, Conroy DM, Williams TJ. Eotaxin and eosinophil recruitment: implications for human disease. Mol Med Today 2000; 6:207.
  • 3
    Nakajima T, Yamada H, Iikura M et al. Intracellular localization and release of eotaxin from normal eosinophils. FEBS Lett 1998; 434:22630.
  • 4
    Garcia-Zepeda EA, Rothenberg ME, Ownbey RT, Celestin J, Leder P, Luster AD. Human eotaxin is a specific chemoattractant for eosinophil cells and provides a new mechanism to explain tissue eosinophilia. Nat Med 1996; 2:44956.
  • 5
    Lilly CM, Woodruff PG, Camargo CAJr et al. Elevated plasma eotaxin levels in patients with acute asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1999; 104:78690.
  • 6
    Barnes P, Chung KF, Page CP. Inflammatory mediators of asthma: an update. Pharmacol Rev 1998; 50:51596.
  • 7
    Fujisawa T, Abu-Ghazaleh R, Kita H, Sanderson CJ, Gleich GJ. Regulatory effect of cytokines on eosinophil degranulation. J Immunol 1990; 144:6426.
  • 8
    Whitcomb EA, Wesolek JH, Pincus SH. Modulation of human peripheral blood eosinophil function by tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol 1989; 89:2505.
  • 9
    Lilly CM, Nakamura H, Kesselman H et al. Expression of eotaxin by human lung epithelial cells: induction by cytokines and inhibition by glucocorticoids. J Clin Invest 1997; 99:176773.
  • 10
    Matsukura S, Stellato C, Plitt JR et al. Activation of eotaxin gene transcription by NF-kappa B and STAT6 in human airway epithelial cells. J Immunol 1999; 163:687683.
  • 11
    Nakamura H, Haley KJ, Nakamura T, Luster AD, Lilly CM. Differential regulation of eotaxin expression by TNF-alpha and PMA in human monocytic U-937 cells. Am J Physiol 1998; 275:L60110.
  • 12
    Bartels J, Schluter C, Richter E et al. Human dermal fibroblasts express eotaxin: molecular cloning, mRNA expression, and identification of eotaxin sequence variants. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1996; 225:104551.
  • 13
    Han SJ, Kim JH, Noh YJ et al. Interleukin (IL)-5 downregulates tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-induced eotaxin messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in eosinophils. Induction of eotaxin mRNA by TNF and IL-5 in eosinophils. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 1999; 21:30310.
  • 14
    Corrigan CJ. Eotaxin and asthma: some answers, more questions. Clin Exp Immunol 1999; 116:13.
  • 15
    Blackwell TS, Christman JW. The role of nuclear factor-kappa B in cytokine gene regulation. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 1997; 17:39.
  • 16
    Baldwin ASJr. The NF-kappa B and I kappa B proteins: new discoveries and insights. Annu Rev Immunol 1996; 14:64983.
  • 17
    Hart LA, Krishnan VL, Adcock IM, Barnes PJ, Chung KF. Activation and localization of transcription factor, nuclear factor-kappaB, in asthma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1998; 158:158592.
  • 18
    Ward C, Chilvers ER, Lawson MF et al. NF-kappaB activation is a critical regulator of human granulocyte apoptosis in vitro. J Biol Chem 1999; 274:430918.
  • 19
    Schwenger P, Alpert D, Skolnik EY, Vilcek J. Activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase by sodium salicylate leads to inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-induced IkappaB alpha phosphorylation and degradation. Mol Cell Biol 1998; 18:7884.
  • 20
    De Groot RP, Coffer PJ, Koenderman L. Regulation of proliferation, differentiation and survival by the IL-3/IL-5/GM-CSF receptor family. Cell Signal 1998; 10:61928.
  • 21
    Raingeaud J, Gupta S, Rogers JS et al. Proinflammatory cytokines and environmental stress cause p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation by dual phosphorylation on tyrosine and threonine. J Biol Chem 1995; 270:74206.
  • 22
    Derijard B, Hibi M, Wu IH et al. JNK1: a protein kinase stimulated by UV light and Ha-Ras that binds and phosphorylates the c-Jun activation domain. Cell 1994; 76:102537.
  • 23
    Zhang JP, Wong CK, CWK. L. Role of caspase in dexamethasone-induced apoptosis and activation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in human eosinophils. Clin Exp Immunol 2000; 122:207.
  • 24
    Hashimoto S, Matsumoto K, Gon Y et al. p38 MAP kinase regulates TNF alpha-, IL-1 alpha- and PAF-induced RANTES and GM-CSF production by human bronchial epithelial cells. Clin Exp Allergy 2000; 30:4855.DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-2222.2000.00641.x
  • 25
    Fiedler MA, Wernke-Dollries K, Stark JM. Inhibition of TNF-alpha-induced NF-kappaB activation and IL-8 release in A549 cells with the proteasome inhibitor MG-132. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 1998; 19:25968.
  • 26
    Leonard SS, Wang S, Shi X, Jordan BS, Castranova V, Dubick MA. Wood smoke particles generate free radicals and cause lipid peroxidation, DNA damage, NFκB activation and TNF-α release in macrophages. Toxicology 2000; 150:14757.DOI: 10.1016/s0300-483x(00)00256-0
  • 27
    Bracke M, Van De Graaf E, Lammers JW, Coffer PJ, Koenderman L. In vivo priming of FcalphaR functioning on eosinophils of allergic asthmatics. J Leukoc Biol 2000; 68:65561.
  • 28
    Siebenlist U, Franzoso G, Brown K. Structure, regulation and function of NF-kappa B. Annu Rev Cell Biol 1994; 10:40555.
  • 29
    Yang L, Cohn L, Zhang DH, Homer R, Ray A, Ray P. Essential role of nuclear factor kappaB in the induction of eosinophilia in allergic airway inflammation. J Exp Med 1998; 188:173950.
  • 30
    Hein H, Schluter C, Kulke R, Christophers E, Schroder JM, Bartels J. Genomic organization, sequence, and transcriptional regulation of the human eotaxin gene. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1997; 237:53742.DOI: 10.1006/bbrc.1997.7169
  • 31
    Alkalay I, Yaron A, Hatzubai A et al. In vivo stimulation of I kappa B phosphorylation is not sufficient to activate NF-kappa B. Mol Cell Biol 1995; 15:1294301.
  • 32
    Miyamoto S, Maki M, Schmitt MJ, Hatanaka M, Verma IM. Tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced phosphorylation of I kappa B alpha is a signal for its degradation but not dissociation from NF-kappa B. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1994; 91:127404.
  • 33
    Grilli M, Pizzi M, Memorandum M, Spano P. Neuroprotection by aspirin and sodium salicylate through blockade of NF-kappaB activation. Science 1996; 274:13835.
  • 34
    Oeth P, Mackman N. Salicylates inhibit lipopolysaccharide-induced transcriptional activation of the tissue factor gene in human monocytic cells. Blood 1995; 86:414452.
  • 35
    Pierce JW, Read MA, Ding H, Luscinskas FW, Collins T. Salicylates inhibit I kappa B-alpha phosphorylation, endothelial-leukocyte adhesion molecule expression, and neutrophil transmigration. J Immunol 1996; 156:39619.
  • 36
    Kampen GT, Stafford S, Adachi T et al. Eotaxin induces degranulation and chemotaxis of eosinophils through the activation of ERK2 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases. Blood 2000; 95:19117.
  • 37
    Carter AB, Knudtson KL, Monick MM, Hunninghake GW. The p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase is required for NF-kappaB-dependent gene expression. The role of TATA-binding protein (TBP). J Biol Chem 1999; 274:3085863.
  • 38
    Daugherty BL, Siciliano SJ, DeMartino JA, Malkowitz L, Sirotina A, Springer MS. Cloning, expression, and characterization of the human eosinophil eotaxin receptor. J Exp Med 1996; 183:234954.
  • 39
    Heath H, Qin S, Rao P et al. Chemokine receptor usage by human eosinophils. The importance of CCR3 demonstrated using an antagonistic monoclonal antibody. J Clin Invest 1997; 99:17884.